CURRICULUM BASED ONTHEORY AND EVIDENCETHERE ARE 5 DOMAINS OF FAMILYLIFE THAT AFFECT FAMILYMEMBERS’ WELL-BEINGOUR CURRICULUM ADDRESSES ALL5 ASPECTS OF FAMILY LIFE (It’s notjust a parenting class orcommunication skills training.)
1. PARENTS AS INDIVIDUALS2. The COUPLE RELATIONSHIP3. PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIPS4. FAMILY OF ORIGIN PATTERNS5. STRESSORS and SUPPORTS
FAMILY SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE MISSING Culture Economic forcesWork Friends Social support Social support and Life Stress and Life Stress PeersSchool
Supporting Father Involvement Development and Evaluation Team Philip Cowan and Carolyn Pape Cowan, University of California, Berkeley Marsha Kline Pruett, Smith College Kyle Pruett, Yale UniversityPeter Gillette, University of California Berkeley Data Manager
SUPPORTING FATHER INVOLVEMENT Random Assignment to:Informational 16 week 16 week session* Fathers Couples groups* groups* *A Case Manager for every study family Bi-monthly consultation for site staff• Pre-intervention (baseline) assessments• Post-intervention assessments 9 months after baseline• Follow-up assessments 18 months after baseline
Participants Supporting Father Involvement PHASE I289 families completed pre and posttests67% Mexican American (an African Americansample added later)75% married20% cohabiting5% not living together
Results (2-1/2 yr followup)PARENTS FROM CONTROL GROUPOne 3-hour group meeting• Stayed the same or got worse over time(no change in father involvement, couplesatisfaction down, symptoms up)• Reported more behavior problems in theirchildren than they had on entering study.
PARENTS FROM FATHERS AND COUPLES GROUPSMet weekly for 16 weeks/32 hrs• Mothers and fathers reported morefather involvement in caring for children.• Parents reported no change in childbehavior problems since entry to project.
PARENTS FROM COUPLES GROUPSShowed additional benefits:• Their parenting stress declined• They showed no decline in couplerelationship satisfaction – which wefound in couples in both the controlgroup and the fathers groups.
Positive Benefits Endure Over TimeBaseline 9 months 18 months 2.5 years 2 months 11 months 22 months after groups end after groups end after groups end
These intervention results have nowbeen replicated with another 280low-income families – Hispanic andCaucasian – and more recently at asite with 40 African Americanfamilies.
Dissemination throughout California by Strategies Danny Molina (and others)www.SupportingFatherInvolvement.org/strategies• Information• Agency father-friendliness• Technical assistance to run SFIgroups
NEW PHASE IV50% CWS FAMILIES-- referred by Child Welfare staff-- couples assessed as safe to work withtogether; child not being abused now50% NON-CWS FAMILIES-- recruited as in previous phases
Random assignment to: COUPLES FATHERS GROUP (2/3) GROUP (1/3)NOW(2/3) DELAY(1/3) NOW(2/3) DELAY(1/3) Intervention effect? Intervention effect?
CAUTIONARY NOTE• Only first third of families = 100/300• Only to first posttest (intervention resultsoften better at second posttest)• Almost all data from couples groups (90vs 10)• No data on some important measures(Child Abuse Potential, DangerAssessment)
COMPLEXITIESEffects can be found for Non-CWS, CWS,or BOTH;Effects can be found for MOMS, DADS, orBOTH
HERE COME THE ARROWS = MOMS only = DADS only = MOMS and DADS
Positive effects of participation ingroup can occur in different ways