Cabbage White Butterflies Pieris Brassicae Day 26-55 Day 1 Day18-26 Day 2-11 Day 11-18
Cabbage White Butterflies Pieris Brassicae Caterpillars damage cabbage, [white & coloured] swede, turnip, radish, horse-radish, garden radish, rape & other crucifers. They occur also on nasturtium, capers, onions, & hedge garlic Control MeasuresCrop rotation, removal of plant debris from fields, insecticides in the period of caterpillars hatching & biological control e.g. Apanteles glomeratus & Hyposoter vulgaris
Wireworms ElateridaeVery long life cycle, with individual larvae often living 2-3 years in the soil Adults emerge and fly in the spring Potato crops following grain crops or weedy fallow are especially at risk Damage can occur in spring to seed pieces, to tubers during bulking, and after vine kill (avoid in-field storage to prevent the latter type of damage) Holes these pests make are then exploited by slugs, which enlarge the hole & devour the tuber from the inside
Control Measures Nemasys Chafer Grub Killer Nematode - heterorhabditis megidis Most commonly used for the control of chafer grubsNot been specifically tested for control of wireworms but the producers of this nematode are confident a good degree of control can be obtained. Soil insecticides applied at planting e.g. Mocap, Nemathroin,
Cockchafer Grubs Melolontha melolontha Quite destructive to cereal & other grass plant roots. Live in the soil for 3 or 4 years Adult beetles 35mm long & can fly, usually at dusk in May Also destructive, feeding on flowers & foliage Yellowing of the grass in a similar way as LeatherjacketsAlso the turf can be damaged by birds Starlings, Magpies & Crows as they dig for the grubs + badgers can be very destructive, Control Measures leaving a trail of small craters Nematode - heterorhabditis megidis
Turnip Flea Beetle Leaves, flowers, stems & seed podsYoung seedlings & transplanted plants are mostsusceptible to injury during heavy infestations Larvae have a long segmented body Pupae are bright orange Over winter in the soil near the host plant Eggs hatch from March to May and larvae feed on the foliage during the daytime Larvae then return to the soil to pupate and emerge as adults Control Measures Seed dressings - benzene hexachloride Dried quickly, was not dusty & was ready for drilling in about ±1/2 h Did not impair germination Under extremely heavy attack, a single subsequent surface dusting would still be necessary
Gooseberry Sawfly Nematus ribesii Severe defoliation of the bushes can be caused by the caterpillar-like larvae, which are up to 20mm (almost ¾in) long Adult females are 5-7mm (up to ¼in) long Red/White Currant Bushes Control - Non-chemical control Regularly check the plants from mid-April onwards for sawfly larvae and pick them off by handA pathogenic nematode, enter the bodies of the sawfly larvae & infect them with a bacterial disease Chemical control Spray when young larvae are seen, with an insecticide approved for use on gooseberry and red currants - lambda cyhalothrin
Codling Moth Cydia pomonella The most important pest of Apples & Pears Adult moths first emerge in May followed by a second generation and occasionally a third as the summerprogresses. After mating, the female moth lays eggs on the developing fruit.Eggs hatch in one to two weeks and tiny larvae burrow into the apple immediately, usually around the calyx end. The larva feeds as it bores into the apple + feeds on the seeds and core. As it matures, it tunnels back out to develop to the adult stage. Control Steinernema Carpocapsae [Nematode] or Deltamethrin
Apple Sawfly Hoplocampa testudinea Maggot holes with the larva’s blackish-brown excrement pellets Affected fruitlets drop offFruits are misshapen and have a long ribbon-like scar about 4mm wide Chemical Control Pick off damaged fruitlets Spray within seven days of petal fall with deltamethrin
Vine Weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus
Vine Weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus March and April indoor pots & May and June from outdoor pots and borders. Female lays between 500 to 1, 500 eggs into the soil. Eggs hatch 10-15 days later into white C-shaped larvae with brown heads, which begin feeding on roots, tubers, corms and the lower stems of susceptible plants. They grow to around 1.5cm in length.
Vine Weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus The larvae remain in the soil until they emerge as adults. Most adults will die in late autumn when cold weather sets in. Although those in houses can often survive into the next year. Overwintering larvae will feed on the deep roots in the soil & pupate around late April to early May. Chemical Control Non-chemical Control Systemic insecticideThiacloprid (in liquid form as a soil drench) Nematodes (Steinernema kraussei)
Biological control – Naturally-occurring soil fungus - Metarhizium anisopliae. Commercial non-food use, including application on ornamentals, shrubs, forest & shade-tree seedlings. Met 52 • Extensively researched in Britain, Europe & North America • Trials have demonstrated long term control for up to 2 years• Viable over a wide temperature range • Resistance unlikely• No problems with chemical residues
Brown-tail Moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea LinnaeusThe caterpillars are well-known for their urticating hairs; they cause extremeirritation if in contact with human skin. They feed in a communal web on the leaves of hawthorn (Crataegus) & blackthorn (Prunus spinosa). Control - Larvicide
European Pine Sawfly Neodiprion sertifer Female sawfly deposits larvae eggs in current year’s needles near branch ends. The eggs over winter in the pine needles,(looks like white spots on needles),and hatch in late April to mid-May.The larvae feed in groups and eat only pervious year’s needle growth, feeding on one branch completely before moving to the next. Feeding season is short, 2 weeks – but multiple generations Susceptible Species: Mugo, Scotch, Jack and Red Pine. White and Austrian Pine are less preferred by the host. Control Strong liquid dish soap with the water or spray infested trees or Pyrethrin
280 Million Years
Aphids Sap-sucking insect pests, 1-7mm long. Aphids are also known as greenfly & blackfly,but other types may be yellow, pink, white or mottled. Woolly beech aphid & woolly aphid on apple, cover themselves with a fluffy white waxy secretion. Feed on foliage, stems & flowers Ornamental plants, vegetables & fruits, greenhouse plants & houseplants. 500+ aphid species in Britain.
Symptoms Some aphids transmit viruses, this is a particular problem onstrawberries, raspberries, tomatoes, cucumbers, dahlias, tulips and sweet peas. M e r i s t e m
SymptomsExcreting a sticky substance (honeydew) on foliage, which attracts the growth of sooty moulds. Sticky Traps
Non-chemical ControlLacewings Ladybird/ Larva
Aphidius spp Parasitized Aphid Mummies
Aphid Midges Aphidoletes aphidimyza Midge larva paralyses each aphid by attacking its leg joints and then sucks it dry, leaving a blackened, collapsed aphid attached to the leaf.
Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Whiteflies actually are not flies - related to aphids 1200 species Cucumber, Melon, Tomato, Peppers, Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Pelargonium, Fuchsia, Lantana, Poinsettia & Verbena Brassicas, Viburnum tinus, Rhododendron, Pesticide-resistant strains, biological control often gives better results
Soft Scale Coccus hesperidumScales or shell-like bumps on plant stems & underside of leaves. Heavy infestations may result in poor growth. Some species of scale insect excrete honeydew A wide range of ornamental plants, fruit trees & shrubs 25 different species Control Systemic Insecticides - thiamethoxam
Slugs Gastropod Mollusc Mucus is hygroscopic Hermaphrodites, having both female & male reproductive organsImportant ecosystem – dead leaves, fungus, decaying vegetable material, worms Frogs, toads, snakes, hedgehogs, rats, birds, some beetles When attacked - contract their body, making themselves harder & more compact, + more slippery mucus
Snails Cornu aspersa Most active after dark or in wet weather Eating roots, leaves, stems,fruits, seedlings, soft growth, plant crowns,Irregular holes in plant tissueswith their rasping mouthparts
Control Iron Phosphate Pneumostome
Mite family Tetranychidae, which includes about 1,200 species Generally live on the under sides of leaves of plants. May spin protective silk webs. Damage by puncturing the plant cells to feed. Known to feed on several hundred species of plant. 1mm & vary in colour. They lay small, spherical, initially transparent eggs.
Hot, dry conditions. Spider mite can hatch in 3 days, & become sexually mature in 5 days.1 female can lay up to 20 eggs per day & can live for 2 to 4 weeks. 1000,000 mites in a month or lessAccelerated reproductive rate - adapt quickly & resist pesticides/miticides
Horticulture Week 30/03/12
Hungry Beasties, 3rd November 2010 By Anon Very effective spider mite treatment – all signs of mite infestation had disappeared after less than three weeks. A simple, easy to use product. Phytoseiulus or Amblyseius spRelease early when mite populations are low and spider mites are first noticed. Voracious, specialist predatory mite needs to have spider mite prey or it will disperse or starve. Adults & nymphs actively search for prey and suck them dry. Spider mite colonies should be reduced in 2 to 3 weeks.
Root Knot Eelworm
Attack tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, parsnips, Nematode feeding & egg laying on roots = swellingsShould not be confused with nitrogen fixation nodules on legumesSevere infestation results in stunted growth, yellowing of leaves, wilting, poor yield,
ControlClear up infected plant debris & weed out unwanted plants.Crop rotation – nematode lives 2 years without host species. Resistant varieties. Growing French & African marigolds (Tagetes) & ploughing them in the soil keeps this pest at bay.
Asparagus Beetle Crioceris duodecimpunctata
Pest adult & larval stagesHeavy infestations weaken the plants & poor crop in the following spring Eat foliage & gnaw bark from the stems - point of damage dries upAdult beetles 6-8mm (1/4in), black in colour with six yellow blotches on their wing cases & a reddish thorax
Non-chemical control Burn old stems at the end of the year to destroy overwintering beetles. Hand pick the beetles and larvae from plants when seen from late spring onwards. Biological control Steinernema feltiae Highly effective No resistance issuesHigh quality, easy to apply and almost no residue Compatible with natural enemies & many pesticides Chemical control Pyrethrum If the plants are in flower, spray at dusk to avoid harming bees.
Correct PPE for Spraying –Herbicides, Pesticides, Insecticides, Fungicides
Spraying Safety I have been spraying today!
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 Also referred to as HASAW or HSW,is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in the United Kingdom. The Poisons Act 1972Control of Pesticide Regulations 1986