BUSINESS LAWFourth EditionSydney • London • Portland, OregonCavendishPublishingLimited
This book is supported by a Companion Website,created to keep Business Law up to date and toprovide enhanced resources for...
BUSINESS LAWFourth EditionSydney • London • Portland, OregonCavendishPublishingLimitedDavid Kelly, PhDPrincipal Lecturer i...
Fourth edition first published in Great Britain 2002 byCavendish Publishing Limited, The Glass House,Wharton Street, Londo...
vPREFACEBusiness and commercial enterprise takes place within a legal context and, in thefinal analysis, is governed and r...
viiCONTENTSPreface vTable of Cases xxiiiTable of Statutes lvTable of Statutory Instruments lxvConventions, Treaties and EC...
Business Lawviii1.6.5 Advantages of case law 331.6.6 Disadvantages of case law 351.7 Statutory interpretation 371.7.1 Prob...
Contentsix2.12.3 The Chancery Division 602.12.4 The Chancery Divisional Court 602.12.5 The Family Division 602.12.6 The Fa...
Business Lawx3.5.2 Mediation in divorce 973.5.3 Conciliation 100Summary of Chapter 3 1014 THE NATURE AND FUNCTION OF CONTR...
Contentsxi5.7 Capacity 1365.7.1 Minors 1365.7.2 Mental incapacity and intoxication 1395.8 Intention to create legal relati...
Business Lawxii7.2.4 Mistake in respect of documents 1667.3 Misrepresentation 1677.3.1 There must be a false statement of ...
Contentsxiii8.8 Specific performance 2008.9 Injunction 2018.10 Action for the agreed contract price 2028.11 Repudiation 20...
Business Lawxiv9.5.6 Defences 2419.5.7 Limitations on action 2419.6 Criminal liability 2429.6.1 Introduction 2429.6.2 Part...
Contentsxv11.3.2 Ratification 28611.3.3 Implication 28611.3.4 Necessity 28711.3.5 Estoppel 28811.4 The authority of an age...
Business Lawxvi12.5 Formation of a partnership 31112.5.1 The partnership agreement 31112.5.2 Alteration of the partnership...
Contentsxvii13 COMPANY LAW 34113.1 Introduction 34113.2 Corporations and their legal characteristics 34113.2.1 Types of co...
Business Lawxviii13.8 Company secretary 38213.8.1 Duties of company secretaries 38213.8.2 Powers of company secretaries 38...
Contentsxix14.3 Loaning or hiring out employees 43214.4 Continuity: periods away from work 43214.5 Industrial disputes 434...
Business Lawxx15.7 Bringing a claim 48415.8 Remedies 48415.9 The EOC and the Commission for Racial Equality 48515.10 Disab...
Contentsxxi16.12.4 Lay-off and short time (ss 147–49 of the ERA 1996) 52516.12.5 Change in ownership and transfer of under...
Business Lawxxii18.1.5 Exempt and partially exempt agreements 56818.2 Licensing 56918.3 Promotion of credit agreements 570...
xxiiiTABLE OF CASESA Company, Re (003843 of 1986) (1987) BCLC 562 399Abadeh v British Telecommunications plc [2001] IRLR 3...
Business LawxxivArdennes, SS, Re [1951] 1 KB 55 149Armhouse Lee Ltd v Chappell (1996) The Times, 7 August 179Arnold v Beec...
Table of CasesxxvBarclays Bank plc v O’Brien [1993] 4 All ER 417 178Barnett v Chelsea and Kensington HMC [1969] 1 QB 4282 ...
Business LawxxviBoyo v London Borough of Lambeth [1995] IRLR 50 497Bracebridge Engineering Ltd v Darby [1990] IRLR 3 447, ...
Table of CasesxxviiButler Machine Tool Co Ltd v Ex-Cell-O Corp (England) Ltd[1979] 1 All ER 965 122Bux v Slough Metals Ltd...
Business LawxxviiiCentury Insurance Co Ltd v Northern Ireland RoadTransport Board [1942] AC 509 549, 558Chadwick v British...
Table of CasesxxixCoote v Granada Hospitality Ltd [1998] IRLR 656 447, 468Cosgrove v Caesar and Howie [2001] IRLR 653 486,...
Business LawxxxDe Souza v Automobile Association [1986] ICR 514; [1986] IRLR 103 474Deane v London Borough of Haling [1993...
Table of CasesxxxiE & S Ruben Ltd v Faire Bros & Co Ltd [1949] 1 KB 254 217ECM (Vehicle Delivery Service) Ltd v Cox and Ot...
Business LawxxxiiFlack v Kodak Ltd [1986] IRLR 258 433, 454Flitcroft’s Case (1882) 21 CKD 519 364Foakes v Beer (1884)9 App...
Table of CasesxxxiiiGoodwin v British Pregnancy Advisory Service [1996] 1 WLR 1397 256Goodwin v Patent Office [1999] ERLR4...
Business LawxxxivHandels og Kontorfunktionaerenes Forbund i Danmark (acting onbehalf of Larson) v Dansk Handel and Service...
Table of CasesxxxvHerne Bay Steamboat Co v Hutton [1903] 2 KB 683 188Herrington v BRB [1972] AC 877; [1972] 2 WLR 537 31He...
Business LawxxxviHyde v Wrench (1840) 3 Beav 334; (1840) 49 ER 132 115, 118ICI v Shatwell [1965] AC 656 277, 282IJL, GMR a...
Table of CasesxxxviiJohnson v Unisys Ltd [2001] IRLR 279 497, 533Johnson and Johnson Medical Ltd v Filmer [2002] ICR 292, ...
Business LawxxxviiiLamb v Camden LBC [1981] QB 625 274Lambeth LBC v CRE [1990] IRLR 231 483, 484Lamson Pneumatic Tube Co v...
Table of CasesxxxixLo-Line Electric Motors Ltd, Re; Companies Act 1985, Re[1988] Ch 477; [1988] 3 WLR 26 375, 377Lommers v...
Business LawxlMarc Rich Co AG v Bishop Rock Marine Co Ltd(The Nicholas H) [1994] 1 WLR 1071 255, 279Maritime National Fish...
Table of CasesxliMoorcock, The (1889) 14 PD64; [1886–90] All ER Rep 530 148Moore & Co and Landauer & Co Ltd, Re [1921] 2 K...
Business LawxliiNorth Riding Garages v Butterwick [1967] 2 QB 56 523, 536North Wales Motor Auctions Ltd v Secretary of Sta...
Table of CasesxliiiPao On v Lau Yiu Long [1979] 3 All ER 65 175Pape v Cumbria CC [1991] IRLR 463 544Paris v Stepney BC [19...
Business LawxlivPlanche v Colburn (1831) 5 Car & P 58; 8 Bing 14; 131 ER 305 186, 200Poland v Parr and Sons [1927] 1 KB 23...
Table of CasesxlvR v Secretary of State for Employmentex p Seymour-Smith [1999] IRLR 253 431R v Secretary of State for Emp...
Business LawxlviRideout v TC Group [1998] IRLR 628 487, 494Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40 498Riley v Tesco Stores Ltd [1980]...
Table of CasesxlviiSalomon v Salomon and Co Ltd [1897] AC 33 306, 342, 343, 346, 348Salomon v The Hamborough Co (1671) 22 ...
Business LawxlviiiSimaan General Contracting Co v Pilkington Glass Ltd(No 2) [1988] QB 758 261Sime v Sutcliffe Catering [1...
Table of CasesxlixStanley v International Harvester Co of Great Britain Ltd(1983) The Times, 7 February 30Stein v Blake [1...
Business LawlThomas Witter v TBP Industries [1996] 2 All ER 573 172, 173Thompson v LM & S Rly [1930] 1 KB 41 151Thompson v...
Table of CasesliVictoria Laundry (Windsor) Ltd v Newham Industries Ltd[1949] 1 All ER 997 195Vitol SA v Norelf Ltd [1995] ...
Business LawliiWhiffen v Milham Ford Girls’School [2001] IRLR 468 482Whitbread and Co v Thomas [1988] ICR 135; [1988] IRLR...
Table of CasesliiiX v Bedfordshire CC [1995] 2 AC 633 256Yates Building Co v J Pulleyn & Sons [1975] 119 SJ 370 121Yenidje...
lvTABLE OF STATUTESAccess to Justice Act 1999 62, 88Anti-Terrorism, Crimeand Security Act 2001 10, 66Arbitration Act 1950 ...
Business Lawlvis 182 360s 183 369s 190 353s 193 369s 229 345, 350s 235 383s 235(1)–(3) 384s 236(1), (3) 384s 237(1)–(3) 38...
Table of Statuteslviis 741 372s 744 382Company Directors DisqualificationAct 1986 332, 339, 341, 374–76,382, 402, 403, 417...
Business LawlviiiContacts (Rights of ThirdParties) Act 1999 104, 135, 136,144, 208ss 1–3 135ss 5, 6, 10 136Copyright, Desi...
Table of Statuteslixs 86 496, 533s 86(2) 496s 92 506, 534s 92(3) 506s 92(4) 507s 95 502s 95(1)(c) 504s 97 533s 97(1), (2) ...
Business LawlxHuman Rights Act 1998 8, 10, 11,29, 45, 63, 68, 79, 252,402, 471, 472, 478,479, 492s 2 10s 3 10–13s 3(1) 492...
Table of Statuteslxiss 34, 35 440s 54 440, 454Occupiers’ Liability Act 1957 153Parliament Act 1911 23Parliament Act 1949 2...
Business Lawlxiiss 12–15 236, 582s 12 208, 225, 232s 12(1) 155, 160, 208, 232s 12(2) 209ss 13–15 225, 227, 248s 13 198, 20...
Table of Statuteslxiiiss 8–11 582Supreme Court Act 1981 26s 48(2) 53Terrorism Act 2000 66Trade Descriptions Act1968 114, 1...
lxv,TABLE OF STATUTORY INSTRUMENTSCivil Procedure Rules (CPR) 1998 SI 1998/3132 56, 59, 77, 78r 4.1 57Pt 26 58r 26.4 69Pt ...
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Business law kelly and holmes

  1. 1. BUSINESS LAWFourth EditionSydney • London • Portland, OregonCavendishPublishingLimited
  2. 2. This book is supported by a Companion Website,created to keep Business Law up to date and toprovide enhanced resources for both students andlecturers.Key features include:♦ termly updates♦ self-assessment tests♦ links to useful websites♦ links to ‘ebooks’ for introductory and further reading♦ revision guidance♦ guidelines on answering questions♦ ‘ask the author’—your questions answeredwww.cavendishpublishing.com/businesslaw
  3. 3. BUSINESS LAWFourth EditionSydney • London • Portland, OregonCavendishPublishingLimitedDavid Kelly, PhDPrincipal Lecturer in LawStaffordshire UniversityAnn Holmes, M Phil, PGDAssociate Dean of the Law SchoolStaffordshire UniversityRuth Hayward, LLB, LLMLecturer in LawStaffordshire University
  4. 4. Fourth edition first published in Great Britain 2002 byCavendish Publishing Limited, The Glass House,Wharton Street, London WC1X 9PX, United KingdomTelephone: +44 (0)20 7278 8000 Facsimile: +44 (0)20 7278 8080Email: info@cavendishpublishing.comWebsite: www.cavendishpublishing.comPublished in the United States by Cavendish Publishingc/o International Specialized Book Services,5804 NE Hassalo Street, Portland,Oregon 97213–3644, USAPublished in Australia by Cavendish Publishing (Australia) Pty Ltd3/303 Barrenjoey Road, Newport, NSW 2106, Australia© Kelly, D, Holmes, Aand Hayward, R 2002First edition 1995Second edition 1997Third edition 2000Fourth edition 2002All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, without the prior permission inwriting of Cavendish Publishing Limited, or as expressly permitted by law, or underthe terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organisation. Enquiriesconcerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to theRights Department, Cavendish Publishing Limited, at the address above.You must not circulate this book in any other binding or coverand you must impose the same condition on any acquirer.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataData availableLibrary of Congress Cataloguing in Publication DataData availableISBN 1-85941-730-21 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2Printed and bound in Great Britain
  5. 5. vPREFACEBusiness and commercial enterprise takes place within a legal context and, in thefinal analysis, is governed and regulated by law. One of the problems facing theperson studying business activity, and the one that is specifically addressed in thisbook, is the fact that business enterprise takes place within a general and wideranging legal environment; but the student is required to have more than a passingknowledge of the legal rules and procedures which impact on business activity. Thedifficulty lies in acquiring an adequate knowledge of the many areas that governsuch business activity. Law students legitimately may be expected to focus theirattention on the minutiae of the law, but those studying law within, and as merely acomponent part of, a wider sphere of study cannot be expected to have the samedetailed level of knowledge as law students. Nonetheless, they are expected to havea more than superficial knowledge of various legal topics.For the author of a business law textbook, the difficulty lies in pitching thematerial considered at the appropriate level so that those studying the subjectacquire a sufficient grasp to understand law as it relates generally to businessenterprise, and of course to equip the student to pass the requisite exams. Toachieve this goal, the text must not be too specialised and focus on too small a partof what is contained in most business law syllabuses. For example, althoughcontract law is central to any business law course, to study it on its own, or with afew ancillary topics, is not sufficient. Nor, however, should the text be so wideranging as to provide the student with no more than a superficial generalknowledge of most of the possible interfaces between law and business enterprise.A selection has to be made and it is hoped that this text has made the correct one.No attempt has been made to cover all the areas within the potential scope ofbusiness law, but it is hoped that attention has been focused on the most importantof these, without excluding any area of major importance. Additionally, it is hopedthat the material provided deals with the topics selected in as thorough a way as isnecessary.In this fourth edition we have taken the opportunity to restructure thecontract law section and to expand the treatment of other key areas, notably thecompany law and employment law sections. We have also been able to provide amore considered treatment of the Human Rights Act 1998 in the light of the mostsignificant cases to have come before the courts since the previous edition. Asusual, we have made every effort to ensure that the text is as up to date as wecan make it.David KellyAnn HolmesRuth HaywardSeptember 2000
  6. 6. viiCONTENTSPreface vTable of Cases xxiiiTable of Statutes lvTable of Statutory Instruments lxvConventions, Treaties and EC Legislation lxixTable of Abbreviations lxxi1 LAW AND LEGAL SOURCES 11.1 The nature of law 11.2 Categories of law 21.2.1 Common law and civil law 21.2.2 Common law and equity 31.2.3 Common law and statute law 61.2.4 Private law and public law 61.2.5 Civil law and criminal law 71.3 The Human Rights Act 1998 81.3.1 Cases decided under the Human Rights Act 1998 111.4 Sources of law 141.4.1 European Community 141.4.2 Sources of EC law 161.4.3 The institutions of the EU 181.5 Legislation 221.5.1 The legislative process 221.5.2 Types of legislation 241.5.3 Delegated legislation 251.5.4 Advantages of the use of delegated legislation 271.5.5 Disadvantages in the prevalence ofdelegated legislation 271.5.6 Control over delegated legislation 281.6 Case law 291.6.1 The meaning of precedent 291.6.2 The hierarchy of the courts and the settingof precedent 301.6.3 The nature of precedent 321.6.4 Evaluation 33
  7. 7. Business Lawviii1.6.5 Advantages of case law 331.6.6 Disadvantages of case law 351.7 Statutory interpretation 371.7.1 Problems in interpreting legislation 381.7.2 Rules of interpretation 381.7.3 Aids to construction 391.7.4 Presumptions 401.8 Custom 411.8.1 Books of authority 421.9 Law reform 43Summary of Chapter 1 452 THE CRIMINAL AND CIVIL COURTS 492.1 Introduction 492.2 The criminal court structure 49Figure 1: The hierarchy of the courts 502.3 Magistrates’ courts 512.3.1 Powers of magistrates’ courts 512.4 The Crown Court 522.4.1 Jurisdiction 522.5 Criminal appeals 532.5.1 Appeals from magistrates’ courts 532.5.2 Appeals from the Crown Court 532.6 House of Lords 552.7 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council 552.8 The civil court structure 552.9 Magistrates’ courts 552.10 The Woolf Reforms to the civil justice system 562.10.1 Judicial case management 562.10.2 Pre-action protocols 572.10.3 Alternatives to going to court 572.10.4 Allocation to track (Pt 26 of the CPR1998) 582.11 County courts 582.12 The High Court of Justice 592.12.1 The Queen’s Bench Division 592.12.2 The Queen’s Bench Divisional Court 60
  8. 8. Contentsix2.12.3 The Chancery Division 602.12.4 The Chancery Divisional Court 602.12.5 The Family Division 602.12.6 The Family Divisional Court 612.12.7 Specialist courts 612.13 The Court of Appeal (Civil Division) 612.13.1 The Civil Procedure Rules 622.14 House of Lords 622.15 Judicial Committee of the Privy Council 622.16 The European Court of Justice 632.17 The European Court of Human Rights 63Summary of Chapter 2 673 ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION 693.1 Introduction 693.2 Arbitration 703.2.1 Arbitration procedure 713.2.2 Relationship to ordinary courts 743.2.3 Advantages 753.2.4 The small claims track (Pt 27 of the CPR) 753.2.5 Small claims procedure 773.2.6 Evaluation 783.2.7 Arbitration under codes of conduct 793.3 Administrative tribunals 803.3.1 Tribunals and courts 813.3.2 Composition of tribunals 823.3.3 Statutory tribunals 833.3.4 Domestic tribunals 853.3.5 Advantages of tribunals 853.3.6 Disadvantages of tribunals 863.3.7 The Leggatt Review of Tribunals 893.4 Ombudsman 913.4.1 Procedure 923.4.2 Evaluation 953.5 Mediation and conciliation 963.5.1 Mediation 96
  9. 9. Business Lawx3.5.2 Mediation in divorce 973.5.3 Conciliation 100Summary of Chapter 3 1014 THE NATURE AND FUNCTION OF CONTRACT LAW 1034.1 Introduction 1034.2 Definition 1044.3 Formalities 1044.4 The legal effect of agreement 105Summary of Chapter 4 1095 THE FORMATION OF A CONTRACT 1115.1 Introduction 1115.2 Offer 1115.2.1 Identifying an offer 1125.2.2 Offers to particular people 1145.2.3 Knowledge of the offer 1155.2.4 Rejection of offers 1155.2.5 Revocation of offers 1165.2.6 Lapse of offers 1175.3 Acceptance 1185.3.1 Form of acceptance 1185.3.2 Communication of acceptance 1195.3.3 Tenders 1215.4 Offer, acceptance and the classical model of contract 1215.5 Consideration 1235.5.1 Forbearance 1235.5.2 Types of consideration 1245.5.3 Rules relating to consideration 1255.5.4 Performance of existing duties 1265.5.5 Consideration in relation to the waiverof existing rights 1295.5.6 Promissory estoppel 1315.5.7 Promissory estoppel after Williams v Roffey 1325.6 Privity of contract 1325.6.1 Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 135
  10. 10. Contentsxi5.7 Capacity 1365.7.1 Minors 1365.7.2 Mental incapacity and intoxication 1395.8 Intention to create legal relations 1395.8.1 Domestic and social agreements 1395.8.2 Commercial agreements 1405.8.3 Collective agreements 1415.8.4 Letters of comfort 141Summary of Chapter 5 1436 CONTENTS OF A CONTRACT 1456.1 Contract terms and mere representations 1456.2 Conditions, warranties and innominate terms 1466.2.1 Conditions 1466.2.2 Warranties 1466.2.3 Innominate terms 1476.3 Implied terms 1486.3.1 Terms implied by statute 1486.3.2 Terms implied by custom 1486.3.3 Terms implied by the courts 1486.4 The parol evidence rule 1496.5 Exemption or exclusion clauses 1506.5.1 Has the exclusion clause been incorporatedinto the contract? 1506.5.2 Does the exclusion clause effectivelycover the breach? 1526.5.3 What effect does UCTA1977 haveon the exclusion clause? 1536.5.4 The Unfair Terms in Consumer ContractsRegulations 156Summary of Chapter 6 1597 VITIATING FACTORS 1617.1 Introduction 1617.2 Mistake 1617.2.1 Common mistake 1627.2.2 Mutual mistake 1637.2.3 Unilateral mistake 165
  11. 11. Business Lawxii7.2.4 Mistake in respect of documents 1667.3 Misrepresentation 1677.3.1 There must be a false statement of fact 1687.3.2 The statement must actually induce the contract 1697.3.3 Types of misrepresentation 1707.3.4 Remedies for misrepresentation 1717.4 Duress 173Figure 2: Forms of misrepresentation 1747.5 Undue influence 1757.5.1 Special relationships 1757.5.2 No special relationship 1767.5.3 Inequality of bargaining power 1777.6 Contracts and public policy 1777.6.1 Illegal contracts 1787.6.2 Void contracts 1787.6.3 Contracts in restraint of trade 179Summary of Chapter 7 1838 DISCHARGE OF A CONTRACT 1858.1 Introduction 1858.2 Discharge by agreement 1858.3 Discharge by performance 1858.3.1 Tender of performance 1878.4 Discharge by frustration 1878.4.1 Situations in which the doctrine of frustrationdoes not apply 1898.4.2 The effect of frustration 1908.4.3 Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943 1908.5 Discharge by breach 1918.5.1 Effect of breach 1918.5.2 Anticipatory breach 1918.6 Remedies for breach of contract 1938.7 Damages 1948.7.1 Remoteness of damage 1948.7.2 Measure of damages 1958.7.3 Liquidated damages and penalties 1988.7.4 Quantum meruit 199
  12. 12. Contentsxiii8.8 Specific performance 2008.9 Injunction 2018.10 Action for the agreed contract price 2028.11 Repudiation 2028.12 Quasi-contractual remedies 202Summary of Chapter 8 2039 SALE AND SUPPLY OF GOODS 2059.1 Introduction 2059.2 The Sale of Goods Act 1979 2069.2.1 Definition 2069.2.2 Form of the agreement 2079.2.3 The price of the goods 2079.2.4 Seller’s implied obligations 2089.2.5 Delivery and payment obligations 2189.2.6 Seller’s personal remedies 2189.2.7 Seller’s real remedies 2199.2.8 Buyer’s remedies 2219.2.9 Acceptance 2249.2.10 Exclusion and limitation of liability 2259.2.11 Guarantees 2279.2.12 Transfer of property and risk 2289.2.13 Sale by a person who is not the owner 2329.3 The Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 2369.3.1 Implied terms 2369.3.2 Exclusion clauses 2379.4 The Consumer Protection (Distance Selling)Regulations 2000 2389.4.1 Application 2389.4.2 Main provisions 2389.5 The Consumer Protection Act 1987 2399.5.1 Introduction 2399.5.2 Meaning of ‘producer’ 2399.5.3 ‘Defective’ product 2409.5.4 Extent of liability 2409.5.5 Exclusion of liability 241
  13. 13. Business Lawxiv9.5.6 Defences 2419.5.7 Limitations on action 2419.6 Criminal liability 2429.6.1 Introduction 2429.6.2 Part II of the CPA1987 2429.6.3 The General Product Safety Regulations 1994 2429.6.4 Misleading price indications 2439.6.5 The Trade Descriptions Act 1968 244Summary of Chapter 9 24710 NEGLIGENCE 25110.1 Introduction 25110.2 Elements of the tort 25210.3 Duty of care 25210.4 Nervous shock 25610.5 Economic loss 26110.6 Negligent misstatements 26210.7 Professional negligence 26310.7.1 Accountants and auditors 26310.7.2 Lawyers 26510.7.3 Surveyors 26610.8 Breach of the duty of care 26710.9 Res ipsa loquitur 27010.10 Causation 27110.10.1 The ‘but for’ test 27110.10.2 Novus actus interveniens 27310.11 Remoteness of damage 27510.12 Defences 27610.12.1 Contributory negligence 27610.12.2 Volenti non fit injuria 277Summary of Chapter 10 27911 AGENCY 28311.1 Introduction 28311.2 Definition of‘agency’ 28311.3 Creation of agency 28511.3.1 Express appointment 285
  14. 14. Contentsxv11.3.2 Ratification 28611.3.3 Implication 28611.3.4 Necessity 28711.3.5 Estoppel 28811.4 The authority of an agent 28811.4.1 Actual authority 28811.4.2 Apparent authority 28911.4.3 Warrant of authority 28911.5 The relationship of principal and agent 29011.5.1 The duties of agent to principal 29011.5.2 The rights of an agent 29211.5.3 Commercial Agents (Council Directive)Regulations 1993 29311.6 Relations with third parties 29511.6.1 Where the principal’s existence is disclosed 29511.6.2 Where the principal’s existence is not disclosed 29611.6.3 Payment by means of an agent 29711.6.4 Breach of warrant of authority 29711.6.5 Liability in tort 29711.7 Termination of agency 29711.7.1 Termination by the parties 29811.7.2 Termination by operation of law 298Summary of Chapter 11 30112 PARTNERSHIP LAW 30512.1 Introduction 30512.2 The Partnership Acts 30512.2.1 Standard partnerships 30512.2.2 Limited partnerships 30612.2.3 Limited liability partnerships 30612.3 Definition of ‘partnership’ 30712.3.1 Types of partners 30812.4 The legal status of a partnership 30912.4.1 Legal personality 30912.4.2 Illegal partnerships 31012.4.3 Capacity 310
  15. 15. Business Lawxvi12.5 Formation of a partnership 31112.5.1 The partnership agreement 31112.5.2 Alteration of the partnership agreement 31212.5.3 The firm’s name 31312.5.4 The Business Names Act 1985 31312.5.5 Passing off 31312.5.6 Arbitration clauses 31412.6 The relationship between partners 31412.6.1 Duties of partners 31512.6.2 Rights of partners 31612.6.3 Partnership property 31712.6.4 Assignment of a share in a partnership 31912.7 The relationship between partners and outsiders 31912.7.1 The authority of partners to bind the firm 32012.7.2 The nature of partners’ liability 32112.7.3 The liability of incoming and outgoing partners 32212.7.4 Partnership by estoppel 32312.8 Dissolution and winding up of the partnership 32312.8.1 Grounds for dissolution 32312.8.2 Winding up 32512.8.3 Treatment of assets on dissolution 32512.8.4 Bankruptcy of partners 32712.9 Limited liability partnerships 32812.9.1 Legal personality and limited liability 32812.9.2 Creation 32912.9.3 Membership 32912.9.4 Disclosure requirements 33012.9.5 Relationship between members and the LLP 33112.9.6 Relationship between members 33112.9.7 Relationship between members and third parties 33112.9.8 Creditor protection 33112.9.9 Taxation 33212.9.10 Insolvency and winding up 33212.9.11 The future of the LLP 333Summary of Chapter 12 335
  16. 16. Contentsxvii13 COMPANY LAW 34113.1 Introduction 34113.2 Corporations and their legal characteristics 34113.2.1 Types of corporation 34113.2.2 The doctrine of separate personality 34213.2.3 The effects of incorporation 34313.2.4 Lifting the veil of incorporation 34513.3 Types of companies 34613.3.1 Limited and unlimited companies 34713.3.2 Public and private companies 34713.3.3 Parent and subsidiary companies 35013.3.4 Small, medium and large companies 35013.4 Formation of companies 35113.4.1 Registration 35113.4.2 Commencement of business 35213.5 The constitution of the company 35213.5.1 The memorandum of association 35213.5.2 The articles of association 35513.5.3 Effect of memorandum and articles 35613.5.4 Class rights 35713.6 Capital 35913.6.1 Share capital 35913.6.2 Types of share capital 36013.6.3 Types of shares 36113.6.4 Issue of shares 36213.6.5 Payment for shares 36213.6.6 Capital maintenance 36313.6.7 Loan capital 36713.7 Directors 37113.7.1 The position of directors 37213.7.2 Appointment of directors 37313.7.3 Removal of directors 37313.7.4 Company Directors Disqualification Act 1986 37413.7.5 Directors’ powers 37713.7.6 Directors’ duties 379
  17. 17. Business Lawxviii13.8 Company secretary 38213.8.1 Duties of company secretaries 38213.8.2 Powers of company secretaries 38313.9 Company auditor 38313.10 Company meetings 38513.10.1 Types of meetings 38613.10.2 Calling meetings 38713.10.3 Notice of meetings 38713.10.4 Agenda 38813.10.5 Types of resolutions 38813.10.6 Quorum 39113.10.7 Votes 39113.10.8 Proxies 39113.10.9 Chairman 39113.10.10 Minutes 39213.11 Majority rule and minority protection 39213.11.1 Common law—fraud on the minority 39313.11.2 Statutory protection 39513.11.3 Investigations 39913.12 Winding up and administration orders 40413.12.1 Winding up 40413.12.2 Order of payment of company debts 40613.12.3 Administration orders 40713.13 Insider dealing 40813.13.1 The CJA 1993 40913.13.2 The reality of insider dealing 41113.14 Electronic communications 412Summary of Chapter 13 41514 INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS (1):THE CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT 42114.1 Introduction 42114.2 Contract of employment 42214.2.1 Control test 42314.2.2 Integration test 42414.2.3 Multiple test 425
  18. 18. Contentsxix14.3 Loaning or hiring out employees 43214.4 Continuity: periods away from work 43214.5 Industrial disputes 43414.6 Formation of the contract of employment 43414.6.1 Written statement of terms 434Figure 3: Specimen of terms of employer 43614.6.2 Terms 43814.6.3 National minimum wage 43914.6.4 Implied terms 44214.6.5 Duties imposed on the employer 443Figure 4: Itemised pay statement 44614.6.6 Duties imposed on the employee 448Summary of Chapter 14 45315 INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS (2):EQUAL PAY AND DISCRIMINATION 45715.1 Introduction 45715.2 European Community law 45715.3 Equality clause 45915.3.1 Claiming equality 45915.3.2 Comparator 46115.3.3 Grounds of claim 46115.3.4 Equal value procedure 46415.3.5 Remedies 46615.4 Sex and race discrimination 46715.4.1 EC law 46715.4.2 Who is protected? 47015.5 Types of unlawful discrimination 47015.5.1 Direct discrimination 47215.5.2 Sexual and racial harassment 47415.5.3 Discrimination and pregnancy 47615.5.4 Sexual orientation 47815.5.5 Indirect discrimination 47915.5.6 Victimisation 48215.6 Scope of protection 48315.6.1 Genuine occupational qualifications 483
  19. 19. Business Lawxx15.7 Bringing a claim 48415.8 Remedies 48415.9 The EOC and the Commission for Racial Equality 48515.10 Disability discrimination 485Summary of Chapter 15 49116 INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYMENT RIGHTS (3):TERMINATION 49516.1 Introduction 49516.2 Dismissal for fundamental breach or wrongful dismissal 49616.2.1 Notice 49616.2.2 Summary dismissal for fundamental breach 49616.3 Wrongful dismissal 49716.4 Unfair dismissal 49916.4.1 Who qualifies under the ERA 1996? 50016.5 Claims 50116.6 Effective date of termination 50116.7 What is meant by dismissal? 50216.7.1 Constructive dismissal 50416.8 Reasons for the dismissal 50616.9 Fair dismissals 50716.9.1 Capability or qualifications 50916.9.2 Conduct 51016.9.3 Redundancy 51116.9.4 Statutory restrictions (s98(2)(d) of the ERA 1996) 51216.9.5 Some other substantial reason 51316.10 Special situations 51416.11 Remedies 51616.11.1 Reinstatement 51616.11.2 Re-engagement 51616.11.3 Compensation 51716.12 Redundancy 51916.12.1 Qualifications 51916.12.2 Dismissal 52016.12.3 Dismissals for reasons of redundancy 521
  20. 20. Contentsxxi16.12.4 Lay-off and short time (ss 147–49 of the ERA 1996) 52516.12.5 Change in ownership and transfer of undertakings 52616.12.6 Offer of alternative employment 52816.12.7 Calculation of redundancy payment 53016.12.8 Procedure for handling redundancies 53116.12.9 Notification of redundancies to the Secretary of State 532Summary of Chapter 16 53317 EMPLOYERS’ LIABILITY 53717.1 Introduction 53717.2 Duty of care 53817.2.1 Scope of the employer’s duty 53817.2.2 Competent fellow employees 53917.2.3 Safe plant and appliances 54117.2.4 Safe place of work 54117.2.5 Safe system of work 54317.3 Breach of duty 54517.4 Causation and resultant damage 54617.5 Remedies and defences 54717.6 Vicarious liability 54817.6.1 Meaning of vicarious liability 54817.6.2 Employer/employee relationship 54817.6.3 Scope of vicarious liability 54917.6.4 Course of employment 54917.6.5 Outside the course of employment 55317.7 Principal and agent 55517.8 Employer and independent contractor 555Summary of Chapter 17 55718 CONSUMER CREDIT 56118.1 Introduction 56118.1.1 Examples of credit agreements 56118.1.2 The terminology of the CCA1974 56218.1.3 Agreements within the scope of the CCA 1974 56218.1.4 Types of regulated consumer credit agreements 565
  21. 21. Business Lawxxii18.1.5 Exempt and partially exempt agreements 56818.2 Licensing 56918.3 Promotion of credit agreements 57018.3.1 Introduction 57018.3.2 Canvassing offences 57018.3.3 Advertising of credit 57118.3.4 Adequacy of protection 57218.4 Pre-contract protection of the consumer 57218.4.1 Introduction 57218.4.2 The Consumer Credit (Agreements)Regulations 1983 57318.4.3 Copies of regulated agreements (ss 62 and 63of the CCA 1974) 57418.5 Protecting the debtor after the contract is made 57518.5.1 Extortionate credit bargains (ss 137–40of the CCA 1974) 57518.5.2 Disclosure of information 57618.5.3 The debtor’s right to cancel the agreement 57618.5.4 The debtor’s right to terminate the agreement 57818.5.5 Creditor’s right of termination 57918.5.6 Protected goods 58018.5.7 Action to recover possession of protected goods 58118.5.8 Early settlement of debts 58218.6 Defective goods acquired on credit terms 58218.7 The dealer/supplier as agent of the creditor—a summary 583Summary of Chapter 18 585Further Reading 587Index 593
  22. 22. xxiiiTABLE OF CASESA Company, Re (003843 of 1986) (1987) BCLC 562 399Abadeh v British Telecommunications plc [2001] IRLR 3 488Adams v Cape Industries plc [1990] 2 WLR 657 346Adams v GKN Sankey [1980] IRLR 416, EAT 501Adams v Lindsell (1818) 1 B & Ald 681; (1818) 106 ER 250 120Adamson v B and L Cleaning Services Ltd [1995] IRLR 193 450Addie & Sons (Collieries) v Dumbreck [1929] AC 358 31Adler v George [1964] 2 QB7 39Ainsworth v Glass Tubes & Components Ltd[1977] IRC 347; [1977] IRLR 74, EAT 461Alan (WJ) & Co v El Nasr Export and Import Co[1972] 2 All ER 127 131Albert v Motor Insurers Bureau [1971] 2 All ER 1345;[1972] AC 301; [1971] 3 WLR 291, HL 140Alcock and Others v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire[1991] 4 All ER 907 258, 260, 280, 539Aldred v Nacanco [1987] IRLR 292 551, 552, 559Alec Lobb (Garages) Ltd v Total Oil (Great Britain) Ltd[1985] 1 All ER 303 182Alexander v Midland Bank plc [1999] IRLR 724 543Alexander v Standard Telephone and Cables Ltd (No 2)[1991] IRLR 286 439Alexandrou v Oxford [1993] 4 All ER 328 255Allonby v Accrington & Rossendale College [2001] IRLR 305 461, 491Allwood v William Hill Ltd [1974] IRLR 258, IT 512, 534Aluminium Industrie Vassen BV v Romalpa Aluminium Ltd[1976] 1 WLR 676; [1976] 2 All ER 552 220Amalgamated Investment & Property Co Ltdv John Walker & Sons Ltd [1976] 3 All ER 509;[1977] 1 WLR 164, CA 161Anchor Line (Henderson Bros) Ltd, Re [1937] Ch 1 229Andrews v Singer [1934] 1 KB 17 152Angestelltenbetriebstrat der Wiener Gebietskrankassev Wiener Gebietskrankenkasse [1999] IRLR 804 458Anns v Merton LBC [1978] AC 728 253–55, 261, 262, 279Anya v University of Oxford [2001] IRLR 377 473Arbuckle v Taylor (1815) 3 Dow 160 321Archer v Stone [1898] 78 LT 34 297Arcos Ltd v Ronaasen & Son [1933] AC 470 210
  23. 23. Business LawxxivArdennes, SS, Re [1951] 1 KB 55 149Armhouse Lee Ltd v Chappell (1996) The Times, 7 August 179Arnold v Beecham Group Ltd [1982] ICR 744;[1982] IRLR 307, EAT 463Arthur JS Hall & Co v Simons [2000] 3 All ER 673 265Ashbury Railway Carriage and Iron Co Ltdv Riche [1875] LR7HL 653 354Ashington Piggeries v Christopher Hill Ltd [1972] AC 441 210, 215, 216Associated Japanese Bank (International) v Credit du Nord SA[1988] 3 All ER902; (1988) 138 NLJ 109 162, 163Astec (BSR) plc, Re [1998] 2 BCLC 556 395, 399Aswan Engineering Establishment v Lupdine [1987] 1 WLR 1 213Atlantic Lines and Navigation Co Inc v Hallam (1992) unreported 172Atlas Express v Kafco [1990] 9 Tr LR 56 176Attia v British Gas [1987] 3 All ER 455 260Attwood v Small (1838) 6 Cl & Fin 232;[1835–42] All ER Rep 258, HL 169Avery v Bowden (1856) 5 E & B 714 192Avon Finance Co Ltd v Bridger [1985] 2 All ER 281, CA 167Aziz v Trinity Street Taxis Ltd [1988] IRLR 204 482BBC v Ioannou [1975] QB 781; [1975] ICR 267 504Badamoody v UK Central Council for Nursing,Midwifery and Health Visiting [2002] IRLR 288 472Badeck& Others [2000] IRLR 432 469Bailey v HSS Alarms Ltd (2000) The Times, 20 June, CA 195Bain v Bowles [1991] IRLR 356; (1991) The Times, 24 April, CA 471Baker v Willoughby [1970] AC 467 272Balfour v Balfour [1919] 2 KB 571 139Balfour v Barty-King [1957] 1 All ER 156 555, 559Balfron Trustees Ltd vPeterson [2001] IRLR 758 553Bamford v Bamford [1970] Ch 212 362, 379Bannerman v White (1861) 10CBNS 844; (1861) 142 ER 685 145Banque Financière de la Cité v Westgate Insurance Co Ltd[1990] 2 All ER 947 263Barber v Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance Group[1990] ICR 616; [1990] IRLR240 458, 491Barclays Bank plc v Coleman [2000] 3 WLR 405;[2001] 4 All ER449, HL 177
  24. 24. Table of CasesxxvBarclays Bank plc v O’Brien [1993] 4 All ER 417 178Barnett v Chelsea and Kensington HMC [1969] 1 QB 4282 271Barrett McKenzie & Co Ltd v Escada (UK) Ltd (2001) The Times, 15 May 294, 295Barton v Armstrong [1975] AC 104 175Baynton v Sauras General Engineers Ltd [1999] IRLR 604 486Beale v Taylor [1967] 1 WLR 1193; [1967] 3 All ER 253 209Bell v Lever Bros Ltd [1932] AC 161 162, 163Bentinck Ltd v Cromwell Engineering [1971] 1 QB 324 581Bentley v Craven (1853) 18 Beav 75 315Benveniste v University of Southampton[1989] ICR 617; [1989] IRLR 122, CA 465Bernstein v Pamsons Motors (Golders Green) Ltd [1987] 2 All ER 22 212, 224Berriman v Delabole Slate Ltd [1985] ICR 564; [1985] IRLR 305, CA 527Beswick v Beswick[1967] 2 All ER 1197 133Bettany v Royal Doulton (UK) Ltd (1993) 213 HSIB 20 543, 557Bettini v Gye (1876) 1 QBD 183; [1874–80] All ER Rep 242 147Betts v Brintel Helicopters and KLM [1996] IRLR 45 527Bilka-Kaufhaus GmbH v Karin Weber von Hartz[1986] 2 CMLR 701; [1986] 5 ECR 1607 465Birch and Humber v University of Liverpool [1985] IRLR 165 495Bird Precision Bellows Ltd, Re [1984] Ch 419; [1984] 2 WLR 869 373, 397Bisset v Wilkinson [1927] AC 177; [1926] All ER Rep 343 169Blackman v Post Office [1974] ICR 151; [1974] ITR 122 509Blaik v Post Office [1994] IRLR 280 468Bland v Stockport CC (1992) unreported 539Blisset v Daniel (1853) 10 Hare 493 317Blyth v Birmingham Waterworks Co (1856) 11 Ex 781 267Boardman v Phipps [1967] 2 AC 46 291Bolam v Friern HMC [1957] 2 All ER 118 270Bolitho v City and Hackney HA [1998] AC 232 270Bolton v Mahadeva [1972] 2 All ER 1322; [1972] 1 WLR 1009 186Bolton v Stone [1951] AC 850 268, 281Booth v United States of America [1999] IRLR 16 433, 434Borlands Trustees v Steel [1901] 1 Ch 278 359, 416Boulton and Paul Ltd v Arnold [1994] IRLR 532, EAT 512Boulton v Jones (1857) 2 H & N 564; 157 ER 232; 27 LJ Ex 117 114Bourhill v Young [1943] AC 92 254, 257, 280Bovis Construction (Scotland) Ltdv Whatlings Construction Ltd [1995] NPC 153 152
  25. 25. Business LawxxviBoyo v London Borough of Lambeth [1995] IRLR 50 497Bracebridge Engineering Ltd v Darby [1990] IRLR 3 447, 474, 506Bradbury v Morgan(1862) 1 H & C 249 117Bradford v Robinson Rentals Ltd [1967] All ER 267 541, 557Brady v Brady [1989] AC 755 367Briggs v North Eastern Education and Library Board[1990] IRLR 181, NICA 480Brimnes, The [1975] QB 929; [1974] 3 WLR 613; [1974] 3 All ER 88, CA 120Brinkibon Ltd v Stahag Stahl und Stahlwarenhandelsgesellshaft mbH[1983] 2 AC 34; [1982] 2 WLR 264; [1982] 1 All ER 293, HL 120British Aerospace plc v Green [1995] ICR 1006; [1995] IRLR 433 531British Aircraft Corp v Austin [1978] IRLR 322, EAT 505British Coal Corp v Smith [1996] ICR 515; [1996] 3 All ER 97, HL 460, 491British Home Stores Ltd v Burchell [1978] IRLR 379 447British Nursing Association v Inland Revenue [2001] IRLR 659 441British Reinforced Concrete Engineering Co Ltdv Schleff [1921] 2 Ch 563 181British Syphon Co Ltd v Homewood [1956] 1 WLR 1190 452, 455Britton v Comrs of Customs and Excise (1986) VATTR 209 307, 308Brogan v UK(1989) 11 EHRR 117 10Brogden v Metropolitan Rly Co (1877) 2 App Cas 666 118, 123Bromley v H and J Quick Ltd [1988] ICR 623;[1988] IRLR 249, CA 463Brown & Sons Ltd vCraiks Ltd [1970] 1 All ER 823 213Brown v Advocate General for Scotland [2001] 2 WLR 817 11Brown v British Abrasive Wheel Co [1919] 1 Ch 290 356Brown v Cearn and Brown Ltd (1985) unreported 464Brown v Knowsley BC [1986] IRLR 102, EAT 503Brown v Rentokil Ltd [1998] IRLR 445 477Brown v Stuart Scott and Co [1981] ICR 166, EAT 507Brunhoffer v Bank der Österreichischen Postparkasse [2001] IRLR 571 459, 465Bull v Pitney-Bowes [1966] 3 All ER 384 450Bunge Corp v Tradax Export SA [1981] 2 All ER 513;[1980] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 294, CA 148Burdis v Livsey [2002] EWCA Civ 510 564Burton v De Vere Hotels Ltd [1996] IRLR 351 475Bushell v Faith [1969] 2 Ch 438; [1969] 2 WLR 1067 373, 391Business Appliances Specialists Ltdv Nationwide Credit Corp Ltd [1988] RTR 32 212
  26. 26. Table of CasesxxviiButler Machine Tool Co Ltd v Ex-Cell-O Corp (England) Ltd[1979] 1 All ER 965 122Bux v Slough Metals Ltd [1974] 1 All ER 262 544Byrne v Van Tienhoven (1880) 5 CPD 344 116, 120CIBC Mortgages plc v Pitt [1993] 4 All ER 433 178Cadoux v Central Regional Council [1986] IRLR 131 438Cahn v Pockett’s Bristol Channel Co [1899] 1 QB 643 235Calder and Cizakowsky v Rowntree MacintoshConfectionery Ltd [1993] ICR 811 462Callagan v Glasgow City Council [2001] IRLR 724 486Cambridge and District Co-operative Society Ltdv Ruse [1993] IRLR 156, EAT 529Canniffe v East Riding of Yorkshire Council [2000] IRLR 555 475Caparo Industries plc v Dickman [1990] 2 WLR 358 255, 264, 279, 280Capital Finance Co Ltd v Bray [1964] 1 All ER 603 580Capper Pass Ltd v Lawton [1977] QB 852; [1977] ICR 83 462, 491Car & Universal Finance Co v Caldwell [1965] 1 QB 525;[1964] 1 All ER 290 234, 236Cardiff Savings Bank, Re (Marquis of Bute’s case) [1892] 2 Ch 100 380Cargo Agency Ltd, Re [1992] BCC 388 377Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co Ltd [1893] 1 QB 256 36, 113, 115, 117,120, 123, 214Carlos Federspiel & Co v Charles Twigg & Co Ltd[1957] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 240 230Carmichael v National Power plc [1998] IRLR 301;[1999] JIRLR43; [2000] IRLR43, HL 429–31, 453Carslogie Steamship Co Ltd v Royal Norwegian Government[1952] AC 292 273Caruana v Manchester Airport plc [1996] IRLR 378, EAT 476Casey’s Patents, Re [1892] 1 Ch 104 125Cassidy v Ministry of Health [1951] 2 KB 343 424Cehave v Bremer (The Hansa Nord) [1976] QB 44 147Cellulose Acetate Silk Co Ltd v Widnes Foundry (1925) Ltd[1933] AC 20 198Central London Pty Trust Ltd v High Trees House Ltd[1947] KB 130 131Central Newbury Car Auctions v Unity Finance[1957] 1 QB 371 233Centrovincial Estates plc v Merchant Assurance Co Ltd[1983] Com LR 158, CA 164
  27. 27. Business LawxxviiiCentury Insurance Co Ltd v Northern Ireland RoadTransport Board [1942] AC 509 549, 558Chadwick v British Railways Board [1967] 1 WLR 912 259, 280Chandler v Webster [1904] 1 KB 493 190Chapelton v Barry UDC [1940] 1 KB 532; [1940] 1 All ER 356 151Chappell & Co v Nestlé Co [1959] 2 All ER 701 126Charlton v Forrest Printing Ink Co Ltd [1980] IRLR 331 543, 557Charter v Sullivan [1957] 2 QB 117 219Chaudry vPrabhakar [1988] 3 All ER 718 263, 280Chessington World of Adventure Ltd v Reed [1997] IRLR 556 479Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Policev Khan [2001] IRLR 830 447, 482, 493Chilton v Saga Holidays plc [1986] 1 A11 ER 841, CA 78Chung and Shun Sing Lee v Construction andEngineering Co Ltd [1990] IRLR 236 423City and Westminster Properties (1934) Ltd v Mudd[1959] Ch 129; [1958] 2 All ER 733 149City Equitable Fire Assurance Co, Re [1925] 1 Ch 407 380City of Bradford v Arora [1991] 2 QB 507 484Civil Service Union v UK (1987) 50 DR 228, EComHR 66Clarion Ltd v National Provident Institution [2000] 2 All ER 265 164Clark v TDG Ltd t/aNovacold [1999] IRLR 318 486, 487, 494Clemens v Clemens Bros Ltd [1976] 1 All ER 268 349, 395, 396Collier v Sunday Referee Publishing Co Ltd [1940] 2 KB 647 444, 454Collins v Godefroy (1831) 1 B & Ald 950; (1831) 120 ER 241 126Coltman v Bibby Tankers Ltd [1988] AC 276; [1988] ICR 67 541, 557Combe v Combe [1951] 2 KB 215; [1951] 1 All ER 767 131Commission for Racial Equality v Dutton [1989] QB 783 471Commission v UK Case 165/82 [1983] ECR 3431; [1984] ICR 192 468Commission v UK [1982] IRLR 333 458, 463Condor v Barron Knights [1966] 1 WLR 87 188Connell Estate Agents v Begej [1993] EG 123 206Const v Harris (1824) Tur & Rus 496 314Conway v Rimmer [1968] 2 WLR 998; [1968] 1 All ER 874 31Cook v Deeks [1916] 1 AC 554 393Coomes (E) (Holdings) Ltd v Shields (1978) unreported 462, 491Cooper v Phibbs (1867) LR 2 HL 149 163Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores(Holdings) Ltd [1997] 2 WLR 898 200
  28. 28. Table of CasesxxixCoote v Granada Hospitality Ltd [1998] IRLR 656 447, 468Cosgrove v Caesar and Howie [2001] IRLR 653 486, 487County Natwest Bank Ltd v Barton (1999) The Times, 29 July 170Couturier v Hastie (1856) 5 HLC 673 162Cox Toner (WE) (International) Ltd v Crook [1981] ICR 823;[1981] IRLR 443, EAT 505Cox v Sun Alliance Life Ltd [2001] IRLR 48 447, 454Craig, Re [1971] Ch 95 176, 177Cranleigh Precision Engineering Co Ltd v Bryant [1965] 1 WLR 1293 451, 455Craven-Ellis v Canons Ltd [1936] 2 KB 403 200Creasey v Breachwood Motors [1993] BCC 638 346Cresswell v Board of Inland Revenue [1984] ICR 508 448Crowther v Shannon Motor Co [1975] 1 WLR 30 215Cumbrian Newspapers Group Ltd v Cumberlandand Westmoreland Herald Newspapers andPrinting Co Ltd [1986] 3 WLR 26; (1986) 130 SJ 446 357Cundy v Lindsay (1878)3 App Cas 459 165, 166Curtis v Chemical Cleaning and Dyeing Co [1951] 1 KB 805 151Cutlery VauxhaU Motors Ltd [1971] 1 QB 418 271, 281Cutter v Powell (1795) 6 Term Rep 320; [1775–1802] All ER Rep 159 186Czarnikow v Koufos (The Heron II) [1969] 3 All ER 686 195D & C Builders Ltd v Rees [1966] 2 QB 617 5, 130–32, 175D and F Estates Ltd v Church Comrs for England[1988] 3 WLR 368; [1988] 2 All ER 992 261DHN Food Distributors Ltd v Borough of Tower Hamlets [1976] 1 WLR 852 346DSG Retail Ltd v Oxfordshire CC [2001] 1 WLR 1765 245D’Jan of London Ltd, Re [1993] BCC 646 382Daimler Co Ltd v Continental Tyre and Rubber Co (GB) Ltd [1916] 2 AC 307 346Daly v Liverpool Corp [1939] 2 All ER 142 268Daniels v Daniels (1977) 121 SJ 605 394Dann v Hamilton[1939] 1 KB509 277, 282Davidson v Handley-Page Ltd [1945] 1 All ER 235 538, 557Davie v New Merton Board Mills Ltd [1959] 1 All ER 346 541Davies v Direct Loans Ltd [1986] 2 All ER 783 575Davies v Sumner [1984] 1 WLR 1301 154Davis Contractors v Fareham UDC [1956] AC 696; [1956] 2 All ER 145 190Davison v Kent Meters Ltd [1975] IRLR 145 510, 534Dawkins v Department of the Environment [1993] IRC 517 471
  29. 29. Business LawxxxDe Souza v Automobile Association [1986] ICR 514; [1986] IRLR 103 474Deane v London Borough of Haling [1993] ICR 329 484Dekker v Stichting Vormingscentrum voor Jong Volvassen(VJW Centrum) Plus [1991] IRLR 27 476Denco Ltd v Joinson [1991] IRLR 1 497Dennant v Skinner & Collam [1948] 2 KB 164 229Deny v Peek [1889] 14 App Cas 337 170, 262Devonald v Rosser and Sons [1906] 1 KB 728 443Dick Bentley Productions Ltd v Harold Smith (Motors) Ltd[1965] 2 All ER 65 146Dickinson v Dodds (1876) 2 Ch D 463 116Dimmock v Hallett [1866] 2 Ch App 21 168, 169Dimond v Lovell [2000] 2 All ER 897; [2001] 1 AC 384;[2000] 2 WLR 1121 563, 565, 567, 568Dines and Others v Initial Health Care Services and Another[1994] IRLR 336 527Diocese of Hallam Trustees v Connaughton [1996] IRLR 505, EAT 461Director General of Fair Trading v First National Bank [2001] UKHL 52 157Dixon v British Broadcasting Corp [1979] IRLR 114 504Doble v Firestone Tyre and Rubber Co Ltd[1981] IRLR 300, EAT 521Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 239–53, 255, 265, 279Donovan v Invicta Airways Ltd [1970] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 486 446, 454Dooley v Cammell Laird and Co [1951] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 271 259Doughty v Rolls Royce plc [1992] ICR 538 467Doughty v Turner Manufacturing Co Ltd [1964] 1 QB 518 276, 282, 547, 558Douglas King v T Tunnock Ltd (2000) The Times, 12 May 294, 295Doyle v Olby (Ironmongers) Ltd [1969] 2 QB 158;[1969] 2 All ER 19 171Doyle v White City Stadium [1935] 1 KB 110 137Drummond v Van Ingen (1887) 12 App Cas 284 217Duffen v FRA Bo SpA (1998) The Times, 15 June, CA 199, 294Dugdale v Kraft Foods Ltd [1977] IRLR 160;[1977] ICR 48; [1977] 1 WLR 1288 462Dulieu v White & Sons [1901] 2 KB 669 257, 280Dunbar Bank plc v Nadeem [1998] 3 All ER 876 178Dunlop v New Garage & Motor Co [1915] AC 79 198Dunlop v Selfridge & Co [1915] AC 847; (1916) 23 MLR 373 123, 133
  30. 30. Table of CasesxxxiE & S Ruben Ltd v Faire Bros & Co Ltd [1949] 1 KB 254 217ECM (Vehicle Delivery Service) Ltd v Cox and Others[1999] IRLR 559 528Eastern Distributors Ltd v Goldring [1957] 2 QB 600 233, 572Eaton Ltd v Nuttall [1977] 1 WLR549; (1977) 121 SJ 353 462, 463Ebrahimi v Westbourne Galleries Ltd [1973] AC 360; [1972] 2 WLR 1289 325, 349Edgington v Fitzmaurice(1885) 29 Ch D 459 169Edwards v Skyways [1964] 1 WLR 349 140Egerton v Harding [1974] 3 WLR 437; [1974] 3 All ER 689, CA 42Ekpe v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis [2001] IRLR 605 488Eley v Positive Government Life Assurance (1876) 1 Ex D 88 357Elgindata Ltd, Re [1991] BCLC 959 397Emmott v Minister for Social Welfare [1991] 1 IRLR 387, ECJ 466Empire Meat Co Ltd v Patrick [1939] 2 All ER 85 181Enderby v Frenchay HA [1993] IRLR 591 465Entores v Far East Corp [1955] 2 QB 372; [1955] 2 All ER 493 120Errington v Errington and Woods [1952] 1 KB 290 117Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Mardon [1976] QB 801;[1976] 2 All ER 5 171Esso Petroleum v Harpers Garage [1968] AC 269; [1967] 1 All ER 699 181, 182Etam plc v Rowan [1980] IRLR 150 483Etherson v Strathclyde RC [1992] IRLR 392 466Evesham v North Hertfordshire HA [2000] IRLR 258 466Ewing v Buttercup Margarine Co Ltd [1917] 2 Ch 1 313Express and Echo Publications Ltd v Tanton [1999] IRLR 52 428Faccenda Chicken Ltd v Fowler [1986] 1 All ER 617 449, 455Factortame Ltd v Secretary of State for Transport (No 1)[1989] 2 All ER 692 15, 16, 22Fairchild v Glenhaven Funeral Services [2002] IRLR 129 546, 558Falkirk Council v Whyte [1997] IRLR 560 480Family Housing Association v Jones [1990] 1 All ER 385 31Farley v Skinner [2001] 4 All ER 801, HL 197Fearn v Tayford Motor Company Ltd [1975] IRLR 336 513Felthouse v Bindley (1862) 6 LT 157 119Fennelly v Connex South Eastern Ltd [2001] IRLR 390 553Fickus, Re [1900] 1 Ch 331 112Fisher v Bell [1961] 1 QB 394; [1960] 3 WLR 919 38, 112, 114Fitch v Dewes [1921] 2 AC 158 181
  31. 31. Business LawxxxiiFlack v Kodak Ltd [1986] IRLR 258 433, 454Flitcroft’s Case (1882) 21 CKD 519 364Foakes v Beer (1884)9 AppCas 605 129, 130, 132Foley v Classique Coaches Ltd [1934] 2 KB 1 208Folkes v King [1923] 1 KB 282 233Ford Motor Co Ltd v AUEFW [1969] 2 All ER 481 141Ford v Warwickshire CC [1983] IRLR 126 433Formula One Autocentres Ltd v Birmingham CC(1998) The Times, 29 December 244Foss v Harbottle (1843) 2 Hare 461 344, 345, 379, 392, 394, 395Foster v British Gas plc [1991] IRLR 268 467Francovich v Italy (1991) The Times, 20 November 18Freeman and Lockyer v Buckhurst Park Properties(Mangal) Ltd [1964] 2 QB 480; [1964] 1 All ER 630 288, 289, 379Frost v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire (1997) unreported 539Fu v London Borough of Camden [2001] IRLR 186 487, 494Full Cup International Trading Ltd, Re [1998] BCC 58 398Fuller v Stephanie Bowman (Sales) Ltd [1977] IRLR 87, IT 529Futty v Brekkes Ltd [1974] IRLR 130 502Gardner (FC) v Beresford [1978] IRLR 63, EAT 505Garner v Murray [1904] 1 Ch 57 327Garwood v Paynter [1903] 1 Ch 57 319Gascol Conversions Ltd v Mercer [1974] IRLR 155 436Gee v Metropolitan Rly [1873] LR 8 QB 161 270Gemmell v Darngavil Brickworks Ltd (1967) unreported 522, 535George Mitchell (Chesterhall) Ltd v Finney Lock Seeds Ltd[1983] 1 QB 284; [1983] 2 AC 803 155Germany v European Parliament and EU CouncilCase C–376/98 (2000) The Times, 10 October 21Gibson v Manchester CC [1979] 1 WLR 294; [1979] 123 SJ 201 122Gilford Motor Co Ltd v Home [1933] 1 Ch 935 345Gilham v Kent CC (No 2) [1985] IRLR 18 507Glasbrook v Glamorgan CC [1925] AC 270 126Glasgow CC and Others v Marshall [2000] IRLR 272 465, 491Glassington v Thwaites (1823) 57 ER 50 315Godley v Perry [1960] 1 WLR 9 215, 221Gogay v Hertfordshire County Council [2000] IRLR 703 498, 533Good v Cheesman [1831] B & Ad 328 130
  32. 32. Table of CasesxxxiiiGoodwin v British Pregnancy Advisory Service [1996] 1 WLR 1397 256Goodwin v Patent Office [1999] ERLR4 487, 494Goold (WA) (Pearmak) Ltd v McConnell and Another [1995] IRLR 516 447, 506Gordon v SelicoCo [1986] 1EGLR 71 168Gorictree Ltd v Jenkinson [1984] IRLR 391, EAT 514Gough v Thorne [1966] 1 WLR 1387 268Grant v Australian Knitting Mills [1936] AC 85 209, 215Grant v South West Trains Ltd [1998] IRLR 206 3, 478Great Northern Railway Co v Swaffield (1874) LR 9 Ex 132 287Great Northern Railway v Witham (1873) LR 9 CP 16 121Great Peace Shipping Ltd v Tsavliros Salvage(International) Ltd [2001] All ER (D) 152 164Greater Nottingham Co-Operative Society Ltd v CementationPiling and Foundations Ltd [1988] 2 All ER 971 261Green v Howell [1910] 1 Ch 595 317Greenhalgh v Arderne Cinemas Ltd [1946] 1 All ER 512;distinguished [1951] Ch 286; [1950] 2 All ER 1120 355, 358, 395Greenwood v British Airways plc [1999] IRLR 600 487Greer v Downs Supply Co [1927] 2 KB 28 296Greer v Sketchley Ltd [1979] IRLR 445 450Griffiths v Peter Conway Ltd [1939] 1 All ER 685 216Grimaldi v Fonds des Maladies Professionelles [1990] IRLR 400 475Grootcon (UK) Ltd v Keld [1984] IRLR 302 513Gunton v London Borough of Richmond-upon-Thames [1995] IRLR 50 497HM Attorney-General v Blake [2000] 3 WLR 625 202HM Prison Service v Salmon [2001] IRLR 425 485, 493HSBC Bank v Madden, See Post Office v Foley; HSBC Bank v Madden—Haddon v Van Den Bergh Foods Ltd [1999] IRLR 672 507, 534Haden Ltd v Cowen [1982] IRLR 314, CA 524Hadley v Baxendale (1854) 9 Exch 341 194, 219Haley v London Electricity Board [1965] AC 778 268, 269, 281Hall (HM Inspector of Taxes) v Lorimer [1994] IRLR 171 426Hambrook v Stokes Bros [1925] 1 KB 141 257, 280Hamilton v Argyll and Clyde Health Board [1993] IRLR 99 510Hamlyn v Houston and Co [1905] 1 KB 81 321Hammond-Scott v Elizabeth Arden Ltd [1976] ITR 33 512, 535Hampson v Department of Science [1989] ICR 1791 481
  33. 33. Business LawxxxivHandels og Kontorfunktionaerenes Forbund i Danmark (acting onbehalf of Larson) v Dansk Handel and Service (acting onbehalf of Fotex Supermarket) [1997] IRLR 643 477Handels og Kontorfunktionaernes Forbund i Danmark (acting onbehalf of Hertz) v Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening [1991] IRLR 31 477Handels og Kontorfunktionaernes Forbund i Danmark (acting onbehalf of Hoj Pedersen) v Faellesforeningen for DanmarksBrugsforeringer (acting on behalf of Kvickly Skive) (1999) unreported 477Hare v Murphy Bros [1974] 3 All ER 940 188, 189Hare v Schurek [1993] CCLR 47 569Harlingdon and Leinster Enterprises Ltdv Christopher Hull Fine Art Ltd [1990] 1 All ER 737 209Harris v Nickerson (1873) LR 8 QB 286 113Harris v Select Timber Frame Ltd [1994] HSIB 222 P 16 515Harris v Sheffield United Football Club [1987] 2 All ER 838 126Harris v Wyre Forest DC [1989] 2 All ER 514 266Harrison v Michelin Tyre Co Ltd [1985] 1 All ER 919 540, 550, 551, 558Harrods v Lemon [1931] 2 KB 157 291Hartley v Ponsonby (1857) 7 E & B 872 127Harvey v Facey [1893] AC 552 112Hawkins v Ian Ross (Castings) Ltd [1970] 1 All ER 180 546, 558Hayes v Malleable Working Men’s Club [1985] IRLR 367 476Hayle and Clunie v Wiltshire Healthcare NHS Trust(1998) No 140 1250/98 470Hayward v Cammell Laird Shipbuilders Ltd (No 2)[1988] AC 894; (1988) 132 SJ 750 459Healy v Howlett [1917] 1 KB 337 231Heasmans v Clarity Cleaning Co Ltd [1987] IRLR 286 551, 559Hedley Byrne & Co v Heller and Partners [1964] AC 465;[1963] 3 WLR101 171, 262, 265, 266, 280Hegarty v EE Caledonia Ltd [1996] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 413 259, 280Heinz (HJ) Co v Kenrick [2000] IRLR 144 489Hely-Hutchinson v Brayhead Ltd [1967] 2 All ER 14;[1968] 1 QB 549 287, 378Henderson v Merrett Syndicates Ltd [1994] 3 All ER 506 262Henry v London General Transport Services Ltd[2001] IRLR 132, EAT; [2002] EWCA Civ 488, CA 442, 454Henry Head v Ropner Holdings [1952] Ch 124 363Henthorn v Fraser [1892] 2 Ch 27; 61 LJ Ch 373, CA 120
  34. 34. Table of CasesxxxvHerne Bay Steamboat Co v Hutton [1903] 2 KB 683 188Herrington v BRB [1972] AC 877; [1972] 2 WLR 537 31Heydon’s Case (1584) 3 Co Rep 7a 39Hickman v Kent or Romney Marsh Sheep Breeders’Association [1915] 1 Ch 881 356High Table Ltd v Horst [1997] IRLR 513, CA 523Highway Foods International Ltd, Re [1995] BCC 271 235Hill v CC of West Yorkshire [1989] AC 53, HL 255Hilton International Hotels (UK) Ltd v Protopapa [1990] IRLR 316 506Hilton v Thomas Burton (Rhodes) Ltd [1961] 1 WLR 705 553, 559Hindle v Percival Boats Ltd [1969] 1 WLR 174 524, 536Hippisley v Knee Bros [1905] 1 KB 1 291Hivac Ltd v Park Royal Scientific Instruments Ltd [1946] Ch 169 449, 455Hochster v De La Tour (1853) 2 E & B 678 191, 192Hoenig v Isaacs [1952] 2 All ER 176 186Hogg v Cramphorn [1967] 1 Ch 254 362, 379Hollier v Rambler Motors [1972] 2 QB 71; [1972] 1 All ER 399 152Holloway v Cross [1981] 1 All ER 1012 245Holwell Securities Ltd v Hughes [1974] 1 All ER 161 120Home Counties Dairies Ltd v Skilton [1970] 1 All ER 1227 450, 455Home Office v Holmes [1984] 3 All ER 549;[1984] ICR 678; [1984] IRLR 299 480, 481Honeywell and Stein Ltd v Larkin Bros Ltd [1934] 1 KB 191 556, 559Horsfall v Thomas [1962] 1 H & C 90 169Hotson v East Berkshire AHA [1987] 2 All ER 909 272, 281Houghton and Co v Northard Lowe and Wills [1927] 1 KB 246 383House of Fraser plc v ACGE Investments Ltd [1987] AC 387 358Howard Smith v Ampol Petroleum [1974] AC 821 362, 379Hudgell, Yeates and Co v Watson [1978] 2 All ER 363 324Hudson v Ridge Manufacturing Co Ltd [1957] 2 QB 348 540, 557Hudson v Shogun Finance Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 100;(2001) The Times, 4 July 165, 236Hughes v Lord Advocate [1963] AC 837 276, 281, 547Hughes v Metropolitan Rly Co (1877) 2 App Cas 439 131Hunter-Jaap v Hampshire Credit Consultants Ltd (1986) unreported 570Huntpast Ltd v Leadbetter [1993] CCLR 15 563Hutton v Warren (1836) 1 M & W 466; (1836) 150 ER 517 148Hutton v Watling [1948] Ch 398 149
  35. 35. Business LawxxxviHyde v Wrench (1840) 3 Beav 334; (1840) 49 ER 132 115, 118ICI v Shatwell [1965] AC 656 277, 282IJL, GMR and AKP v UK (2000) Appl Nos 29522/95;30056/96; 30574/96; (2000) 33 EHRR 11 66IRC v Frere [1965] AC 402 41IRC v Fry (2001) The Times, 10 December 119Iceland Frozen Foods v Jones [1982] IRLR 439 507Igbo v Johnson Matthey Chemical Ltd [1986] IRLR 215 495, 502, 534Industrial Development Consultants v Cooley [1972] 2 All ER 162 315Ingmar GB Ltd v Eaton Leonard Inc (Formerly EatonLeonard Technologies Inc) (2001) Lawtel 12 September 295Ingram v Little [1960] 3 All ER 332 165, 166Interfoto Picture Library Ltd v Stiletto VisualProgrammes Ltd [1988] QB 433; [1988] 1 All ER 348 151Ipcon Fashions Ltd, Re (1989) 5 BCC 773 376Irani v Southhampton and South West Hampshire HA[1985] ICR 590 498, 533Irvine and Co v Watson and Sons [1880] 5 QBD 414 297Irving v Post Office [1987] IRLR 289 552, 554, 559Isle of Wight Tourist Board v Coombes [1976] IRLR 413, 446JEB Fasteners v Marks Bloom and Co [1983] 3 All ER 289 264, 280Jackson v Union Marine Insurance Co [1874] LR 8 CP 125 188Jaensch v Coffey (1984) 54 ALR 417; (1984) 155 CLR 549,High Court of Australia 257James McNaughten Paper Group Ltdv Hicks Anderson & Co [1991] 2 QB 295 264James v Eastieigh BC [1990] 3 WLR55 472, 492James v Hepworth and Grandage Ltd [1968] 1QB 94 546, 558Janata Bank v Ahmed [1981] IRLR 457 451Jarrett v Barclays Bank plc (1996) The Times, 18 November 567Jarvis v Swan’s Tours Ltd [1973] 1 QB 233; [1973] 1 All ER 71 197Jayes v IMI (Kynoch) Ltd [1985] ICR 155 277Jenkins v Kingsgate (Clothing Productions) Ltd [1981] IRLR 228 457Jepson and Dyas-Elliot v The Labour Party [1996] IRLR 116 469Jiménez Melgar v Ayuntamiento de los Barrios [2001] IRLR 848 477, 492John v MGN Ltd [1996] 3 WLR 593 4Johnson v Peabody Trust [1996] IRLR 387 524
  36. 36. Table of CasesxxxviiJohnson v Unisys Ltd [2001] IRLR 279 497, 533Johnson and Johnson Medical Ltd v Filmer [2002] ICR 292, EAT 487Johnstone v Bloomsbury HA [1991] 2 WLR 1362 442, 454, 539Jones v Post Office [2001] IRLR 384 487Jones v University of Manchester [1993] IRLR 218 481Jones v Vernons Pools Ltd [1938] 2 All ER 626 140Joscelyne v Nissen [1970] 2 QB 86; [1970] 2 WLR 509 5, 166Joyce v Merton, Sutton and Wandsworth HA [1996] 7 Med LR 1 272Jubilee Cotton Mills v Lewis [1924] AC 958 351Junior Books Ltd v Veitchi Co Ltd [1983] AC 520 254, 261, 262, 280Kalanke v Freie Hansestadt Bremen Case C–450/93[1996] ICR 314; [1995] IRLR660 469Kapadia v London Borough of Lambeth [2000] IRLR 699 488, 494Keighley, Maxted and Co v Durant [1901] AC 240 286Kelner v Baxter (1866) LR 2 CP 174 286Kendall (Henry) & Sons v William Lillico & Sons Ltd [1968] 3 WLR 110 213, 215Kenny v Hampshire Constabulary [1999] IRLR 76 487, 494Kenny v South Manchester College [1993] IRLR 265 527Keppel Bus Co Ltd v Sa’adbin Ahmad [1974] 1 KB 577 551Keppel v Wheeler [1927] 1 KB 577 290Kerr v Morris [1987] Ch 90 317Ketley v Scott [1981] ICR 241 575Khodaparast v Shad [2000] 1 All ER 545 4Kidd v DRG (UK) Ltd [1985] ICR 405; [1985] IRLR 190 481King v Smith [1995] ICR 59 545King v The Great Britain China Centre [1991] IRLR 513 473King v University Court of the University of St Andrews [2002] IRLR 253 497Kings Norton Metal Co v Eldridge, Merrit and Co (1897) 14 TLR 98 166Kirby v Manpower Services Commission [1980] ICR 420; [1980] 1 WLR 725 481Kirkham v Attenborough [1897] 1 QB 201 230Kleinwort Benson v Malaysian Mining Corp [1989] 1 All ER 785 141Knightley v Johns [1982] 1 All ER 851 274Knowles v Liverpool CC [1993] 1 WLR 1428 541, 557Kowalska v Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg [1990] IRLR 447, ECJ 457Krell v Henry [1903] 2 KB 740 188, 190L’Estrange v Graucob [1934] 2 KB 394 150, 151Lagunas Nitrate Co v Lagunas Syndicate [1989] 2 Ch 392 380
  37. 37. Business LawxxxviiiLamb v Camden LBC [1981] QB 625 274Lambeth LBC v CRE [1990] IRLR 231 483, 484Lamson Pneumatic Tube Co v Phillips [1904] 91 LT 363 180Lancaster v Birmingham CC (1999) unreported 543Lane v Shire Roofing Co (Oxford) Ltd (1995) unreported 426, 453Langston v Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers[1974] IRLR 182 444Latimer v AEC Ltd [1952] 2 QB 701 268, 281, 545, 558Law Hospital NHS Trust v Rush [2001] IRLR 611 488Law v Law[1905] 1 Ch 140 315Lawrence v Regent Office Care Ltd [1999] IRLR 148 460Lawson and Others v Edmonds [2000] IRLR 18 440Leaf v International Galleries [1950] 2 KB 86; [1950] 1 All ER 693 161–63, 172Lee v Chung and Shun Sing Construction andEngineering Co Ltd [1990] IRLR 236 426Legal & General Assurance Ltd v Kirk [2002] IRLR 124 263Legal Costs Negotiators Ltd, Re (1998) unreported 398Leigh and Sillivan Ltd v Aliakmon Shipping Co Ltd[1986] AC 785; [1986] 2 WLR 902 254, 279Leonard v Southern Derbyshire Chamber of Commerce [2001] IRLR 19 488Les Affréteurs Réunis SA v Leopold Walford (London) Ltd [1919] AC 801 134, 148Leslie v Shiell [1914] 3 KB 607 138Leverton v Clwyd CC [1989] 2 WLR 41 460, 461, 491Levez v TH Jennings (Harlow Pools) Ltd [1999] IRLR 36 466Levez v TH Jennings (Harlow Pools) Ltd (No 2) [1999] IRLR 764 466Lewen v Denda [2000] IRLR 67 459Lewin v Rothersthorpe Road Garage (1984) 148 JP 87 245Lewis v Avery [1972] 2 All ER 229; [1973] 1 WLR 510 166Limpus v London General Omnibus Co [1862] 1 H & C 526 550Linden Gardens Trusts Ltd v Lenesta Sludge Disposals Ltd [1994] 1 AC 85 134Link Stores Ltd v Harrow London BC [2001] 1 WLR 1479 244Lister v Hesley Hall Ltd [2001] IRLR 472 552, 558Lister v Romford Ice and Cold Storage Co Ltd [1957] AC 555 451, 455Litster v Forth Dry Dock and Engineering Co Ltd[1989] 2 WLR 634 514, 527, 528, 536Lloyd v Grace, Smith and Co Ltd [1912] AC 716 552, 555Lloyds Bank plc v Waterhouse [1990] Fam Law 23 167Lloyds Bank v Bundy [1975] QB 326; [1974] 3 WLR 501;[1974] 3 All ER 757, CA 177
  38. 38. Table of CasesxxxixLo-Line Electric Motors Ltd, Re; Companies Act 1985, Re[1988] Ch 477; [1988] 3 WLR 26 375, 377Lommers v Minister Van Landbouw Natuurbeheer enVisserij [2002] IRLR 430 459London Borough of Hammersmith & Fulham v Farnsworth [2000] IRLR 691 486London Clubs Management Ltd v Hood [2001] IRLR 719 486, 494London Fire and Civil Defence Authorityv Betty [1994] IRLR 384 510London School of Electronics, Re [1986] Ch 211 397London Underground Ltd v Edwards (No 2) [1998] IRLR 364 480London United Investments plc, Re [1992] Ch 578 402Lopez v Maison Bouquillon Ltd (1996) 515McArdle, Re [1951] Ch 669; [1951] 1 All ER 905 124McDermid v Nash Dredging and Reclamation Ltd[1987] AC 906; [1987] 3 WLR 212 538Macdonald v Startup (1843) 6 Man & G 593 187McDougall v Aeromarine of Emsworth Ltd [1958] 3 All ER 431 231McFarlane v EE Caledonia [1994] 2 All ER 1 539McKenzie v McKenzie [1970] 3 WLR 472, CA 78McKew v Holland and Cubbitts (Scotland) Ltd [1969] 3 All ER 1621 274McLoughlin v O’Brian [1982] 2 WLR 982; [1982] 2 All ER 298 258, 280McMeecham v Secretary of State for Employment [1997] IRLR 353 428, 453McPherson v Watt [1877] 3 App Cas 254 291McWilliams v Arrol (Sir William) Ltd [1962] 1 WLR 295 546, 558Macari v Celtic Football and Athletic Co Ltd [1999] IRLR 787 446, 454Macarthys Ltd v Smith [1980] 3 WLR 929; [1980] ICR 672 17, 461Macaura v Northern Assurance [1925] AC 619 344Macfisheries Ltd v Findlay [1985] ICR 160, EAT 525Macro (Ipswich) Ltd, Re [1994] 2 BCLC 354 397Magee v Pennine Insurance Co Ltd [1969] 2 QB 507 163Mahesan v Malaysian Governmment Officers’ Co-operative HousingSociety [1979] AC 374; [1979] All ER 405 292Mahlburg v Land Mecklenberg-Vorpommern [2000] IRLR 265 476Mahon v Osborne [1939] 2 KB 14 270Malik v BCCISA (In Liq) [1997] IRLR 462 447, 497, 498, 533Managers (Holborn) Ltd v Hohne [1977] IRLR 230 522, 536Manchester Liners Ltd v Rea [1922] AC 74 216Mandla v Dowell Lee [1983] AC 548 471, 481, 492
  39. 39. Business LawxlMarc Rich Co AG v Bishop Rock Marine Co Ltd(The Nicholas H) [1994] 1 WLR 1071 255, 279Maritime National Fish Ltd v Ocean Trawlers Ltd [1935] AC 524 189Market Investigations Ltd v Minister of Social Security [1969] 2 QB 173 426Marriot v Oxford and District Co-operative Society (No 1) [1970] 1 QB 186 520, 535Marshall v Southampton and South West Hampshire AHA(No 2) [1993] 3 WLR 1054, CA 484Marshall v Southampton and South-West Hampshire AHA[1986] QB 401; [1986] 2 WLR 780 468Martin v Yeoman Aggregates Ltd [1983] ICR 314; [1983] IRLR 49, EAT 503, 534Maxwell Fleet and Facilities Management Ltd (No 2), Re [2000] IRLB 637 528Maxwell v Department of Trade and Industry [1974] 2 All ER 122 403May and Butcher v The King [1934] 2KB 17 207Meade-Hill and National Union of Civil and Public Servantsv British Council [1995] IRLR 478 480Mears v Safecar Security Ltd [1982] IRLR 183 437Meek v Allen Rubber Co Ltd and Secretary of State forEmployment [1980] IRLR 21 530Meek v Port of London [1913] 1 Ch 415 443Melon v Hector Powe Ltd (1980) 124 SJ 827; [1981] 1 All ER 313 526, 536Menier v Hooper’s Telegraph Works (1874) LR 9 Ch App 350 393Mennell v Newell and Wright (Transport Contractors) Ltd [1997] IRLR 519 515Mercantile Credit v Garrod [1962] 3 All ER 1103 312, 320Mercantile Union Guarantee Corp v Ball [1937] 2 KB 498; [1937] 3 All ER 1 137Merrett v Babb [2001] 3 WLR 1 267, 280Merritt v Merritt [1970] 2 All ER 760 139Mersey Docks and Harbour Board v Coggins and Griffiths(Liverpool) Ltd [1947] AC 1 432Metropolitan PoliceComr v Charles [1977] AC 177 564Metsoja v Pitt and Co Ltd (1989) 153 JP 485 571Microbeads AC v Vinhurst Road Markings [1975] 1 WLR 218 209Miles v Clarke [1953] 1 WLR 537 318Miles v WakefieldMDC [1987] IRLR 193 444Miliangos v George Frank (Textiles) Ltd [1976] 3 WLR 477; (1976) 120 SJ 450 31Milligan v Securicor Cleaning Ltd [1995] ICR 867 528Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd v Gunning [1986] 1 WLR 546;[1986] ICR 145 459, 470Montgomerie v UK Mutual Steamship Association [1891] 1 QB 370 295Montgomery v Johnson Underwood Ltd [2001] IRLR 275 428, 453
  40. 40. Table of CasesxliMoorcock, The (1889) 14 PD64; [1886–90] All ER Rep 530 148Moore & Co and Landauer & Co Ltd, Re [1921] 2 KB 519 210, 221, 222Moorgate Services Ltd v Kabir (1995) The Times, 25 April 576Morgan Crucible Co plc v Hill Samuel Bank Ltd [1991] 1 All ER 148 264Morgan v Staffordshire University [2002] IRLR 190, EAT 489Morganite Crucible v Street [1972] 1 WLR 918 529Morris v Breaveglen Ltd t/a Anzac Construction Co [1993] IRLR 350 538Morris v Martin and Sons Ltd [1966] 1 QB 792 551, 558Morrish v Henlys (Folkestone) Ltd [1973] IRLR 61 449Morton Sundour Fabrics v Shaw [1966] 2 KIR 1 521Motorola v Davidson & Melville Craig [2001] IRLR 4 429, 453Muirhead v Industrial Tank Specialists Ltd [1986] QB 507; [1985] 3 WLR 993 261Mullin v Richards [1998] 1 All ER 920 267Murphy v Bord Telecom Eireann Case 157/86[1988] ICR 445; [1988] IRLR 267 464Murphy v Brentwood DC [1990] 2 All ER 908 254, 262, 267, 280Murray and Another v Foyle Meats [1999] IRLR 56 525Museprime Properties Ltd v Adhill Properties Ltd[1990] 2 EG 196; (1990) 61 P & CR 111 170Mutual Life and Citizens Assurance Co v Evatt [1971] AC 793 263, 280Nagarajan v London Regional Transport [1999] IRLR 572 482, 493Nash v Inman [1908] 2KB 1 137National Dock Labour Board v Pinn and Wheeler Ltd [1989] BCLC 647 346National Westminster Bank v Morgan [1985] AC 686; [1985] 1 All ER 821 177, 178Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes v Varley[1976] IRLR 408; (1976) 11 ITR 328, EAT 465Neale v Merrit [1930] WN 189 118Nethermore (St Neots) v Gardiner and Taverna [1984] IRLR 240 427Nettleship v Weston [1971] 2 QB 691 267Newham LBC v Singh [1988] RTR 135 245Newtons of Wembley Ltd v Williams [1964] 3 WLR 888;[1964] 3 All ER 532; [1965] 1 QB 56 235, 236Noone v North West Thames RHA (No 2) [1988] IRLR 530 473, 485, 492Nordenfelt v Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Co[1894] AC 535 181Norman v Bennett [1974] 1 WLR 1229; [1974] 3 All ER 351 245North Ocean Shipping Company v Hyundai ConstructionCo (The Atlantic Baron) [1979] QB 705 175
  41. 41. Business LawxliiNorth Riding Garages v Butterwick [1967] 2 QB 56 523, 536North Wales Motor Auctions Ltd v Secretary of State [1981] CCLR 45 570North Yorkshire CC v Fay [1985] IRLR 247, CA 513Northern Engineering Industries plc, Re [1994] 2 BCLC 704 358Northern Joint Police Board v Power [1997] IRLR 610 471Norwest Holst Ltd v Secretary of State for Trade [1978] Ch 201;[1978] 3 WLR 73 399Nova Plastics Ltd v Froggatt [1982] IRLR 146 449O’Brien v Associated Fire Alarms Ltd [1969] 1 All ER 93 522, 536O’Brien v Mirror Group Newspapers Ltd (2001) The Times, 8 August, CA 151O’Brien v Prudential Assurance Co Ltd [1979] IRLR 140, EAT 513O’Kelly v Trusthouse Forte plc [1983] IRLR 369 427, 453O’Neil v Governors of St Thomas Moore RCVA Upper School(1996) The Times, 7 June 514O’Neill v Phillips [1999] 2 All ER 961 398O’Neill v Symm and Co Ltd [1998] IRLR 225 486O’Reilly v National Rail and Tramway Appliances Ltd[1966] 1 All ER 499 540, 557Olley v Marlborough Court Hotel Ltd [1949] 1 KB 532 151Omnium D’Enterprises v Sutherland [1919] 1 KB 618 192Ooregeum Gold Mining Co of India Ltd v Roper [1892] AC 125 363Ord v Bellhaven Pubs Ltd [1998] BCC 607 346Oscar Chess Ltd v Williams [1957] 1 All ER 325; [1957] 1 WLR 370 146Osman v UK (1999) unreported 252Overbrooke Estates Ltd v Glencombe Properties Ltd[1974] 3 All ER 511 288Overseas Tankship (UK) Ltd v Morts Dock & Engineering Co(The Wagon Mound (No 1)) [1961] 2 WLR 126 172, 275, 281, 547P v S and Cornwall CC [1996] IRLR 347 479PEL Ltd v Modgill [1980] IRLR 142 483, 493Pacific Motor Auctions Ltd v Motor Credits(Hire Finance) Ltd [1965] 2 WLR 881; [1965] 2 All ER 105 235Page v Smith [1995] 2 WLR 644 257Palmanor Ltd v Cedron [1978] IRLR 303 506Palmer v Southend-on-Sea BC [1984] IRLR 119 501Panorama Developments v Fidelis Furnishing Fabrics Ltd[1971] 3 All ER 16 287, 383
  42. 42. Table of CasesxliiiPao On v Lau Yiu Long [1979] 3 All ER 65 175Pape v Cumbria CC [1991] IRLR 463 544Paris v Stepney BC [1951] AC 367 268, 269, 281, 545, 558Parr v Whitbreadpic [1990] IRLR 39 511, 534Parsons (H) (Livestock) Ltd v Uttley Ingham & Co [1978] 1 All ER 525 195Partridge v Crittenden [1968] 1 WLR 1204; [1968] 2 All ER 421 113, 114Patefield v Belfast City Council [2000] IRLR664 476Pavlides v Jensen [1956] Ch 565 394Payzu v Saunders [1919] 2 KB 581 196Peabody Donation Fund v Sir Lindsay Parkinson and Co Ltd[1984] 3 WLR 953; [1984] 3 All ER 529 254, 279Pearce v Governing Body of Mayfield Secondary School [2001] IRLR 669 478Pearse v City of Bradford Metropolitan Council [1988] IRLR 370, EAT 480Pearson v NW Gas Board [1968] 2 All ER 629 270Pearson v Rose and Young [1951] 1 KB 275 233Peck v Lateu (1973) The Times, 18 January 37Pedley v Inland Waterways Association Ltd [1977] 1 All ER 209 388Pender v Lushington [1877] 6 Ch D 70 356, 392Penrose v Martyr (1858) EB & E 499 353Pepper and Hope v Daish [1980] IRLR 13, EAT 506, 534Pepper v Hart [1993] 1 All ER 42, CA 40, 47Pepper v Webb [1969] 1 WLR 514 448, 455Perceval-Price v Department of Economic Development [2000] IRLR 380 459, 460Perera v Civil Service Commission [1983] ICR 428 480Pergamon Press Ltd, Re [1971] Ch 388 403Peter Darlington Partners Ltd v Gosho Co Ltd [1964] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 149 211Peyton v Mindham [1971] 3 All ER 1215 325Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemists[1953] 1 QB 401; [1953] 1 All ER 482 112Phillips v Brooks [1919] 2 KB 243 165, 166, 172Photo Productions v Securicor Transport Ltd [1980] AC 827;[1980] 1 All ER 556 153, 194Pickering v Liverpool Daily Post and Echo Newspapers[1991] 2 WLR 513, CA 81Pickford v Imperial Chemical Industries plc [1998] IRLR 435 543, 557Pickstone v Freemans plc [1988] IRLR 357 463, 464, 491Pilling v Pilling [1887] 3 De GJ & S 162 312Pink v White and Co Ltd [1985] IRLR 489, EAT 524Pinnel’s Case (1602) 5 Co Rep 117a 119, 129, 132
  43. 43. Business LawxlivPlanche v Colburn (1831) 5 Car & P 58; 8 Bing 14; 131 ER 305 186, 200Poland v Parr and Sons [1927] 1 KB 236 551, 554, 558Polemis and Furness, Withy and Co, Re [1921] 3 KB 560 275Polkey v AE Dayton Services Ltd [1987] 3 WLR 1153; [1987] 3 All ER 974 508, 534Poole v Smith’s Car Sales (Balham) Ltd [1962] 2 All ER 482 230Post Office v Foley; HSBC Bank v Madden [2000] IRLR 827 507, 508, 534Poussard v Spiers and Pond (1876) 1 QBD 410 147Powell v Brent London Borough [1987] IRLR 446, CA 498Powell v Kempton Park Racecourse [1899] AC 143 41Preston v Wolverhampton Healthcare NHS Trust [1998] 1 All ER 528;[1998] IRLR 197, HL; [2000] IRLR 506 466Price v Civil Service Commission [1977] 1 WLR 1417 480, 481Priestley v Fowler (1837) 3 M & W 1 537Produce Marketing Consortium Ltd, Re [1989] BCLC 520 381Prudential Assurance Co Ltd v Newman Industries Ltd (No 2)[1980] 2 WLR 339 394Quinn v Calder Industrial Materials Ltd [1996] IRLR 126 442, 443Quinn v Schwarzkopf Ltd [2001] IRLR 67 486R v (1) Mental Health Review Tribunal, North & East London Region(2) Secretary of State for Health ex p H [2001] 3 WLR 512 13R v A [2001] 3 All ER 1 12R v Birmingham CC ex p EOC [1989] AC 1155 472R v Inhabitants of Sedgley (1831) 2 B & AD 65 41R v Kupfer [1915] 2 KB 321 324R v Maginnis [1987] 2 WLR 765; [1987] 1 All ER 907, CA 39R v Ministry of Defence ex p Smith [1996] IRLR 100 478R v Parliamentary Comr for Administrationex p Balchin [1997] JPL 917 93R v Parliamentary Comr for Standardsex p Al Fayed (1997) 147 NLJ 1689 93R v R [1992] 1 AC 599 36R v Registrar of Companies ex p AG [1991] BCL 476 352R v Registrar of Joint Stock Companies ex p Moore [1931] 2 KB 197 352R v Saunders [1996] 1 Cr App R 463 66R v Secretary of State for Defence ex p Perkins (No 2) [1998] IRLR 508 3R v Secretary of State for Employmentex p EOC [1995] 1 AC 1; [1994] 2 WLR 409 431, 458
  44. 44. Table of CasesxlvR v Secretary of State for Employmentex p Seymour-Smith [1999] IRLR 253 431R v Secretary of State for Employment ex p Seymour-Smithand Another [1995] ICR 889; [1995] IRLR 464 468R v Secretary of State for Employment ex p Seymour-Smithand Perez (No 2) [2000] IRLR 263 432, 458, 469, 500, 519, 535R v Secretary of State for the Home Departmentex p Brind [1991] 2 WLR 588, CA 8R v Secretary of State for Trade and Industryex p Lonrho plc [1989] 1 WLR 525 401R v Secretary of State for Trade and Industryex p McCormick (1998) The Times, 10 February 402R v Secretary of State for Trade and Industryex p UNISON (1996) CO/3673/95, 15 May 528R v Seelig [1991] BCC 569 402R v Shivpuri [1986] 2 WLR 988 31R v Spencer [1985] 2 WLR 197, CA 32R & B Customs Brokers Ltd v United Dominions Trust [1988] 1 WLR 321;[1988] 1 All ER 847 154, 211RCO Support Services v Unison [2002] IRLR 401 527, 536Raffles v Wichelhaus (1864) 2 H & C 906; (1864) 159 ER 375 164Rainey v Greater Glasgow Health Board Eastern District [1987] AC 224;[1987] IRLR 26 465, 491Ratcliffe v North Yorkshire DC [1995] ICR 387; [1995] IRLR 429, HL 465Rawe v Power Gas Corp [1966] ITR 154 529Rayfield v Hands [1960] Ch 1 356Reading v Attorney General [1951] AC 507 452, 455Ready Mixed Concrete (South East) Ltd v Minister ofPensions and National Insurance [1968] 2 QB 497 425, 427, 453Redgrave v Hurd (1881) 20 Ch D 1; 57 LJ Ch 113, CA 169Reed v Stedman [1999] IRLR 299 447Reeves v Commissioner of Police [2000] 1 AC 360 274Regal (Hastings) v Gulliver [1942] 1 All ER 37 379Reid v Metropolitan Police Comr [1974] QB 551 234Reid v Rush and Tomkins Group plc [1989] IRLR 265 539Rennison and Sons v Minister of Social Security (1970) unreported 310Reynolds v Times Newspaper Ltd [1998] 3 WLR 1010 5Richmond Gate Property Co Ltd, Re [1965] 1 WLR 335 292Rickards v Oppenheim [1950] 1 KB 616; [1950] 1 All ER 420 218
  45. 45. Business LawxlviRideout v TC Group [1998] IRLR 628 487, 494Ridge v Baldwin [1964] AC 40 498Riley v Tesco Stores Ltd [1980] IRLR 103 501Ringtower Holdings plc, Re (1989) 5 BCC 82 397Rinner-Kuhn v FWW Spezial-Gebaudereinigung GmbH [1989] IRLR 493 459Robb v London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham [1991] IRLR 72 498Robert Cort and Sons Ltd v Charman [1981] IRLR 437 501Roberts v Leonard (1995) 14 Tr LR 536 244Robertson and Rough v Forth Road Bridge Joint Board 1994 SLT 556 259Robertson v British Gas Corp [1983] IRLR 302 438Robertson v Dicocco [1972] RTR 431 245Robertson v Securicor Transport Ltd [1972] IRLR 70 503, 534Robinson v Crompton Parkinson Ltd [1978] ICR 401;[1978] IRLR 61, EAT 510Robinson v Post Office [1974] 1 WLR 1176 271, 276Roe v Minister of Health [1954] 2 QB 66 269, 281Rogers v Parish (Scarborough) Ltd [1987] QB 933 212Rondel v Worsley [1969] 1 AC 161 265Rose & Frank Co v Crompton Bros [1925] AC 445 140Rose v Plenty [1976] 1 WLR 141 550, 554, 558Ross v Caunters [1980] Ch 297 265Routledge v Grant (1828) 4 Bing 653 116, 117Routledge v McKay [1954] 1 All ER 855; [1954] 1 WLR 615 145, 146Rowland v Divall [1923] 2 KB 500 208, 232Royscot Trust Ltd v Rogerson [1991] 3 All ER 294 172Rugamer v Sony Music Entertainment Ltd; McNicolv Balfour Beatty Rail Maintenance Ltd [2001] IRLR 644 488Ruxley Electronics and Construction Ltd v Forsyth [1995] 3 WLR 118 197Ryan v Mutual Tontine Westminster Chambers Association(1893) 1 Ch 116 5, 200Rylands v Fletcher (1865) 3 H & C774 251Sachs v Miklos [1948] 2 KB 23 287Safeway Stores plc v Burrell [1997] IRLR 200 525Sagar v Ridehalgh and Sons Ltd [1931] 1 Ch 310 443Said v Butt [1920] 3 KB 497 296Saif Ali v Sidney Mitchell [1980] AC 198 265Sainsbury (J) Ltd v Savage [1981] ICR 1 502Salgueiro da Silva Mouta v Portugal [2001] Fam LR 2, ECtHR 478
  46. 46. Table of CasesxlviiSalomon v Salomon and Co Ltd [1897] AC 33 306, 342, 343, 346, 348Salomon v The Hamborough Co (1671) 22 ER 763 342Salsbury v Woodland [1970] 1 QB 324 555, 559Sam Weller and Sons Ltd, Re [1990] Ch 682 397Sandhu v Department of Education and Science and London Boroughof Hillingdon [1978] IRLR 208; (1978) 13 ITR 314, EAT 513Satterthwaite (AM) & Co v New Zealand Shipping Co[1972] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 544 37Saunders v Anglia Building Society (1970) 115 SJ 145 167Saunders v Richmond-upon-Thames BC [1978] ICR 75 483Saunders v Scottish National Camps Association Ltd [1980] IRLR 174 519Saunders v UK Case 43/1994/490/572(1997) 23 EHRR 313; (1996) The Times, 18 December 402Scammel v Ouston [1941] 1 All ER 14 111Schawell v Reade [1913] 2 IR 64 145Schroeder Music Publishing Co v Macauley [1974] 3 All ER 616 182Scriven Bros v Hindley and Co [1913] 3 KB 564 164Scullard v Knowles and South Regional Council forEducation and Training [1996] IRLR 344 460, 461Secretary of State for Defence v Macdonald [2001] IRLR 43 478Seide v Gillette Industries [1980] IRLR 427, EAT 471Selectmove Ltd, Re [1994] BCC 349 129, 132Sevenoaks Stationers (Retail) Ltd, Re [1990] 3 WLR 1165 376, 377Shadwell v ShadweU (1860) 9 CBNS 159; (1860) 142 ER 62 129Shanklin Pier v Detel Products Ltd [1951] 2 KB 854;[1951] 2 All ER 471 134Sharifi v StrathclydeRC [1992] IRLR 259, EAT 484Sharp v Dawes (1876) 2 QBD 26 386Shawkat v Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust (No 2) [2001] IRLR 555 525, 536Shearer vBercain [1980] 3 All ER 295 363Shepherd and Co Ltd v Jerrom [1986] IRLR 358 495Sheppard v NCB [1966] 1 KIR 101 529Sheriff v Klyne Tugs (Lowestoft) Ltd [1999] IRLR 481 484Sherratt v Geralds The American Jewellers Ltd (1970) 114 SJ 147 244Shipton, Anderson & Co, Re [1915] 3 KB 676 188Siboen, The;The Sibotre [1976] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 293 175Sidebottom v Kershaw Leese and Co [1920] 1 Ch 154 356Sidhu v Aerospace Composite Technology Ltd [2000] IRLR 607 475Sigsworth, Re [1935] Ch 89 39
  47. 47. Business LawxlviiiSimaan General Contracting Co v Pilkington Glass Ltd(No 2) [1988] QB 758 261Sime v Sutcliffe Catering [1990] IRLR 228 432Simmonds v Dowty Seals Ltd [1978] IRLR 211, EAT 505, 534Simon v Brimham Associates [1987] ICR 596; [1987] IRLR 307, CA 471Simpkins v Pays [1955] 1 WLR 975; [1955] 3 All ER 10 140Sinclair v Neighbour [1967] 2 QB 279 451Slater v Finning Ltd [1996] 3 All ER 398; [1996] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 353 216Smith v Baker and Sons [1891] AC 325 537, 538Smith v Crossley Bros Ltd (1951) 95 SJ 655 540Smith v Eric Bush [1989] 2 All ER 514 154, 266Smith v Gardner Merchant Ltd [1998] IRLR 510 478Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 164Smith v Land & House Property Corporation (1884) 28 Ch D 7 169Smith v Leech Brain and Co [1962] 2 QB 405 547, 558Smith v Stages and Darlington Insulation Co Ltd [1989] IRLR 177 538, 557Smith v Vange Scaffolding and Engineering Co Ltd [1970] 1 WLR 733 542, 557Smith and Grady v UK [1999] IRLR 734 478Smith and New Court Securities Ltd v Scrimgeour Vickers(Asset Management) Ltd [1996] 4 All ER 769 171Snoxell and Davies v VauxhaU Motors Ltd [1977] ICR 700; [1977] 3 All ER 770 465Society of Lloyds v Twinn (2000) The Times, 4 April 118South Ayrshire Council v Morton [2002] IRLR 256 461, 491Southern District Finance v Barnes [1995] 27 HLR 691 580Southern Foundries Ltd v Shirlaw [1940] AC 701 356Sovereign House Security Services Ltd v Savage [1989] IRLR 115 504Spartan Steel and Alloys Ltd v Martin and Co [1973] QB 27 261, 280Specialarbejderforbundet i Danmark v Dansk Industri(acting for Royal Copenhagen A/S) [1995] IRLR 648 458, 459Spencer and Griffin v Gloucestershire CC [1985] IRLR 393 529Spencer v Harding (1870) LR 5 CP 561 121Spice Girls Ltd v Aprilia World Service BV[2000] EMLR 174; [2002] EWCA Civ 15, CA 168Spring v Guardian Assurance plc [1995] 2 AC 296 273, 447Springer v Great Western Railway Co [1921] 1 KB 257 287Spurling v Bradshaw [1956] 2 All ER 121; [1956] 1 WLR 461 152Square D Ltd v Cook [1992] IRLR 34 542Stanford Services Ltd, Re (1987) 3 BCC 326; [1987] PCC 343; [1987] BCL 607 376
  48. 48. Table of CasesxlixStanley v International Harvester Co of Great Britain Ltd(1983) The Times, 7 February 30Stein v Blake [1998] BCC 316 392Steinberg v Scala (Leeds) [1923] 2 Ch 452 137Stevedoring & Haulage Services Ltd v Fuller & Others[2001] IRLR 627 430, 453Stevenson Jordan and Harrison Ltdv MacDonald and Evans (1952) 1 TLR 101 424Stevenson v McLean (1880) 5 QBD 346 115Stevenson v Rogers [1999] 1 All ER 613 154, 211Stewart v West African Air Terminals [1964] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 371 275, 281Stilk v Myrick (1809) 2 Camp 317; (1809) 170 ER 1168 127–30Storey v Allied Brewery [1977] IRLIB 139 513Stovin v Wise [1996] AC 923; [1996] 3 All ER 801 255Strathclyde RC v Wallace [1998] IRLR 146 465Strathclyde RDC v Porcelli [1986] IRLR 134 474Strathearn Gordon Associates Ltdv Comrs of Customs and Excise (1985) VATTR 79 308Stringfellow v McCain Foods GB Ltd [1984] RPC 501 314Superlux v Plaisted [1958] CLY 195 451Sutherland v Hatton [2002] IRLR 225 544, 557Sweet v Parsley [1969] 1 All ER 347, CA 41Systems Floors (UK) Ltd v Daniel [1982] IRLR 54 436TSB Bank plc v Harris [2000] IRLR 157 447, 454Tai Hing Cotton Mill Ltd v Liu Chong Hing Bank Ltd [1986] AC 80 262, 263Tamplinv James (1879) 15 Ch D 215 164Tanner v Kean [1978] IRLR 160 504Taylor v Alidair [1978] IRLR 82 509Taylor v Caldwell (1863) 3 B & S 826; 122 ER 309 187Taylor v Kent CC [1969] 2 QB 560 529, 536Taylor v Parsons Peebles NEI Bruce Peebles Ltd [1981] IRLR 119, EAT 510, 534Taylor v Rover Cars Co Ltd [1966] 1 WLR 1491 541, 557Teheran-Europe Corp v ST Belton Ltd [1968] 2 QB 545 216Tele Danmark A/S v Handels-Og KontorfunktiunaerernesForbund [2001] 1 IRLR 853 477, 492Tennants Textile Colours Ltd v Todd [1989] IRLR 3 464Thomas v National Coal Board [1987] ICR 757 462Thomas v Thomas (1842) 2 QB 851 126
  49. 49. Business LawlThomas Witter v TBP Industries [1996] 2 All ER 573 172, 173Thompson v LM & S Rly [1930] 1 KB 41 151Thompson v Percival (1834) 3 LJ KB 98 322Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking Ltd [1971] 2 QB 163; [1971] 1 All ER 686 151Tiverton Estates Ltd v Wearwell Ltd[1974] 2 WLR 176; [1974] 1 All ER 209, CA 31Tool Metal Manufacturing Co v Tungsten Electric Co [1955] 2 All ER 657 131Tottenham Green Under-Fives Centre v Marshall (No 2) [1991] ICR 320 484Tower Boot Co Ltd v Jones [1997] ICR 254 475, 554Tower Cabinet Co Ltd v Ingram [1949] 2 KB 397 323Toyota (GB) Ltd v North Yorkshire CC(1998) Lawtel, 11 March 243Tregonowan v Robert Knee and Co [1975] ICR 405 513Tremain v Pike [1969] 3 All ER 1303 276, 282Trentham Ltd v Archital Luxfer [1993] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 25, CA 123Trevor v Whitworth (1887) 12 App Cas 409 366Trimble v Goldberg [1906] AC 494 315Trotman v North Yorkshire County Council [1999] IRLR 98 553Tsakiroglou & Co v Noblee and Thorl [1962] AC 93 189Turley v Allders Department Stores Ltd [1980] IRLR 4 476Turner v Green [1895] 2 Ch 205 168Turpin v Bilton [1843] 5 Man & G 455 290Tweddle v Atkinson (1861) 1 B & S 393; 121 ER 762 125, 135Twine v Bean’s Express Ltd [1946] 1 All ER 202 554UK Automatic Energy Authority v Claydon [1974] ICR 128 523Underwood v Burgh Castle Brick & Cement Syndicate [1922] 1 KB 343 229United Bank Ltd v Akhtar [1989] IRLR 507 506United Dominions Trust v Taylor 1980 SLT 28, Sh Ct 566United Rlys of the Havana & Regla Warehouses Ltd, Re [1961] AC 1007 31Universe Tankships Inc v ITWF [1982] 2 All ER 67 175Vacwell Engineering Co Ltd v BDH Chemicals Ltd [1969] 3 All ER 1681 215Vaid v Brintel Helicopters Ltd (1994) Ind Rel Bulletin 508, EAT 505Van Duyn v Home Office [1975] Ch 358; [1974] 1 WLR 1107 18, 458Van Gend en Loos v Nederlandse BelasringadministratieCase 26/62 [1963] ECR 1; [1963] CMLR 105 17Vellino v Chief Constable of Greater Manchester (2000) Westlaw 825301 256Vernon v Bosley (No 1) [1997] 1 All ER 577 256, 260
  50. 50. Table of CasesliVictoria Laundry (Windsor) Ltd v Newham Industries Ltd[1949] 1 All ER 997 195Vitol SA v Norelf Ltd [1995] 3 WLR 549 193WL Thompson Ltd v Robinson Gunmakers Ltd [1955] Ch 177 219Wadcock v London Borough of Brent [1990] IRLR 223 498Wade v Simeon (1846) 2 CB 548; 135 ER 1061; 15 LJ CP 114 124Wadman v Carpenter Farrer Partnership [1993] IRLR 347 475Wagon Mound (No 1), The, See Overseas Tankship(UK) Ltd v Morts Dock & Engineering Co—Walker v Crystal Palace Football Club [1910] 1 KB 87 423Walker v Northumberland CC (1994) The Times, 24 November 543, 557Wallersteiner v Moir (No 2) [1975] QB 373 393Walley v Morgan [1969] ITR 122 520Walters v Bingham [1988] FTLR 260; (1988) 138 NLJ 7 317Waltons and Morse v Dorrington [1997] IRLR 489 542Ward (RV) Ltd v Bignall [1967] 1 QB 534 220Ward v Byham [1956] 2 All ER 318 126–28Warner Bros v Nelson [1937] 1 KB 209 5, 201Warren v Henly’s Ltd [1948] 2 All ER 935 554, 559Waters v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis [2000] IRLR 720 540Watford Electronics Ltd v Sanderson CFL Ltd [2001] 1 All ER (Comm) 696 156Watt v Hertfordshire CC [1954] 1 WLR 835 269, 281Watteau v Fenwick [1893] 1 QB 346 289Waugh v Carver (1793) 2 KB 1 307Weathershield Ltd (t/a Van and Truck Rentals) v Sargent [1999] IRLR 94 474Webb v EMO Air Cargo Ltd [1993] IRLR 27 476Webb v EMO Air Cargo Ltd (No 2) [1995] IRLR 645 476Welby v Drake (1825) IC & P 557 130Wells v F Smales & Son (Fish Merchants) (1985) unreported 464West Midlands Co-operative Society v Tipton [1986] AC 536;[1986] 2 WLR 306 502Westbourne Galleries, Re [1972] 2 WLR 1289 396Western Excavating (ECC) Ltd v Sharp[1978] QB 761; [1978] 2 WLR 344 504, 506, 534Western Web Offset Printers Ltd v Independent Media Ltd(1995) 139 SJLB 212 196Westminster CC v Cabaj [1996] IRLR 399, CA 509Wheatley v Silkstone and Haigh Moor Coal Co (1885) 371
  51. 51. Business LawliiWhiffen v Milham Ford Girls’School [2001] IRLR 468 482Whitbread and Co v Thomas [1988] ICR 135; [1988] IRLR 43; 511White (formerly Frost) v Chief Constable ofSouth Yorkshire Police [1999] IRLR 110 259, 260White and Carter (Councils) v McGregor [1961] 3 All ER 1178 192White v Chief Constable of South Yorkshire (1999) unreported 280, 539White v Jones [1995] 2 WLR 187, CA 265, 280White v Lucas (1887) 3 TLR 516 285Whittaker v Minister of Pensions and National Insurance [1967] 1 QB 156 424Whitwood Chemical Co v Hardman [1891] 2 Ch 416 201Wickens v Champion Employment [1984] IRLR 365 427, 428Wileman v Minilec Engineering Ltd [1988] ICR 318; [1988] IRLR 144, EAT 481William Hill Organisation Ltd v Tucker [1998] IRLR 313 444Williams v Carwadine (1883) 5 C & P 566 115Williams v Compair Maxam Ltd [1982] IRLR 83; [1982] ICR 156, EAT 511Williams v Fawcett [1985] 1 All ER 787 32Williams v Natural Life Health Foods Ltd [1998] 2 All ER 577 261Williams v Roffey Bros [1990] 1 All ER 512 128, 129, 132, 176, 185, 186Williams v Watsons Luxury Coaches Ltd [1990] IRLR 164 495Williams v Williams [1957] 1 All ER 305 127, 128Willis Faber and Co Ltd v Joyce (1911) LT 576 289Wilsher v Essex AHA [1988] 2 WLR 557 272, 281Wilson v First County Trust [2001] EWCA Civ 633; [2002] QB 74;[2001] 3 WLR 42; [2001] 3 All ER 229; [2001] 2 All ER (Comm) 131 13, 575Wilson v Racher [1974] ICR 428 496Wilson v Rickett Cockerell [1954] 1 QB 598; [1954] 1 All ER 868 213Wilson v Tyneside Window Cleaning Co [1958] 2 QB 110 542Wilsons and Clyde Coal Ltd v English [1938] AC 57 538, 555, 557Wilsorky v Post Office [2000] IRLR 834 509Wiluszynski v Tower Hamlets LBC [1989] IRLR 259 445Wingrove v UK (1997) 24 EHRR 1 65Winn v Bull (1877) 7 Ch D 29 118With v O’Flanagan [1936] Ch 575 168Woodchester Lease Management Services Ltd v Swain & Co [1999] 1 WLR 263 579Woods v Durable Suites Ltd [1953] 1 WLR 857 544Woods v WM Car Services (Peterborough) [1982] ICR 693; [1982] IRLR 413 505Woolfson v StrathclydeRC [1978] 38 P & CR 521 346Wormell v RHM Agriculture (East) Ltd [1986] 1 WLR 336 215
  52. 52. Table of CasesliiiX v Bedfordshire CC [1995] 2 AC 633 256Yates Building Co v J Pulleyn & Sons [1975] 119 SJ 370 121Yenidje Tobacco Co Ltd, Re [1916] 2 Ch 426 314, 325, 395Yianni v Edwin Evans and Sons [1982] QB 438 266Yonge v Toynbee [1910] 1 KB 215 290, 299Young v Bristol Aeroplane Co Ltd [1944] KB 718; [1944] 2 All ER 293 31, 32Young v Charles Church (Southern) Ltd (1996) 33 BMLR 103 259Young v Edward Box and Co Ltd (1951) 1 TLR 789 550, 552Yuen Kun Yeu v AG of Hong Kong [1987] 3 WLR 776; [1987] 2 All ER 705 254Yugo Tours Ltd v Wadsley (1988) The Guardian, 3 June 245Zafar v Glasgow CC [1998] IRLR 37 473, 492Zanzibar v British Aerospace Ltd (2000) The Times, 28 March 172Zarcynska v Levy [1978] IRLR 532, EAT 474
  53. 53. lvTABLE OF STATUTESAccess to Justice Act 1999 62, 88Anti-Terrorism, Crimeand Security Act 2001 10, 66Arbitration Act 1950 74Pt 1 71Arbitration Act 1975 71Arbitration Act 1979 71, 75Arbitration Act 1996 71, 72, 75, 101Pt 1 71s 1 71, 72s 5 71s 5 (3) 71ss 9–11 73ss 15, 17, 18 73ss 20 (4), 24 73ss 28–30, 32 72s 33 72, 74s 35 72ss 39, 43, 45 73ss 67–69 74Bills of Exchange Act 1882 105s 27 125Business Names Act 1985 313s 4 313Children Act 1989 55, 60, 67Civil Liability (Contributions)Act 1978 321, 548Civil Procedure Act 1997 56Companies Act 1862 348Companies Act 1980 365, 412Companies Act 1985 24, 26, 264,332, 339, 341, 342, 343,347, 351, 389, 413Pt VIII 365Pt XIV 375s 3A 354s 4 354, 389s 9 355, 389s 10 351s 11 352, 360ss 12, 13 351s 14 136, 356, 360s 24 345ss 25, 26 (1), (2), 27 353s 28 353, 389ss 29, 33 353s 34 313, 353s 35 367, 377, 385s 36 (C) 286s 53 389s 80 362s 80A 390s 88 363s 99 362s 100 359s 101 352, 360ss 103, 108, 111, 113 363s 117 352, 367s 118 352s 121 365ss 125–27 358s 125 358, 389s 125 (2), (4), (5) 358s 127 (2), (3) 358s 130 359ss 131, 132 363ss 135–41 364s 135 364, 389ss 136, 137 364s 142 387ss 151, 153, (1) 367ss 155–58 367s 159 362, 366s 160 366ss 162–81 366s 162 362ss 164–66 366ss 171–75 366
  54. 54. Business Lawlvis 182 360s 183 369s 190 353s 193 369s 229 345, 350s 235 383s 235(1)–(3) 384s 236(1), (3) 384s 237(1)–(3) 384s 246 350s 251(4)(b) 384ss 252, 258 390s 262(1) 385ss 263, 264 365s 277 366s 286 382s 286(2) 382s 303 373, 388, 417s 314 363s 325 353s 351 354s 353 353s 366 386, 387s 366A 386, 390s 367 387s 368 387–89s 369 387, 389, 390s 369(4) 389s 370 391s 371 386, 387s 372 391s 376 388s 378 389s 378(1), (2) 389s 379A 390s 381A 387, 389, 390s 381A(2) 390s 381B 385s 381B(3) 390s 382 392ss 384, 385 383s 386 383, 390ss 387, 389 384ss 389A, 390, (1), (1A) 385s 392 385s 392A 387ss 392A(1), 394 385ss 395, 396, 404 370s 407 353, 370s 425 407s 430 389s 431 400, 401, 418s 431(3), (4) 400s 432 400, 401s 433 400s 434 402s 434(1) 400ss 434(2), 436 401s 437 375, 401ss 437(3)(c), 439, 441 401s 442 401, 402ss 443, 444 402ss 446–50 403s 454 402s 458 375, 381s 459 344, 355, 373, 396–99,402, 418s 461 397, 398s 461(1), (2) 398s 716 310s 736 350s 744 372Companies Act 1989 343, 354, 355,377, 384–86s 14 355s 26 384ss 35, (2), 35A, 35B 354ss 92–107 371s 117 390s 367 386
  55. 55. Table of Statuteslviis 741 372s 744 382Company Directors DisqualificationAct 1986 332, 339, 341, 374–76,382, 402, 403, 417s 1 376ss 2–4 374s 4(1)(b) 375s 6 375, 376s 8 375, 401, 402s 9 375ss 10–12 376s 13 377Sched 1 375Competition Act 1998 179Consolidation Act 1948 24Consumer Arbitration Act 1988 80Consumer Credit Act 1974 13, 105, 236,561–72, 575, 576,578–83, 585Pt IV 568s 8(2), (3) 563s 9(1) 562s 11 565s 14 564s 15 563ss 16, 17 568s 18(1) 565s 19 564ss 25, 30–32, 39, 40 570ss 44, 46(1), 47(1) 571ss 48–51 571s 52(1) 572s 55 573s 55(1), (2) 572s 56(2) 583s 57 574s 60, (1) 573s 61 13, 573ss 62, 63 574s 65 573s 65(1) 572, 574s 67 576s 67(b) 577s 69 565, 577ss 70–73 577s 74 576s75 566, 567s 77(1) 576s 78(1), (4) 576ss 87–89 579ss 90, 91 580s 94 582s 99(1), (4), (5) 578ss 100, 101 578s 127 575s 127(3) 13, 14, 575s 129 579, 580s 130 580s 133 581ss 137–40 575ss 157–59 573s 167 570s 170 572s 172(1), (3)(b) 576s 189 563, 567, 569, 571Consumer ProtectionAct 1987 239–42, 244, 249Pt I 205, 248Pt II 205, 242, 249ss 1, 2(2), 3 240s 4 241, 248s 5 240ss 6(4), 7 241, 248s 10 242s 13 242, 243s 20 243ss 20(2), 24, 26 244s 45 240
  56. 56. Business LawlviiiContacts (Rights of ThirdParties) Act 1999 104, 135, 136,144, 208ss 1–3 135ss 5, 6, 10 136Copyright, Designs andPatents Act 1988—s 11 452County Courts Act 1984 26Courts and Legal ServicesAct 1990 78Criminal Appeal Act 1968 54s 33 55Criminal Appeal Act 1995 54ss 1, 2 54Criminal Justice Act 1972—s 36 53, 54Criminal Justice Act 1988 54Criminal Justice Act 1993 341, 410, 411Pt V 409, 418s 52 409, 419s 52(2) 411s 52(3) 410s 53 411, 419ss 54, 55 410ss 56, 57 410, 411, 419s 58 411Sched 1 411Criminal Justice and PublicOrder Act 1994 475Criminal Procedure andInvestigations Act 1996—ss 44, 47 52Sched 1 52Deregulation and ContractingOut Act 1994 25, 26, 390Disability DiscriminationAct 1995 83, 485–87, 489,492, 494, 553s 1 487, 488, 494s 4 486s 5 486, 489s 5(1) 486s 5(3) 486, 487s 5(9) 486s 6 486, 487Sched 1 489Divorce Reform Act 1969 98Domestic Proceedings andMagistrates’ Courts Act 1978 55, 61Electronic CommunicationsAct 2000 105Employers’ Liability (CompulsoryInsurance) Act 1969 537Employers’ Liability (DefectiveEquipment) Act 1969 541, 557Employment Act 1980 507Employment Act 1989 484Employment Act 2002 437, 464, 500, 534ss 35–38 437Sched 2 508Employment Protection(Consolidation) Act 1978 421, 427s 140(1) 503Employment RelationsAct 1999 432, 477, 499ss 10–12 508s 19 422, 470s 23 430s 34 517Employment Rights Act 1996 85, 422,436, 477, 497, 499, 500, 502,503, 506, 510–12, 515,519–21, 524, 526, 533, 534Pt I 434Pt II 445s 1 430, 438, 454s 2 435, 504s 11 437ss 43A-J 515s 49 496s 52 530
  57. 57. Table of Statuteslixs 86 496, 533s 86(2) 496s 92 506, 534s 92(3) 506s 92(4) 507s 95 502s 95(1)(c) 504s 97 533s 97(1), (2) 501s 98 507, 509, 534s 98(1) 527s 98(1)(b) 513s 98(2) 511s 98(2)(d) 512s 98(3) 509s 99 514, 528ss 100, 101A, 103A 515ss 104, 104A 515s 105 528ss 105(7A), 107 515s 111 501ss 112–24 516ss 118, 123 517s 132 530ss 136, 139 520s 139(1) 521s 140(1) 531s 141 528s 141(4) 526s 142 530ss 147–49 525s 163(2) 521s 164 530s 203 503s 212 432, 434, 454s 218(2) 526s 230 423Employment Rights (DisputeResolution) Act 1998 499Employment TribunalsAct 1996 83Equal Pay Act 1970 17, 83, 431,457–60, 463, 465, 466,482, 491, 493s 1(1) 459s 1(2)(a) 462s 1(2)(b) 462, 463s 1(2)(c) 463s 1(3) 465s 1(4) 462, 491s 1(5) 463, 491s 1(6) 459–61s 2(A)(1)(a) 464European CommunitiesAct 1972 17, 63s 2(1) 18s 2(2) 18, 26s 3 32Factors Act 1889 233, 284ss 1(1), 2(1), 4 233ss 5, 7 234Factory Act 1961 555Family Law Act 1996 69, 98Pt 2 99, 100Family Law Act 2000 99Family Law Reform Act 1969 136Financial Services Act 1986—s 94 375s 177 375, 403, 412Financial Services and MarketsAct 2000 332, 339Food and Drugs Act 1955 513Gaming Act 1968 179Health and Safety at WorkAct 1974 83, 421, 422Hire Purchase Act 1964 561Pt III 236s 27 165, 166
  58. 58. Business LawlxHuman Rights Act 1998 8, 10, 11,29, 45, 63, 68, 79, 252,402, 471, 472, 478,479, 492s 2 10s 3 10–13s 3(1) 492s 4 11, 13s 5 14s 6 10, 11, 479s 7 10, 479ss 8, 19 10Sched 1 8Infants Relief Act 1874 136, 138Insolvency Act 1986 325, 331, 332,337, 339, 341Pt I 407Pt V 325, 337s 8 407s 84 389s 89 404s 89(4) 404s 122 396, 398, 405s 122(g) 395s 123 405s 124 402ss 142, 175 406s 213 345, 376, 381, 382s 214 345, 380–32, 417s 214(1) 381s 214A 333, 345Sched 6 406Interpretation Act 1978 40Judicature Act 1873 4Judicature Act 1875 4Lands Tribunal Act 1949 84Late Payment of CommercialDebts (Interest) Act 1998 219Law of Property (MiscellaneousProvisions) Act 1989 105Law Reform (ContributoryNegligence) Act 1945 276, 282Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts)Act 1943 190, 203, 232Limitation Act 1980 241, 277, 547s 29 125Limited Liability PartnershipAct 2000 305, 306, 309, 328,335, 338, 342, 343, 345s 1 328s 1(4) 332s 1(5) 328s 4(1)–(3) 330s 5 331s 6 338s 6(1) 331s 10 332Limited Partnership Act 1907 306, 308Local Government Act 1972 26Local Government Act 1974 91Magistrates’ Courts Act 1978 56Magistrates’ Courts Act 1980 26Marine Insurance Act 1906 105Mental Health Act 1983 41, 84, 324, 337ss 72, 73 13Merchant Shipping Act 1988 15, 16Minors’ Contracts Act 1987 136, 138Misrepresentation Act 1967 171, 172s 2(1) 171, 172, 183s 2(2) 172, 183s 3 173National Minimum WageAct 1998 430, 439, 441, 442,454, 457, 516s 25 515
  59. 59. Table of Statuteslxiss 34, 35 440s 54 440, 454Occupiers’ Liability Act 1957 153Parliament Act 1911 23Parliament Act 1949 23Parliamentary CommissionerAct 1967 91–93s 10(3) 94s 12(3) 92Partnership Act 1890 24, 305, 307, 311,316, 323, 325, 331, 338s 1 307, 335s 2(2) 307s 4 309s 5 311, 320, 344s 9 321s 10 321s 17 322s 19 312s 20 317, 318s 21 317s 22 319s 23 318, 324s 24 316, 335s 24(5) 308s 24(8) 314s 25 317ss 28–30 315, 335s 30 318s 31 319s 32(a), (b) 323ss 32(c), 33(1), (2), 34 324s 35 314, 324s 38 325s 39 318s 44 326s 46 305Patents Act 1977—ss 39–41 452Police and Criminal EvidenceAct 1984 43s 76(2) 402Prevention of Fraud (Investments)Act 1958 93Prevention of Terrorism (TemporaryProvisions) Act 1989 10Protection from HarassmentAct 1997 475Protection of Birds Act 1954 113Public Interest DisclosureAct 1998 515Race Relations Act 1976 83, 421, 431,467, 471, 474, 480, 482, 485,486, 492, 493, 553, 554s 1(2) 483s 2 482s 3(1), (4) 471s 4 474, 483s 5 483s 32 475, 554Road Traffic Act 1988 12, 513s 172 11, 12s 172(2)(a) 11Royal Assent Act 1967 24Sale and Supply of GoodsAct 1994 206, 211, 212, 224, 236Sale of Goods Act 1893 24, 150, 207s 11 147Sale of Goods Act 1979 24, 139, 147,148, 160, 205, 206, 208,211, 214, 219, 221, 223,236, 240, 247, 248s 2 228s 2(1) 206, 207s 3 136s 7 191, 232ss 8(1), (2), 9 207s 11(4) 222
  60. 60. Business Lawlxiiss 12–15 236, 582s 12 208, 225, 232s 12(1) 155, 160, 208, 232s 12(2) 209ss 13–15 225, 227, 248s 13 198, 209–11, 221, 222s 14 154, 211, 212, 222s 14(2) 211–14, 217, 221s 14(2A) 211, 212, 215s 14(2B) 211–14s 14(2C) 213s 14(3) 215–17, 221s 14(6) 211–13s 15 211, 217, 222s 15(2) 217s 15A 221, 222s 16 228–30s 17 229s 18 229, 230, 231s 19, (1) 220s 20(1) 228, 231s 20(2) 231s 20A 228, 231s 21 232ss 22, 23 234s 24 235s 25 235, 236s 25(1) 235s 27 218s 29(5) 187s 30(4) 222s 34, (1) 224s 35 212, 222, 224s 35(2), (4) 224s 35(6) 225s 35A 222s 36 221ss 41–43 219ss 44–46 220s 49 202, 218s 49(1) 228s 50 196s 50(1)–(3) 219s 51 196ss 51(2), (3) 222s 52(1) 221s 53 223s 61 228, 230s 61(1) 206Sale of Goods (Amendment)Act l994 206, 234Sale of Goods (Amendment)Act 1995 206Sex Discrimination Act 1975 83, 421,431, 467–69, 474,476, 478–80, 482–86,492, 493, 500, 553, 554s 1(1) 478s 1(1)(b) 482s 2(b) 479s 3(1) 470s 4 482s 5(3) 471, 478s 6 474, 483s 7 483s 29 473s 41 474, 475, 554Sex Discrimination Act 1986 468Solicitors’ Act 1974 26Statute of Frauds 1677—s 4 105Supply of Goods and ServicesAct 1982 155, 205, 236, 237, 248ss 2–5 236, 237ss 6–10 236, 582ss 13–15 237Sched 2 236Supply of Goods (ImpliedTerms) Act 1973—
  61. 61. Table of Statuteslxiiiss 8–11 582Supreme Court Act 1981 26s 48(2) 53Terrorism Act 2000 66Trade Descriptions Act1968 114, 154, 205, 244,245, 249, 570s 1 244, 245s 1(1)(b) 245ss 2(1), 3 244ss 6, 14, 24 245Trade Union Reform and EmploymentRights Act 1993 435, 437, 449, 531s 33, (4) 526ss 188–98 531Trade Union and LabourRelations (Consolidation)Act 1992—ss 20, 152(1) 514s 153 512s 161 518s 179 141, 438ss 188–92 511s 188, (4) 531s 193 532s 207 508s 237 500s 238 500, 514Tribunals and InquiriesAct 1958 82Tribunals and InquiriesAct 1971 82Tribunals and InquiriesAct 1992 82s 10 87Unfair Contract TermsAct 1977 104, 150, 153–57, 160,178, 199, 222, 225, 226,237, 248, 263, 267s 2 153, 263s 2(2) 263s 3 154s 4 155s 5 153s 6 216ss 6(1)–(3), 7, 11 155s 12(1) 154, 211, 225Sched 2 155, 226Wages Act 1986 83, 445War Crimes Act 1990 40Youth Justice and CriminalEvidence Act 1999—s 41 12, 13s 41(3) 12, 13
  62. 62. lxv,TABLE OF STATUTORY INSTRUMENTSCivil Procedure Rules (CPR) 1998 SI 1998/3132 56, 59, 77, 78r 4.1 57Pt 26 58r 26.4 69Pt 27 75r 27.14 76Pt 39 76Pt 52 62Collective Redundancies and Transfer of Undertakings(Protection of Employment) (Amendment)Regulations 1995 SI 1995/2587 511, 528, 531, 532Commercial Agents (Council Directive) Regulations1993 SI 1993/3053 199, 284, 285, 293,294, 300, 302regs 3–5 293, 302regs 3, 4 293regs 6–12 293, 302regs 13–16 293, 302reg 14 293regs 17–19 293, 302reg 17 294, 295reg 20 293, 294, 302Companies Act 1985 (Electronic Communications)Order 2000 SI 2000/3373 412, 413, 419Companies (Tables A to F) Regulations 1985 SI 1985/805 352Table A 373, 399, 413, 419Table A, Art 37 387Table A, Arts 41, 43 391Table A, Art 70 377, 386Table A, Art 72 377Table A, Art 84 372, 378Companies (Single Member Private Limited Companies)Regulations 1992SI 1992/1699 343, 348Company and Business Names Regulations 1981 SI 1981/1699 353Consumer Credit (Advertisements) Regulations 1989 SI 1989/1125 571Consumer Credit (Advertisements) (Amendment) Regulations 1999SI 1999/3177 572Consumer Credit (Agreements) Regulations 1983 SI 1983/155 573, 585Consumer Credit (Agreements) (Amendment)Regulations 1999 SI 1999/3177 573, 585Consumer Credit (Content of Quotations) and Consumer Credit(Advertisements) (Amendment) Regulations 1999 SI 1999/2725 572

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