Bio Transport notes


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Bio Transport notes

  1. 1. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) First line of defence Second line of defence Third line of defence skin,mucous membrane phagocytic white blood cells lymphocytes, the immune system leucocytes collected in lymph nodes, thus the lymph nodes block and destroy pathogens immune response - the produced antibodies attach themselves to pathogens and inactivate them skin epidermis (keratin inhibits growth of microorganisms) dermis sebaceous gland, sebum (inhibits growth of certain type of bacteria) • virus that attacks and destroy immune system • victims may be symptom-free for many years • victims become vulnerable to infections • transmission • body fluids (blood, semen, placenta) • breastfeeding • unprotected sex • contaminated needles AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) saliva and tears contains antibacterial enzymes leucocytes such as neutrophils and monocytes act as phagocytes T-Cells - responsible for cellular immunity B-Cells - produce antibodies • end stage of infection caused by HIV • no vaccine yet • certain drugs can slower the progress of the disease NK-Cells - detect antigens Immunity Innate Acquired Passive Active Given antibodies produce antibodies Short term Artificial injection of serum Natural anti-tetanus through mother's milk or placenta against rabies, snake venom Artificial vaccine to prevent diseases BCG, polio, chicken pox Natural long term chicken pox, smallpox
  2. 2. Importance of blood clotting     Clumped platelets (platelet plug is formed) Prevent serious blood loss Prevent the entry of microorganisms and foreign particles Maintain blood pressure Maintain circulation of blood in a closed circulatory system Release of thrombokinase (a.k.a. thromboplastin) Prothrombin >thrombokinase > Thrombin Fibrinogen > thrombin> Fibrin Related diseases •causes blood plasma to form the clot Haemophilia Thrombosis •Hereditary •Deficiency of coagulating factors in the blood Clot •Blood clots(thrombus) within blood vessels •Obstructs flow of arteries •Embolus (moving blood clot in bloodstream) •Can cause stroke or heart attacks The Lymphatic System Lymphatic system Lymph interstitial fluid that has not been absorbed into bloodstream goes to the lymph capillaries Receives unabsorbed interstitial fluid from the spaces between the cells and returns it to the circulatory system Carries leucocytes Lymphatic capillaries  Thoracic duct Blind ended tubes One way valves to prevent backflow of the lymph produce and store lymphocyte Connected to lymphatic vessels from the areas below the diaphragm and from the left half of the body Blind ended tubes resemble veins but have thinner walls and larger lumen and more valves protect body from infections Empties into the subclavian vein The importance of the lymphatic system   Lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels Maintain the fluid balance in the body Excessive accumulation of interstitial fluid – Oedema (probably caused by blocked lymphatic vessels) Lacteal – lymph capillaries which transport droplets of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins the bloodstream Fluid Red blood cells Platelets White blood cells Proteins (albumin, globulins, etc.) Other solutes Right lymphatic duct Connected to lymphatic vessel from right half of the body above the diaphragm Empties into the right subclavian vein Blood Interstitial fluid Lymph ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
  3. 3. The negative feedback regulation of blood pressure The heart generates rhythmic impulses - heart muscles relax and contract Cardiac muscle is myogenic – it is self-excitable Two nodes that create electrical impulses in the heart: Decrease in blood pressure More impulses are sent to cardiovascular control centre in the medulla oblongata Less impulses are sent to cardiovascular control centre in the medulla oblongata Impulses sent to heart via parasympathetic nerves   Increase in blood pressure Sympathetic nerve increases stimulation of the SA node Result in weaker cardiac muscle contractions and vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) Result in stronger cardiac muscles contractions and vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) Heartbeat slows down Increase the heartbeat rate Blood pressure decreases to normal level Blood pressure increases to normal level Sino-atrial (SA) node - cardiac pacemaker Atrioventricular (AV) node Impulses of AV node are conducted by specialized muscle fibres (bundle of His and Purkinje fibres) to the ventricular walls Thick muscular wall of left ventricle is strong enough to create a pumping force throughout the body Average heart rate – 72 heartbeats/min Blood pressure Decreases Increases Baroreceptors Less stimulated More stimulated Nerve impulses sent to the cardiovascular centre Decreased rate Increased rate Nerve impulses sent to the effectors Via sympathetic nerves Via parasympathetic nerves Cardiac muscle contractions and heartbeat rate Stronger, increase Weaker, decrease Blood vessels Narrows (vasoconstriction) Widen (vasodilation) Blood pressure Increases to normal level Decreases to normal level Cardiac Cycle a series of events that occur during one complete heartbeat which includes the contraction(systole) and relaxation(diastole) of both atria and ventricles The SA node generates impulses in both atria Contraction of atria Blood pressure in atria increase Diastole (contraction) of heart Lowest arterial blood pressure Blood is pumped into the ventricles (deoxygenated blood to right ventricle, oxygenated blood to left ventricle) AV node is stimulated The Purkinje fibres conduct electrical impulses to the heart The ventricles contract Blood pressure in both ventricles increase Systole (relaxation) of heart Highest arterial blood pressure Blood is pumped out of the heart (deoxygenated blood to lungs via pulmonary artery, oxygenated blood to whole body via aorta)
  4. 4. Organisms Type of circulatory system Insects Open Separation of oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood Number of chambers in heart A single blood vessel forms the heart Two Amphibians Closed Double Pulmocutaneous circulation and systemic circulation Humans Closed Double Pulmonary circulation Deoxygenated blood -> Oxygenated blood Systemic circulation Oxygenated blood -> Deoxygenated blood Incomplete Heart Contraction Haemolymph flows from heart to haemocoel Heart Relaxation Haemolymph is draw back to heart through ostia(pore) Fish Closed Single Gill capillaries to systemic capillaries Complete Three Four
  5. 5. ● Carries oxygenated blood (except pulmonary artery) ● Carries blood away from heart to various body parts ● Delivers nutrients and oxygen to cells ● Carries deoxygenated blood (except pulmonary vein) ● Carries waste products away from cells ● Carries blood back to heart from various body parts ● Protects body from infection Function Connects arterioles and veins Blood vessels Transport System of Human ● Water 90% ● Ions (minerals) ● Plasma proteins (albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, antibodies) ● Hormones ● Dissolved substances (nutrients, waste product, respiratory gases) Circulatory System Blood Heart Transport medium in animals. Its flow is regulated by the rhythmic contractions and relaxations of the heart. • • • • Have nucleus Do not have haemoglobin Types: granulocytes and agranulocytes Granulocytes (granular cytoplasm, lobed nuclei): nuetrophils, basophils, eosinophils • Agranulocytes (relatively clear cytoplasm, nuclei not lobed): lymphocytes, monocytes) • Produced in bone marrow • • • • • • No nucleus Have haemoglobin (red colour) Biconcave disc shaped (increases cell's surface) Facilitates diffusion of O2 and CO2 Produced in bone marrow Destroyed by phagocytes in liver and spleen Leukocytes Erythrocytes Structure • Small, irregular fragments of large cells in bone marrow • Responsible for blood clotting Platelets • Made of myocardium (cardiac muscle fibers) • Consists of four chambers • Consists of tricuspid valve and bicuspid valve (prevent back flow of blood from ventricles to atria) • Consists of semilunar valves (aortic valve and pulmonary valve) to prevent back flow of blood from arteries (aorta and pulmonary artery) to ventricles • the wall of left ventricle is thicker than the wall of right ventricle Functions • The heart functions as a muscular pump. Its rhythmic contractions pump oxygenated blood into various tissues of the body.
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