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Powerpoint in physics part 1

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PowerPoint Presentation in Physics (Fluids)

PowerPoint Presentation in Physics (Fluids)

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  • 1. PHYSICS 203L1 LECTURE First Semester 2012-2013 Group III - CE31FA1Technological Institute of the Philippines, Quezon City
  • 2. FLUID MECHANICS• Fluid Statics – Study of fluids at rest in equilibrium situations.• Fluid Dynamics – Study of fluids in motion.
  • 3. FLUIDS• Any substance that is free-flowing.• Include liquids and gases.• Non-rigid bodies.
  • 4. DENSITY •M a s s p e r u n i t v o l u me •C o n s t a n t f o r e v e r y s u b s t a n c e •S I U N I T = k g /m 3 m V
  • 5. • Wh i c h h a s a g r e a t e r De n s i t y ? Go l d B a r Go l d Ri n g
  • 6. Specific Gravity (“Relative Density”) •Ratio of a material’s density to the density of water at 4 oC. ρwater @ 4 °C = 1000 kg/m3 = 1 g/cm3 Specific Gravity = Material Water
  • 7. Fluid Pressure•Force per unit Area dF dP dA•If Pressure is constant throughout the area. F P A
  • 8. HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM• Net force on the fluid is zero• i.e. Equal pressures on opposite directions.• i.e. Pressure difference gives rise to a net force.
  • 9. Atmospheric Pressure (Patm)• Example of compressive fluid pressure.• Due to the Earth’s atmosphere.• Roughly constant near the surface of the earth. Patm 1atm 1.013 bar 14 .7 psi
  • 10. PRESSURE DEPENDENCE• Pressure varies with depth.• Assumption: • Density is constant. • Acceleration due to gravity is constant. • Fluid is in equilibrium.
  • 11. PRESSURE DEPENDENCE
  • 12. Fy 0PA (P dP)A dW 0Recall : dW dmg;dm ρdV; dV AdyTherefore: dW ρdVg ρAgdySo :PA (P dP) ρgdy 0P P dP ρgdy 0dP ρgdydP ρgdy
  • 13. PRESSURE DEPENDENCE In a fluid of constant density, take two points p, at y1, from the bottom and p2 at y2 from the bottom: dP ρgdy To Generalize: po y2 p = po + ρgh dP ρgdy p y1 p 2 p1 ρg(y2 y1 ) p 2 p1 ρgh p1 p 2 ρgh
  • 14. Measured from below thesurface; upwardpositive.Measured from thesurface; downwardnegativeMeasured from thesurface; downward positive
  • 15. The pressure p at a depth h is greater than thepressure po at the same level in the fluid.
  • 16. • Gauge Pressure – Excess pressure above the atmospheric pressure. p gauge p p atm• Absolute Pressure – Actual Pressure
  • 17. PASCAL’S PRINCIPLE• “Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and the walls of the containing vessel. Hydraulic Lift F1 F2 p A2 A2
  • 18. PRESSURE GAUGESOpen-tube Manometer •The U-shaped tube contains a liquid often water or mercury. •Left end is connected to a container where the pressure will be measured •Right end is open to the atmosphere. p ρgy patm ρgy2 p patm ρg(y2 y1 ) ρgh
  • 19. PRESSURE GAUGES• Mercury Barometer • Of a long glass tube, closed at one end, that has to filled with mercury and then inverted in a dish of mercury. • Space above the mercury column contains mercury vapor (pressure is very small). • The mercury barometer reads the atmospheric pressure directly from the height of the mercury column
  • 20. Ans. 1.9×104 N
  • 21. Ans. 1.05×105 Pa
  • 22. Ans. (a). 7.322×10−3 kg (b). VAu = 3.79×10−7 m3 , VCu = 7.46×10−8 m3 (c). 1.76×104kg/m3
  • 23. Thank You Very Much!!!

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