On NP-Hardness of the Paired de Bruijn Sound Cycle Problem

  • 2,456 views
Uploaded on

Talk at WABI-2013

Talk at WABI-2013

More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,456
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. On NP-Hardness of the Paired de Bruijn Sound Cycle Problem Evgeny Kapun Fedor Tsarev Genome Assembly Algorithms Laboratory University ITMO, St. Petersburg, Russia September 2, 2013
  • 2. Genome assembly models Shortest common superstring – NP-hard. Shortest common superwalk in a de Bruijn graph – NP-hard. Superwalk in a de Bruijn graph with known edge multiplicities – NP-hard. Path in a paired de Bruijn graph?
  • 3. Paired de Bruijn graph TT CT TA TT AG TC GC CT CA TT AT TC TTA CTT TAG TTC AGC TCT GCA CTT CAT TTC ATT TCT TAT TTC CAG TTC
  • 4. Sound path Sound path: strings match with shift d = 6. TAGCTCACCCGTTGGT ACCCGTTGGTAATTGC Sound cycle: cyclic strings match with shift d = 6. TGATAAGTAGGCTAAG GTAGGCTAAGTGATAA
  • 5. Paired de Bruijn Sound Cycle Problem Given a paired de Bruijn graph G and an integer d (represented in unary coding), find if G has a sound cycle with respect to shift d.
  • 6. Paired de Bruijn Covering Sound Cycle Problem Given a paired de Bruijn graph G and an integer d (represented in unary coding), find if G has a covering sound cycle with respect to shift d.
  • 7. Parameters |Σ|: size of the alphabet. k: length of vertex labels. |V |, |E|: size of the graph (bounded in terms of |Σ| and k). d: shift distance.
  • 8. Simple cases |Σ| = 1: at most one vertex, at most one edge. k = 0: at most one vertex, at most |Σ|2 edges, reduces to the problem of computing strongly connected components. d is fixed: find a cycle in a graph of |V ||Σ|d states.
  • 9. Interesting case: k = 1 With fixed k = 1, the problem is NP-hard. Proof outline: 1. Reduce Hamiltonian Cycle Problem, which is NP-hard, to an intermediate problem. 2. Reduce that problem to Paired de Bruijn (Covering) Sound Cycle Problem.
  • 10. The intermediate problem Given an undirected graph, if it contains a hamiltonian cycle, output 1. if it doesn’t contain hamiltonian paths, output 0. otherwise, invoke undefined behavior.
  • 11. Solution, step 1 G1 G2 a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3
  • 12. Properties of a graph with a hamiltonian cycle Such graph contains hamiltonian paths ending at any vertex. passing through any edge. for any edge {i, j} and vertex k = i, j, passing through {i, j} such that j is between i and k on the path.
  • 13. Solution, step 2 V2n+2 s1 s2 V1 s2 s3 V2 . . . . . . s1. . . . . . . . . . . . s2. . . . . . . . . . . . s2. . . . . . . . . . . . s3. . . . . .
  • 14. Solution, step 2 In V1, V2n+2: i j −→ i j
  • 15. Solution, step 2 In V3. . . V2n+1: i
  • 16. How to make a covering cycle Pass along the loop multiple times, covering more and more edges with each iteration.
  • 17. Interesting case: |Σ| = 2 With fixed |Σ| = 2, the problem is NP-hard. The proof is done by reduction from the case k = 1. The characters are replaced with binary sequences, and a transformation is done to avoid undesired overlaps.
  • 18. Fix both k and |Σ| If both k and |Σ| are fixed, the number of different de Bruijn graphs is finite. The only argument which can take infinitely many values is d, and it is an integer represented in unary coding. As a result, the number of valid problem instances having any fixed length is bounded. So, the language defined by the problem is sparse. Therefore, the problem is not NP-hard unless P=NP.
  • 19. Results Paired de Bruijn (Covering) Sound Cycle Problem is NP-hard for any fixed k ≥ 1 (can be reduced from k = 1). NP-hard for any fixed |Σ| ≥ 2 (trivially reduced from |Σ| = 2). NP-hard in the general case.
  • 20. Results Paired de Bruijn (Covering) Sound Cycle Problem is Not NP-hard if both k and |Σ| are fixed, unless P=NP. Solvable in polynomial time if k = 0, |Σ| = 1, or d is fixed.
  • 21. Thank you!