Use Of Discussion Boards For Teaching And Learning

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  • In a blended learning environment e-learning activities must still provide significant support to our learners, the concept of scaffolding based on Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (1978) was kept at the forefront throughout the design stages, where possible social constructivist technological solutions were sought.
  • Cognitive Presence: Extent to which participants are able to construct meaning through sustained communication Social Presence The ability of learners to project their personal characteristics into the community Teaching Presence The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social presence for the purpose of realising personally meaningful and educational worthwhile learning outcomes
  • Use Of Discussion Boards For Teaching And Learning

    1. 1. Discussion Boards Federica Oradini Senior Learning Technologist Westminster Exchange CertEd/PGCE 19 March 2010
    2. 2. This is key <ul><li>‘ For online learning to be successful and happy, participants need to be supported through a structured developmental process. ’ (Salmon, 2002) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Discussion Boards <ul><li>Become more involved in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Allow to talk about, question, reaffirm and interact wit the course content and the perspective of other students </li></ul><ul><li>Public review = present and defend work </li></ul><ul><li>Increase participation </li></ul><ul><li>Provide time to think </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient way to archive and preserve discussion </li></ul><ul><li>FAQ and feedback before or after a lecture </li></ul>
    4. 4. Discussion Boards <ul><li>Simulate classroom discussion and by doing that foster : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling of Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Class Relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Skills </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Community of enquiry Garrison and Anderson, 2003
    6. 6. Cognitive Presence <ul><li>Purposeful interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion structured and cohesive </li></ul><ul><li>Spend time developing quality discuss. topics </li></ul><ul><li>Provide clear requirements for participation </li></ul><ul><li>(length, quantity, content expectation, timeliness) </li></ul><ul><li>Should it be assessed? (Rubric) </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 10 students </li></ul><ul><li>Student moderator </li></ul>
    7. 7. Social Presence <ul><li>Sense of community </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students to post introductions </li></ul><ul><li>Model what you expect from your students </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning greet students individually </li></ul><ul><li>Create a ‘Cafe’ area </li></ul><ul><li>Create a ‘Tech self-help’ area </li></ul><ul><li>Netiquette </li></ul>
    8. 8. Teaching Presence <ul><li>Encourage active learning and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Give prompt feedback (how often) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate expectations to students </li></ul><ul><li>You are the facilitator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim to establish a the climate for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt discussion and interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help by identifying areas of agreement and disagre. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist with reaching consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarise postings </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Motivating to participate <ul><li>Be clear about the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Make your expectation explicit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be clear about length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadlines should be clearly outlined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate number of postings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define what constitute an acceptable response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assign students to be moderators </li></ul><ul><li>Invite guests </li></ul><ul><li>Bring online conversation into F2F class </li></ul>
    10. 10. Examples of questions <ul><li>What do you see as the two key points made in the lecture and how do they relate to your own experience? </li></ul><ul><li>If you had to prioritise the three main points of the lecture, how would rank them in terms of importance and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Select one of the lecture points and offer an alternative perspective in two or three sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Post eReadings + specific questions </li></ul>
    11. 11. Rubric for asynchronous web activity 5 4 3 2 1 information posting Student has 3+ postings of new information / breaks info to be learned into digestible chunks Student has 2+ postings of new information / follows lead of another in breaking info into chunks Students has 1 posting of new information / only posts information to complete assignment Student posts 1 new piece of info incompletely or inaccurately / does not post new info group dialogue Communicates with others effectively, clearly, and respectfully / attempts to motivate group discussion with new and creative approaches / uses text support where appropriate Communicates with others / respectfully references at least 1 colleague; does not disrupt flow of group discussion / limited use of text support Limited communication with others / re-words or repeats others' posts or does not reference any specific colleagues / little to no text support Makes limited effort to engage with the group / may post off-topic / no references to text mechanics and style post is of appropriate length / effective word choice & sentence structure gives unique individual voice post is of inappropriate length / word choice and sentence structure contribute to an appropriate & effective voice word choice & sentence structure show little variety, diminishing sense of voice word choice & sentence structure interfere with meaning / voice is overly informal organization and timing post is on time and helps format organization of discussions post is on time and organized in format post is late or somewhat organized in format post is late; format obscures or prevents understanding of post 10 - 9 8 - 6 5 - 3 2 - 0 presentation Uses strong supports to present information clearly and accurately with creative flair Uses supports to present accurate and understandable information Uses limited supports to present information, but somewhat confused or muddled Does not use supports in presentation / information is not understandable Created by Colleen Ites with sections taken from &quot;Sample Blog Post Rubric&quot; by Stacy Kitsis, English Journal, November 2008 (34).
    12. 12. References <ul><li>Garrison, D. R., and T. Anderson . 2003. E-Learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice. London: Routledge Falmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Salmon, G . (2002) E-tivities: The Key to Active Online Learning, London, RoutledgeFalmer http://www.atimod.com/e-tivities/5stage.shtml (Accessed 22 March 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Further readings </li></ul><ul><li>Davie, L. (1989) ‘Facilitation techniques for the on-line tutor’, in Mason, R. and Kaye, A. (eds) Mindweave: Communication, Computers and Distance Education (online) Pergamon Press, Oxford, Chapter 6.  pp. 74-85. </li></ul><ul><li>Feenberg, A. (1989) ‘The Written World: On the Theory and Practice of Computer Conferencing’ (online), in Mason, R. and Kaye, A. (eds) Mindweave: Communication, Computers and Distance Education Pergamon Press, Oxford. Chapter 2. pp 22-39.   </li></ul><ul><li>Harasim, L. (1989) ‘On-line education: a new domain’ (online), in Mason, R. and Kaye, A. (eds) Mindweave: Communication, Computers and Distance Education , Pergamon Press, Oxford.  Chapter 4.  pp50-62.   </li></ul><ul><li>Kaye, A. (1989) ‘Computer-mediated communication and distance education’ (online), in Mason, R. and Kaye, A. (eds) Mindweave: Communication, Computers and Distance Education , Pergamon Press, Oxford. Chapter 1. pp 3-21. </li></ul>
    13. 13. References <ul><li>Further readings </li></ul><ul><li>Laurillard, D., Stratfold, M., Luckin, R., Plowman, L. and Taylor, J . (2000) Affordances for learning in a non-linear narrative medium (online). Journal of Interactive Media in Education available from: http://jime.open.ac.uk/00/2/laurillard-00-2-paper.html (accessed 22 March 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Rowntree, D. (1999) The tutor’s role in teaching via computer conferencing (online). Available from: http://iet-staff.open.ac.uk/D.G.F.Rowntree/Supporting%20online.htm (accessed 22 March 2010) </li></ul>

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