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4. typologies of culture
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4. typologies of culture


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  • 1. Typologies of culture
    • Low-context cultures – information and rules are explicit (e.g. USA)
    • High-context cultures – information and rules are implicit (e.g. African cultures,
    • Latin American)
  • 4. Includes three broad dimensions :
    • Expected Social Behavior (Individualistic or group; Low or high power distance; masculine or feminine).
    • Man’s search for truth (high or low uncertainty avoidance).
    • Importance of time (short term or long term orientation).
  • 5. Geert Hofstede’s cultural typology
    • based upon a study of 100,000 IBM employees who work in IBM divisions throughout the world.
    • dimensions of culture:
      • Power Distance
      • Uncertainty Avoidance
      • Individualism/Collectivism
      • Masculinity/Femininity
      • Long-Term Orientation
  • 6. Power Distance (PD)
    • Measures the extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept the unequal distribution of power
    • Artifacts of high PD:
      • Centralization
      • # Org. Levels- Height
      • # Supervisors
      • Wage Differentials
      • Values
  • 7. Power Distance (PD)
    • Power distance: country examples and organizational implications
  • 8. Power Distance (PD)
    • Rank distinctions among the Japanese
  • 9. Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)
    • Uncertainty Avoidance is the extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity are tolerated.
    • Artifacts of high UA:
      • Standardization
      • Structured activities
      • Written rules
      • Specialists
      • No risk tolerance
      • Ritualistic behavior
  • 10. Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)
    • Uncertainty avoidance: country examples and organizational implications
  • 11. Individualism/Collectivism (I/C)
    • I/C is the extent to which the self or the group constitutes the center point of identification for the individual.
    • Individual self interest is pursued individually, or as a part of a group.
    • Artifacts of I/C
      • Firm as “family”
      • Utilitarian decision making
      • Group performance
  • 12. Individualism/Collectivism
    • Individualism exists when people define themselves as individuals. It implies loosely knit social frameworks in which people are supposed to take care only of themselves and their immediate families.
    • Collectivism is characterized by tight social frameworks in which people distinguish between their own groups (i.e., relatives, organizations) and other groups.
  • 13. Individualism/Collectivism (I/C)
    • Individualism/collectivism: country examples and organizational implications
  • 14. Masculinity-Femininity (M/F)
    • Refers to the extent to which traditional masculine values, like aggressiveness and assertiveness, are valued.
    • Artifacts of M/F
      • Sex Roles Minimized
      • More Women In Jobs
      • Interpersonal Skills Rewarded
      • Intuitive Skills Rewarded
      • Social Rewards Valued
  • 15.
    • MASCULINITY measures the extent to which the dominant values in society emphasize assertiveness and acquisition of money things while not particularly emphasizing concern for people.
    • FEMININITY is the extent to which dominant values in society emphasize relationships among people, concern for others, and the overall quality of life.
  • 16. Masculinity-Femininity (M/F)
    • Masculinity/femininity: country examples and organizational implications
  • 17. Long-Term Orientation (LTO)
    • Confucian Dynamism (synonym)
    • Values: thrift, persistence, and traditional respect of social obligations
    • Organizations are likely to adopt longer planning horizon, with individuals ready to delay gratification.
  • 18. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) Country scores on Confucian dynamism (long-term orientation)
  • 20. Florence Kluckhohn and Fred Strodtbeck
    • value orientations are deeply held beliefs about the way the world should be, and not necessarily the way it is
  • 21. human nature orientation
    • innate character of human nature
    • should human beings be seen as good, evil, or a mixture of ?
    • are human beings capable of change (mutable) or are not able to change (immutable)?
  • 22. person-nature orientation
    • the potential types of relations between humans and nature
    • (mastery over nature, harmony with nature, or subjugation to nature)
  • 23. relational orientation
  • 24. relational orientation individualism
    • preference for individual goals and objectives over group objectives
  • 25. relational orientation lineality
    • focuses on the group and group goals crucial issue is the continuity of the group through time
  • 26. relational orientation laterality
    • focuses on the value of the group, group members goals but not the group extended through time
  • 27. activity orientation
    • Doing
    • Being
    • Being-in-becoming ( growing )
  • 28. activity orientation doing
    • emphasizes productivity and tangible outcomes
  • 29. activity orientation being
    • spontaneity, emotional gratification, and personal balana с e
  • 30. activity orientation final activity orientation, being-in-becoming
    • concerned with who we are and places importance on spiritual development
  • 31. time orientation
    • examines how cultures come to terms with the past, the present, and the future
  • 32. past orientation
    • predominates in cultures placing a high value on tradition and emphasizing ancestors and strong family ties
  • 33. present orientation
    • predominates where people see only the here and now as real — the past is seen as unimportant and the future is seen as vague and unpredictable
  • 34. future orientation
    • highly values change and progress
  • 35.