© 2011 FEI Company
PART 1:  A BRIEF OVERVIEW  OF MICROSCOPY  • Origins of microscopy  • Historical figures in microscopy  • Three basic class...
History of Microscopy                     Human eye cells            Paint on concrete   Trace elements in quartz         ...
Historic Figures in MicroscopyAntony van Leeuwenhoek   Robert Hooke    Ernst Abbe   Ernst Ruska   Richard Feynman      (16...
Basic Microscope Classifications                                                                   laser diode            ...
Comparing Microscopes                               LIGHT MICROSCOPE              ELECTRON MICROSCOPE                     ...
PART 2:  UNDERSTANDING KEY CONCEPTS  & CORE TECHNOLOGIES  IN MICROSCOPY  • What is resolution and resolving power?  • What...
KEY CONCEPT: Resolution   Resolution   is defined as the act, process, or capability of   distinguishing between two separ...
Resolving Power of the Human Eye                     What can we see?© 2011 FEI Company
Resolution & Magnification                         scale© 2011 FEI Company
How is Resolution Affected by Wavelength?© 2011 FEI Company
KEY CONCEPT: The Electron   An atom is made up of:                                             Protons                    ...
CORE TECHNOLOGY: The Electron Gun   • Three main sources     of electrons:         • Tungsten         • LaB6 (lanthanum he...
CORE TECHNOLOGY: Electromagnetic Lenses                     electron beam                                     electrical c...
CORE TECHNOLOGY: The Vacuum   • A vacuum is a region     of reduced gas pressure.   • Electron microscopes     use a vacuu...
PART 3:  UNDERSTANDING  ADVANCED  MICROSCOPES  • Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM)  • Scanning Electron Microscopes ...
What is a Transmission Electron Microscope?                                    electron source                            ...
TEM Aberration Correction                                      Spherical Aberration          Chromatic Aberration   • Chro...
TEM Enables 3D Imaging                            3D Imaging© 2011 FEI Company
Environmental Microscopy with TEMNickel catalyst film on silica membrane                                          FEI Tita...
What is Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy?                                            Elemental map of a 45 nm PMO...
What is a Scanning Electron Microscope?                     electron source                             electron beam     ...
Comparing SEM and TEM                                             TEM                                  SEM                ...
What is a Focused Ion Beam? (FIB) Platinum Nano-Wire                                           FIB-cut in steel v2a EE by ...
What is a DualBeam™ System?                       Bidens Ferulifolia Pollen on plant structures© 2011 FEI Company
PART 4:  HOW ARE ELECTRON  AND ION MICROSCOPES  USED TODAY?  •   Industrial applications  • Life sciences  • Natural resou...
Applications of Microscopy© 2011 FEI Company
Industrial Applications© 2011 FEI Company
Life Science Applications                                                       Breast cancer cellsSperm tails tangled upi...
Natural Resources & Energy© 2011 FEI Company
Scientific Research© 2011 FEI Company
PART 5:  THE FUTURE OF  MICROSCOPY AND  NANOTECHNOLOGY   • Nanotechnology: the future of science   • What is nanotechnolog...
Nanotechnology: The Future of Science is Now© 2011 FEI Company
What is Nanotechnology?na·no·tech·no·lo·gy                                                 noun  na-nō-tek-nä-lə-jē:the sc...
Nanotechnology Applications© 2011 FEI Company
Student and Teacher Resources   Learn more about FEI, our products, technologies,   and innovations at fei.com   A glossar...
FEI Company   FEI is the world leader in transmission, scanning electron,   and ion beam microscopy. FEI is responsible fo...
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An Introduction to Electron Microscopy by FEI Company

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This presentation is based on a booklet produced by FEI Company entitled "An Introduction to Electron Microscopy". The information contained in this presentation is meant as a overview to the art and science of electron microscopy, and can be used by teachers and students alike to learn more about the science of microscopy.

You can download the booklet and learn more about the presentation package at http://www.fei.com/resources/student-learning/introduction-to-electron-microscopy/resources.aspx

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An Introduction to Electron Microscopy by FEI Company

  1. 1. © 2011 FEI Company
  2. 2. PART 1: A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MICROSCOPY • Origins of microscopy • Historical figures in microscopy • Three basic classifications of microscopes • Comparing light microscopy to electron microscopy© 2011 FEI Company
  3. 3. History of Microscopy Human eye cells Paint on concrete Trace elements in quartz Mikros (small) + Skopeo (look at) Greek Origin© 2011 FEI Company
  4. 4. Historic Figures in MicroscopyAntony van Leeuwenhoek Robert Hooke Ernst Abbe Ernst Ruska Richard Feynman (1632-1723) (1635-1703) (1840-1905) (1906-1988) (1918-1988) © 2011 FEI Company
  5. 5. Basic Microscope Classifications laser diode electron source first condenser lens multiple segmentphotodiode X, Y piezoelectric second condenser lens (position sensitive detector) scanner condenser aperture mirror objective condenser lens microcondenser lens Scanning OpticalCharged (light) objective aperture specimen (thin) probe particle microscope selected area objective lens aperture light beam objective imaging piezoelectric Z lens scanner microscope specimen diffraction lens intermediate lens first projector lens light source second projector lens cantilever Optical (light) microscope sample Scanning projector chamber probe microscope Charged particle microscope (stationary)(Illustration of a TEM shown) fluorescent screen© 2011 FEI Company
  6. 6. Comparing Microscopes LIGHT MICROSCOPE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE Electrons are used to “see” – The source of The ambient light source is light is replaced by an electron illumination light for the microscope gun built into the column The lens type Glass lenses Electromagnetic lenses Focal length is charged by Magnification Magnification is changed by changing the current through method moving the lens the lens coil Viewing the Fluorescent screen or Eyepiece (ocular) sample digital camera Entire electron path from Use of vacuum No vacuum gun to camera must be under vacuum© 2011 FEI Company
  7. 7. PART 2: UNDERSTANDING KEY CONCEPTS & CORE TECHNOLOGIES IN MICROSCOPY • What is resolution and resolving power? • What is an electron? • The electron gun • Electromagnetic lenses • The importance of vacuum technology© 2011 FEI Company
  8. 8. KEY CONCEPT: Resolution Resolution is defined as the act, process, or capability of distinguishing between two separate, but adjacent objects or sources of light, or between two nearly equal wavelengths. Resolving Power is the ability to make points or lines which are closely adjacent in an object distinguishable in an image.© 2011 FEI Company
  9. 9. Resolving Power of the Human Eye What can we see?© 2011 FEI Company
  10. 10. Resolution & Magnification scale© 2011 FEI Company
  11. 11. How is Resolution Affected by Wavelength?© 2011 FEI Company
  12. 12. KEY CONCEPT: The Electron An atom is made up of: Protons Neutrons Electron© 2011 FEI Company
  13. 13. CORE TECHNOLOGY: The Electron Gun • Three main sources of electrons: • Tungsten • LaB6 (lanthanum hexaboride) • Field Emission Gun (FEG) • Different costs and benefits of each • Each selected primarily for their brightness© 2011 FEI Company
  14. 14. CORE TECHNOLOGY: Electromagnetic Lenses electron beam electrical coil soft iron pole piece© 2011 FEI Company
  15. 15. CORE TECHNOLOGY: The Vacuum • A vacuum is a region of reduced gas pressure. • Electron microscopes use a vacuum to make electrons behave like light.© 2011 FEI Company
  16. 16. PART 3: UNDERSTANDING ADVANCED MICROSCOPES • Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) • Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) • Focused Ion Beam Microscopes (FIB) • FEI DualBeam™ Systems (FIB/SEM)© 2011 FEI Company
  17. 17. What is a Transmission Electron Microscope? electron source condenser system specimen (thin) objective lens projector lens© 2011 FEI Company
  18. 18. TEM Aberration Correction Spherical Aberration Chromatic Aberration • Chromatic aberration is distortion that occurs when there is a failure of a lens to focus all colors (wavelengths) to the same convergence point. • Correcting the aberration is necessary, otherwise the resulting image would be blurry and delocalized, a form of aberration where periodic structures appear to extend beyond their physical boundaries. • Recent improvements in aberration correction have resulted in significantly- improved image quality and sample information. • Spherical aberration occurs when parallel light rays that pass through the central region of the lens focus farther away than the light rays that pass through the edges of the lens. • Result is multiple focal points and a blurred image.© 2011 FEI Company
  19. 19. TEM Enables 3D Imaging 3D Imaging© 2011 FEI Company
  20. 20. Environmental Microscopy with TEMNickel catalyst film on silica membrane FEI Titan ETEMNickel oxide particles in nitrogen gas© 2011 FEI Company
  21. 21. What is Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy? Elemental map of a 45 nm PMOS transistor structureSTEM image of a 32nm semiconductor device EDX map of semiconductor device© 2011 FEI Company
  22. 22. What is a Scanning Electron Microscope? electron source electron beam impact area vacuum© 2011 FEI Company
  23. 23. Comparing SEM and TEM TEM SEM Beam focused to fine point; Electron Beam Broad, static beams sample is scanned line by line Accelerating voltage much lower; not SEM voltage ranges from Voltages Needed necessary to penetrate the specimen 60-300,000 volts Wide range of specimens Interaction of the Specimen must be very thin allowed; simplifies beam electrons sample preparation Information needed is Electrons must pass through and be Imaging collected near the surface transmitted by the specimen of the specimen Transmitted electrons are collectively Beam is scanned along the Image Rendering focused by the objective lens and surface of the sample to magnified to create a real image build up the image© 2011 FEI Company
  24. 24. What is a Focused Ion Beam? (FIB) Platinum Nano-Wire FIB-cut in steel v2a EE by 1nA to Cross-section of a semiconductor wafer imagedsteel a plasma FIB 1B milling-002 with FEI V400ACE Focused Ion Beam Physical Failure Analysis© 2011 FEI Company
  25. 25. What is a DualBeam™ System? Bidens Ferulifolia Pollen on plant structures© 2011 FEI Company
  26. 26. PART 4: HOW ARE ELECTRON AND ION MICROSCOPES USED TODAY? • Industrial applications • Life sciences • Natural resources and energy • Scientific research© 2011 FEI Company
  27. 27. Applications of Microscopy© 2011 FEI Company
  28. 28. Industrial Applications© 2011 FEI Company
  29. 29. Life Science Applications Breast cancer cellsSperm tails tangled upin a seminiferous tubule© 2011 FEI Company
  30. 30. Natural Resources & Energy© 2011 FEI Company
  31. 31. Scientific Research© 2011 FEI Company
  32. 32. PART 5: THE FUTURE OF MICROSCOPY AND NANOTECHNOLOGY • Nanotechnology: the future of science • What is nanotechnology? • Nanotechnology applications • Student and teacher resources© 2011 FEI Company
  33. 33. Nanotechnology: The Future of Science is Now© 2011 FEI Company
  34. 34. What is Nanotechnology?na·no·tech·no·lo·gy noun na-nō-tek-nä-lə-jē:the science of manipulating materials on an atomic or molecular scaleespecially to build microscopic devices (as robots) Electrospun polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) fibres Sildenafil Crystals ALU bumps on integrated circuit Contamination on polymer Polystyrene nanospheres on optical photoresist Alveoli (glandular secretions) Artery with red blood cells CuInSe2 Mesentericum Spores mosquito Tuber thin film Water mite parasiting on a© 2011 FEI Company
  35. 35. Nanotechnology Applications© 2011 FEI Company
  36. 36. Student and Teacher Resources Learn more about FEI, our products, technologies, and innovations at fei.com A glossary of useful terms can be found at: fei.com/resources/glossary-of-terms.aspx Download or read online the complete “Introduction to Electron Microscopy” booklet at fei.com/introtoem© 2011 FEI Company
  37. 37. FEI Company FEI is the world leader in transmission, scanning electron, and ion beam microscopy. FEI is responsible for numerous innovations in technology and the integration of electron and ion optics, fine mechanics, microelectronics, computer sciences, and vacuum engineering. FEI is at the forefront of electron and ion beam microscopy, the innovation leader since 1935. Learn more about us at fei.com© 2011 FEI Company

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