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Salts, Properties and Uses of Salts

Salts, Properties and Uses of Salts

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  • *Tannin, DEHA, hydrazine and carbohydrazide – org. scavengers
  • *carbon dioxide gas develops high pressure inside the tank. This pressure forces a stream of water out of the hose,creates a gaseous inert blanket around the fire, minimizing the supply of oxygen gas, thus aiding the water in putting out the fire.*Deliquescence is the property of certain substances to absorb water from the surrounding air forming a solution.

Transcript

  • 1. SALTS
  • 2. SALTS Salt an ionic compound composed of a metal cation or its equivalent and an anion except OHand O-2 ex. NaCl CuSO4 Fe(NO3)3 KBr
  • 3. FORMATION of SALTS 1. by neutralization reaction Example: KOH + H2 O potassium hydroxide + HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid  KCl potassium chloride water (base) (acid) (salt) 2. by the direct union of elements Example: 2 Na(S) + Cl2(g)  2 NaCl(S) sodium chlorine sodium chloride
  • 4. 3. by replacement of the H+ in an acid by an active metal Example: Zn(S) + 2 HCl(aq)  ZnCl2 + H2(g) zinc hydrochloric acid zinc chloride hydrogen gas (metal) (acid) (salt) (gas) 4. by the reaction of a metal oxide with the nonmetal oxide Example: CaO(S) + SO3(g)  CaSO4(S) calcium oxide sulfur trioxide calcium sulfate
  • 5. PROPERTIES of SALTS 1. form ions in solutions CuSO4(S) copper (II) sulfate  Cu+2 copper (II) ion (in water) Appl’n: Electroplating Industry + SO4-2 sulfate ion (in water)
  • 6. 2. Some salts react with oxygen to form a more stable salt 2 Na2SO3(S) + O2(g)  2 Na2SO4(S) Appl’n: removal of dissolved oxygen in water for industry uses 2 Fe(s) + O2(g) + 2 H2O  2 Fe(OH)2(S) iron dissolved oxygen water ferrous hydroxide (rust) Na2SO3(S) is called scavenger (oxygen removing compound)
  • 7. 3. Some salts react with acids 2 NaHCO3 + H2SO4(aq)  Na2SO4 + 2H2O + sodium sulfate 2CO2(g) sodium bicarbonate sulfuric acid water carbon dioxide Appl’n: soda-acid fire extinguishers 4. Some salts are deliquescent or hygroscopic ex. CaCl2 ZnCl2 NaCl Appl’n: drying agent in laboratory desiccators
  • 8. 4. Some salt crystals possess water of hydration Water of hydration is the definite proportion of water held by some substances necessary for the formation of its crystal structure ex. CuSO4.5H2O MgCl2.6H2O CaSO4. 2H2O (gypsum) Appl’n: Gypsum in making calcined gypsum
  • 9. Calcining reaction: heat 2 CaSO4. 2H2O(S)  gypsum (CaSO4)2.H2O + 3 H2 O plaster of paris Hardening reaction: (CaSO4)2.H2O + 3 H2O plaster of Paris  2 CaSO4.2H2O gypsum (wall plaster)
  • 10. plaster of paris
  • 11. CLASSIFICATION of SALTS Salts are classified according to whether they contain H+ or OH1. Normal salt a salt formed which contains no replaceable hydrogen ions for all have taken part in the neutralization reaction. Example: 2 NaOH + H2SO4  Na2SO4 + 2 H2O sodium sulfate (normal salt)
  • 12. 2. Hydrogen salt or acid salt a salt formed which still contains replaceable hydrogen ion(s). Example : NaNO3 + H2SO4  NaHSO4 sodium bisulfate (acid salt) + HNO3
  • 13. 3. Hydroxide salt or basic salt a salt formed which still contains hydroxide ion(s). Example : Bi(OH)3 + NaOH NaNO3  Bi(OH)2NO3 Bismuth dihydroxy nitrate (basic salt) +