Tutorial: Internet Resource Management by Champika Wijayatunga, APNIC
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Tutorial: Internet Resource Management by Champika Wijayatunga, APNIC

  • 1,664 views
Uploaded on

This training introduces, highlights, and explains the key essentials of Internet resource management. It focuses on understanding the structures, processes, procedures, and policies involved in......

This training introduces, highlights, and explains the key essentials of Internet resource management. It focuses on understanding the structures, processes, procedures, and policies involved in requesting, allocating, and managing Internet addresses (IPv4 and IPv6) and Autonomous System (AS) numbers.

The course also includes aspects of the APNIC Whois Database, Reverse DNS delegations, and MyAPNIC address management tool.
Course outline

* Introduction to APNIC
* Internet registry policies
* Requesting IP addresses
* IP address management
* APNIC Whois Database
* MyAPNIC
* Autonomous System Numbers
* Reverse DNS delegations
* IPv6 overview

More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • Good information thanks.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,664
On Slideshare
1,660
From Embeds
4
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
32
Comments
1
Likes
0

Embeds 4

http://www.linkedin.com 4

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Internet  Resource  Management   Tutorial   21  February  2011   Sponsored  by    
  • 2. Presenter  •  Champika  Wijayatunga   Training  Manager,  APNIC   champika@apnic.net  
  • 3. Objec?ves   – To  provide  an  understanding  of  address   management     – To  provide  a  working  knowledge  of  the   procedures  for  reques?ng  resources  from   APNIC  and  managing  these   – To  keep  membership  up-­‐to-­‐date  with  the     latest  policies   – Liaise  with  members.  3  
  • 4. GeKng  to  know  us   WHAT  IS  APNIC?  4  
  • 5. What  is  APNIC?  •  APNIC  is  one  of  5  Regional  Internet  Registries   (RIRs)  around  the  world.  •  APNIC  takes  care  of  the  Asia  Pacific  region.  •  APNIC  is  a  non-­‐profit,  membership  based   organisa?on  •  Policies  are  proposed  and  agreed  upon  by  the   APNIC  community.  5  
  • 6. Where  Are  The  RIR  Regions?  6  
  • 7. Internet  Registry  Structure  7  
  • 8. What  is  APNIC’s  role?  •  APNIC  provides  resource  services  to  the  Asia   Pacific  Region   –  IPv4,  IPv6,  ASN   –  Maintains  the  Whois  database   –  Provides  reverse  DNS  delega?on  for  the  resources   allocated  to  the  region  8  
  • 9. What  Does  APNIC  Do?  •  APNIC  facilitates  the  policy  development   process   –  Via  mailing  lists  and  bi-­‐annual  mee?ngs  •  Implements  policy  changes   –  When  the  community  has  discussed  and  agreed   upon  them  9  
  • 10. What  else  does  APNIC  do?  •  APNIC  also  provides  informa?on    about  industry  related  ma[ers   –  Check  the  website  www.apnic.net   –  Join  the  mailing  lists   –  Read  the  publica?ons   –  A[end  mee?ngs  and  seminars  •  APNIC  provides  training  across  the  region  to  the   community  on  a  regular  basis   –  Face  to  face   –  Via  eLearning  10  
  • 11. What  are  the  Goals  of  the  RIRs?  •  The  Regional  Internet  Registries  have  been   charged  with  the  following  goals  for  the   number  resources  they  are  responsible  for:   –  Conserva?on   –  Aggrega?on   –  Registra?on  11  
  • 12. Internet  Resource   Management  Goals  •  Conserva?on   –  Efficient  use  of  resources   –  Based  on  demonstrated  need  •  Aggrega?on   –  Limit  rou?ng  table  growth   –  Support  provider-­‐based  rou?ng  •  Registra?on   –  Ensure  uniqueness   –  Facilitate  trouble  shoo?ng  12  
  • 13. IPv4  Address  Space   Internet  Number  Resource  Report   December  2010    
  • 14. Growth  Of  The  Global   Rou?ng  Table   h[p://bgp.potaroo.net/as1221/bgp-­‐ac?ve.html  14  
  • 15. Growth  Of  The  Global   Rou?ng  Table   Sustainable   growth?   Projected  rouDng   table  growth   Dot-­‐Com   without  CIDR   boom   CIDR   deployment   h[p://bgp.potaroo.net/as1221/bgp-­‐ac?ve.html  15  
  • 16. GETTING  ADDRESSES  16  
  • 17. How  Do  I  Get  Addresses?  •  Decide  what  kind  of  number  resources  you   need   –  IPv4,  IPv6  •  Check  the  criteria     –  On  the  website  www.apnic.net   –  Contact  the  helpdesk  helpdesk@apnic.net  •  Become  familiar  with  the  policies  •  Apply  for  membership  and  resources  17  
  • 18. Ini?al  IP  Address  Request  •  You  are  required  to  be  an  APNIC  member  in   order  to  ini?ate  your  IP  Address  Request.  •  However  you  can  apply  for  membership  and   an  ini?al  address  alloca?on  at  the  same  ?me.  •  h[p://www.apnic.net/services/become-­‐a-­‐ member  18  
  • 19. Why  Become  A  Member?  •     All  APNIC  members  have  equal  access  to  the  following  benefits  of  membership:   –  APNIC  services   –  APNIC  events  &  educa?on   –  Vote   –  Representa?on  19  
  • 20. APNIC  POLICIES  20  
  • 21. Alloca?on  And  Assignment  •  Alloca?on   –  “A  block  of  address  space  held  by  an  IR  (or   downstream  ISP)  for  subsequent  alloca?on  or   assignment”   •  Not  yet  used  to  address  any  networks  •  Assignment   –  “A  block  of  address  space  used  to  address  an   opera?onal  network”   •  May  be  provided  to  ISP  customers,  or  used  for  an  ISP’s   infrastructure  (‘self-­‐assignment’)  21  
  • 22. Alloca?on  And  Assignment   APNIC   Allocates     to  APNIC  Member   /8   APNIC  AllocaDon   APNIC  Member   /22   Allocates   Assigns   to  downstream   to  end-­‐user   Member  AllocaDon   /24   Downstream     Sub-­‐   Assigns     AllocaDon   to  end-­‐user   Customer  /  End  User   /27   /26   /25   /26   /27   Customer  Assignments  22  
  • 23. Portable  And  Non-­‐portable  •  Portable  Assignments   –  Customer  addresses  independent  from  ISP   •  Keeps  addresses  when  changing  ISP   –  Bad  for  size  of  rou?ng  tables  •  Non-­‐portable  Assignments   –  Customer  uses  ISP’s  address  space   •  Must  renumber  if  changing  ISP   –  Only  way  to  effec?vely  scale  the  Internet  23  
  • 24. Address  Management  Hierarchy  (IPv4)   APNIC  AllocaDon                  APNIC                                                  AllocaDon      /8  (IPv4)      /8  (IPv4)                  Portable   Non-­‐Portable                  Portable      Non-­‐Portable          Non-­‐Portable  24  
  • 25. Sub-­‐alloca?ons   APNIC  Member   AllocaDon   Sub-­‐allocaDon   Customer  Assignments   Customer  Assignments   •  No  max  or  min  size   –  Max  1  year  requirement   •  Assignment  Window  &  2nd  Opinion  applies     –  to  both  sub-­‐alloca?on  &  assignments   •  Sub-­‐alloca?on  holders  don’t  need  to  send  in  2nd  opinions    25  
  • 26. Address  Management  Hierarchy  (IPv6)                  Portable   Non-­‐Portable                  Portable      Non-­‐Portable          Non-­‐Portable  26  
  • 27. APNIC  Alloca?on  Policies  •  Aggrega?on  of  alloca?on   –  Provider  responsible  for  aggrega?on   –  Customer  assignments  /sub-­‐alloca?ons  must  be   non-­‐portable  •  Alloca?ons  based  on  demonstrated  need   –  Detailed  documenta?on  required   •  All  address  space  held  to  be  declared   –  Address  space  to  be  obtained  from  one  source   •  rou?ng  considera?ons  may  apply  27  
  • 28. Ini?al  IPv4  Alloca?on  •  APNIC  minimum  IPv4  alloca?on  size  /22   –  An  ISP  must  have  used  a  /24  from  their  upstream   provider  or  demonstrate  an  immediate  need  for   a  /24     –  An  ISP  must  demonstrate  a  detailed  plan  for  use   of  a  /23  within  a  year  28  
  • 29. Ini?al  IPv6  Alloca?on  •  To  qualify  for  an  ini?al  alloca?on  of  IPv6   address  space,  an  organiza?on  must:   –  Not  be  an  end  site  (must  provide  downstream   services)   –  Plan  to  provide  IPv6  connec?vity  to  organiza?ons   to  which  it  will  make  assignments  29  
  • 30. “One  Click”  IPv6  Policy   •  Members  with  IPv4  holdings  can  click  the   bu[on  in  MyAPNIC  to  instantly  receive  their   IPv6  block   –  No  forms  to  fill  out!   •  A  Member  that  has  an  IPv4  alloca?on  is   eligible  for  a  /32   •  A  Member  that  has  an  IPv4  assignment  is   eligible  for  a  /48  30  
  • 31. APNIC  Alloca?on  Policies  •  Transfer  of  address  space   –  Not  automa?cally  recognised   •  Return  unused  address  space  to  appropriate  IR  •  Effects  of  mergers,  acquisi?ons  &  take-­‐overs   –  Will  require  contact  with  IR  (APNIC)   •  contact  details  may  change   •  new  agreement  may  be  required   –  May  require  re-­‐examina?on  of  alloca?ons   •  requirement  depends  on  new  network  structure  31  
  • 32. Sub-­‐alloca?on  Guidelines  •  Sub-­‐allocate  cau?ously   –  Only  allocate  or  assign  what  the  customer  has   demonstrated  a  need  for   –  Seek  APNIC  advice  if  in  doubt  •  Efficient  assignments   –  Member  is  responsible  for  overall  u?lisa?on  •  Database  registra?on  (WHOIS  Db)   –  Sub-­‐alloca?ons  &  assignments  must  be  registered   in  the  whois  db  32  
  • 33. Portable  Assignments  for  IPv4  •  For  (small)  organisa?ons  who  require  a  portable   assignment  for  mul?-­‐homing  purposes   –  Applicants  currently  mul?homed  OR  demonstrate  a  plan  to     mul?home  within  1  month   APNIC   /8   –  Agree  to  renumber  out  of     previously  assigned  space   –  Demonstrate  need  to  use     /22   25%  of  requested  space     Member   immediately  and  50%     allocaDon   within  1  year   Non-­‐portable     assignment  33  
  • 34. Portable  Assignments  for  IPv6  •  For  (small)  organisa?ons  who  require  a   portable  assignment  for  mul?-­‐homing   purposes   –  The  current  policy  allows  for  IPv6  portable   assignment  to  end-­‐sites     APNIC   /12   –  Size:  /48,  or  a  shorter     prefix  if  the  end  site  can     /32   jus?fy  it   Member   allocaDon   –  To  be  mul?homed  within     Non-­‐portable     3  months   assignment  34  
  • 35. IXP  IPv4  Assignments  Policy    •  Criteria   –  3  or  more  peers   –  Demonstrate  “open  peering  policy”  •  APNIC  has  reserved  blocks  of  space  from   which  to  make  IXP  assignments  35  
  • 36. IXP  IPv6  Assignment  Policy  •  Criteria   –  Demonstrate  ‘open  peering  policy’   –  3  or  more  peers    •  Portable  assignment  size:  /48     –  All  other  needs  should  be  met  through  normal   processes   –  /64  holders  can  “upgrade”  to  /48   •  Through  NIRs/  APNIC   •  Need  to  return  /64  36  
  • 37. Portable  Cri?cal  Infrastructure   Assignments  •  What  is  Cri?cal  Internet  Infrastructure?   –  Domain  Registry  Infrastructure     •  Operators  of  Root  DNS,  gTLD,  and  ccTLD   –  Address  Registry  Infrastructure     •  IANA,  RIRs  &  NIRs  •  Why  a  specific  policy  ?     –  Protect  stability  of  core  Internet  func?on  •  Assignment  sizes:   –  IPv4:  /24  or  IPv6:  /32  37  
  • 38. WHERE  DO  POLICIES  COME  FROM?  38  
  • 39. Policies  and  their  Development  •  Policies  are  constantly  changing  the  meet  the   technical  needs  of  the  Internet  •  There  is  a  system  in  place  called  the  Policy   Development  Process   –  Anyone  can  par?cipate   –  Anyone  can  propose  a  policy   –  All  decisions  &  policies  documented  &  freely   available  to  anyone  39  
  • 40. Why  Par?cipate  In  Policy   Development?  This  is  your  opportunity  to  comment  on  policies  that  may  directly  affect  the  way  your  organisa?on  obtains,  manages  and  deploys  Internet  resources  40  
  • 41. You  Can  Par?cipate!  •  Send  a  proposal  to  the  Secretariat    •  Discuss  proposals  via  public  mailing  lists   –  h[p://www.apnic.net/community/par?cipate/ join-­‐discussions  •  A[end  mee?ngs   –  h[p://mee?ngs.apnic.net/31   –  Remote  par?cipa?on  available  41  
  • 42. Policy  Development  Process  42  
  • 43. From  Regional  to  Global  Policies  While  RIRs  and  their  respec?ve  communi?es  are  responsible  for  policies  specific  to  their  regions,  there  are  ?mes  when  a  policy  needs  to  be  global.    43  
  • 44. Global  Policy  Coordina?on  44  
  • 45. APNIC31  Policy  Proposals  •  prop-­‐083:  Alterna?ve  criteria  for  subsequent  IPv6  alloca?ons    •  prop-­‐084:  Frequent  whois  informa?on  update  request    •  prop-­‐085:  Eligibility  for  cri?cal  infrastructure  assignments  from  the  final  /8  •  prop-­‐086:  Global  Policy  for  IPv4  Alloca?ons  by  the  IANA  Post  Exhaus?on  •  prop-­‐087:  IPv6  address  alloca?on  for  deployment  purposes    •  prop-­‐088:  Distribu?on  of  IPv4  addresss  once  the  final  /8  period  starts  •  prop-­‐089:  Addi?onal  criterion  for  final  /8  alloca?ons  (and  assignments)  •  prop-­‐090:  Op?mizing  IPv6  Alloca?on  Strategies  
  • 46. APNIC31  Policy  Proposals  •  prop-­‐091:  Limi?ng  of  final  /8  policy  to  specific  /9    •  prop-­‐092:  Distribu?on  of  addi?onal  APNIC  IPv4  address  ranges  aser  IANA   exhaus?on    •  prop-­‐093:  Reducing  the  minimum  delega?on  size  for  the  final  /8  policy  •  prop-­‐094:  Adding  alterna?ve  criteria  to  renumbering  requirement  in  final  / 8  policy    •  prop-­‐095:  Inter-­‐RIR  IPv4  address  transfer  proposal    •  prop-­‐096:  Maintaining  demonstrated  needs  requirement  in  transfer  policy   aser  the  final  /8  phase  •   prop-­‐097:  Global  Policy  for  post  exhaus?on  IPv4  alloca?on  mechanisms  by   the  IANA  
  • 47. SUPPORTING  INTERNET   DEVELOPMENT  47  
  • 48. Projects  -­‐  Root  Server  Deployment  – A  number  of  mirrored  root  server  sites  have   been  placed  into  the  Asia  Pacific  region  – Lowers  the  transit  cost  by  using  a  nearby   instance  of  a  root  server  – The  sites  are  par?ally  or  fully  funded  by  APNIC,   but  operate  as  "anycast"  mirror  copies  of   exis?ng  Root  servers,  by  the  applicable  root   server  operator  48  
  • 49. Grants  For  Community  Support  •  The  Informa?on  Society  Innova?on  Fund  is  a   small  grants  program  funding  innova?ve   approaches  to  the  extension  of  Internet   infrastructure  and  services  in  the  Asia  Pacific   region     –     19  projects  have  been  funded  since  Jan  2009   –     ISIF  is  ac?vely  seeking  sponsorship  to        support  innova?on  in  the  Asia  Pacific  region  49  
  • 50. Community  Collabora?on   •  Internet  Community  of  Online  Networking   Specialists  (ICONS)  website  provides  an   opportunity  to  share  informa?on  on   networking  topics   •  The  ICONS  site  contains:   –  An  online  forum   h[p://icons.apnic.net   –  Documents  and  presenta?ons   –  Links  to  interes?ng  external  material  50  
  • 51. Community  Collabora?on  -­‐  TTM    •  The  Test  Traffic  Measurement  (TTM)  •  Con?nuously  monitors  connec?vity  between   the  host  and  the  rest  of  the  Internet.    •  This  project  is  in  collabora?on  with  RIPE  NCC   www.apnic.net/community/support/[m  51  
  • 52. Resource  Quality  Assurance  •  APNIC  acts  to  minimize  any  problems  in   routability  through  communica?on,  training,   and  tes?ng  •  Tes?ng  for  new  /8  blocks   –  NOC  mailing  lists  no?fica?on   –  Collabora?ve  tes?ng  conducted  by  APNIC  R&D  in   conjunc?on  with  different  organiza?ons   –  APNIC  conducts  further  tes?ng,  to  quan?fy  the   extent  to  which  networks  a[ract  “pollu?on”  or   “unwanted”  traffic  
  • 53. Resource  Quality  Assurance•  Community  awareness   –  Promote responsible administrative practices through  APNIC  publica?ons  and  training  materials –  Inform organizations that maintain bogon/ black lists about the changes for recently allocated addresses so they update their DB –  Keep the Whois Database accurate •  Actively remind resource holders to update their data
  • 54. Resource  Quality  Assurance  •  Is  a  collabora?ve  effort,  you  can:   –  Follow  responsible  network  administra?on   prac?ces  to  protect  users  from  abuse  and  security   a[acks,  while  allowing  legi?mate  traffic  to  flow   and  reach  its  intended  des?na?on     –  Talk  to  your  customers,  upstreams  and  peers   –  Keep  informed  about  IANA  alloca?ons   –  Consider  whether  you  should  stop  any  form  of   bogon  filtering  
  • 55. MYAPNIC  55  
  • 56. MyAPNIC   A  day-­‐to-­‐day  tool  to  manage  your  APNIC   account  and  resources  56  
  • 57. MyAPNIC  Func?ons  •  Resource  informa?on   –  IPv4   –  IPv6   –  ASN  •  Administra?on   –  Membership  detail   –  Contact  persons   –  Billing  history  57  
  • 58. MyAPNIC  Func?ons  (cont.)  •  Training   –  Training  history     –  Training  registra?on  •  Tools   –  Looking  Glass   –  MD5   –  Prefix  Report  58  
  • 59. AUTONOMOUS  SYSTEM  NUMBERS  59  
  • 60. What  Is  An  Autonomous  System?  •  Collec?on  of  networks  with  same  rou?ng  policy  •  Usually  under  single  ownership,  trust  or   administra?ve  control  60  
  • 61. When  Do  I  Need  An  ASN?  •  An  ASN  is  needed  if  you  have  a     –  Mul?-­‐homed  network  to  different  providers  AND   –  Rou?ng  policy  different  to  external  peers   *    For  more  informa?on  please  refer  to  RFC1930:  Guidelines   for  crea?on,  selec?on  and  registra?on  of  an  Autonomous   System  61  
  • 62. Reques?ng  An  ASN  •  Complete  the  request  form   –  Check  with  peers  if  they  can  handle  4  byte  ASN   –  Exis?ng  members  send  the  request  from  MyAPNIC   –  New  Members  can  send  AS  request  along  with   membership  applica?on  •  Transfers  of  ASNs   –  Require  legal  documenta?on  (mergers  etc)  62  
  • 63. Reques?ng  An  AS  Number  •  If  a  member  requests  an  ASN  from  APNIC  for   own  network  infrastructure   –  AS  number  is  “portable”    •  If  a  member  requests  an  ASN  from  APNIC  for   its  downstream  customer  network   –  ASN  is  “non-­‐portable”   –  ASN  is  returned  if  the  customer  changes  provider  63  
  • 64. REVERSE  DNS  DELEGATIONS  64  
  • 65. What  is  ‘Reverse  DNS’?  •  ‘Forward  DNS’  maps  names  to  numbers   –  svc00.apnic.net  -­‐>  202.12.28.131  •  ‘Reverse  DNS’  maps  numbers  to  names   –  202.12.28.131  -­‐>  svc00.apnic.net  
  • 66. Reverse  DNS  -­‐  why  bother?  •  Service  denial   •  That  only  allow  access  when  fully  reverse  delegated  eg.   anonymous  sp  •  Diagnos?cs   •  Assis?ng  in  trace  routes  etc  •  SPAM  iden?fica?ons  •  Registra?on  responsibili?es  
  • 67. Principles  –  DNS  tree   net edu com arpa sg apnic in-addrwhois whois RIR 202 202 203 210 211.. ISP 64 64 22 .64 .202 .in-addr .arpa Customer 22 22
  • 68. Reverse  delega?on  requirements  •  /24  Delega?ons   •  Address  blocks  should  be  assigned/allocated   •  At  least  two  name  servers  •  /16  Delega?ons   •  Same  as  /24  delega?ons   •  APNIC  delegates  en?re  zone  to  member  •  <  /24  Delega?ons   •  Read  “classless  in-­‐addr.arpa  delega?on”   RFC 2317
  • 69. APNIC  &  ISPs  responsibili?es  •  APNIC   –  Manage  reverse  delega?ons  of  address  block   distributed  by  APNIC     –  Process  organisa?ons  requests  for  reverse  delega?ons   of  network  alloca?ons  •  Organisa?ons   –  Be  familiar  with  APNIC  procedures   –  Ensure  that  addresses  are  reverse-­‐mapped   –  Maintain  nameservers  for  alloca?ons   •  Minimise  pollu?on  of  DNS  
  • 70. Reverse  delega?on  procedures  •  Standard  APNIC  database  object,     –  can  be  updated  through  myAPNIC.  •  Nameserver/domain  set  up  verified  before  being  submi[ed  to   the  database.  •  Protec?on  by  maintainer  object   –  (current  auths:    CRYPT-­‐PW,  PGP).  •  Any  queries   –  Contact  <helpdesk@apnic.net>  
  • 71. Whois  domain  object   Reverse Zonedomain: 28.12.202.in-addr.arpadescr: in-addr.arpa zone for 28.12.202.in-addr.arpaadmin-c: DNS3-AP Contactstech-c: DNS3-APzone-c: DNS3-APnserver: ns.telstra.netnserver: rs.arin.netnserver: ns.myapnic.net Namenserver: svc00.apnic.net Serversnserver: ns.apnic.netmnt-by: MAINT-APNIC-APmnt-lower: MAINT-DNS-APchanged: inaddr@apnic.net 19990810 Maintainerssource: APNIC (protection)
  • 72. Removing  lame  delega?ons  •  Objec?ve   –  To  repair  or  remove  persistently  lame  DNS   delega?ons    •  DNS  delega?ons  are  lame  if:   –  Some  or  all  of  the  registered  DNS  nameservers  are   unreachable  or  badly  configured  •  APNIC  has  formal  implementa?on  of  the  lame   DNS  reverse  delega?on  procedures    
  • 73. IPV6  OVERVIEW  73  
  • 74. Mo?va?on  Behind  IPv6  Protocol     •  New  genera?on  Internet  need:   –  Plenty  of  address  space  (PDA,  Mobile  Phones,   Tablet  PC,  Car,  TV  etc  etc  )     –  Solu?on  of  very  complex  hierarchical  addressing   need,  which  IPv4  is  unable  provide   –  End  to  end  communica?on  without  the  need  of   NAT  for  some  real  ?me  applica?on  i.e  online   transac?on       –  Ensure  security,  reliability  of  data  and  faster   processing  of  protocol  overhead  74  
  • 75. New  Func?onal  Improvement  In  IPv6   •  Address  Space     –  Increase  from  32-­‐bit  to  128-­‐bit  address  space   •  Management   –  Stateless  autoconfigura?on  means  no  more  need   to  configure  IP  addresses  for  end  systems,  even   via  DHCP   •  Performance   –  Fixed  header  sizes  (40  byte)  and  64-­‐bit  header   alignment  mean  be[er  performance  from  routers   and  bridges/switches  75   Source:  h[p://www.opus1.com/ipv6/wha?sipv6.html  
  • 76. Protocol  Header  Comparison    •  IPv4  contain  10  basic  header  field  •  IPv6  contain  6  basic  header  field  •  IPv6  header  has  40  octets  in  contrast  to  the  20  octets  in  IPv4  •  So  a  smaller  number  of  header  fields  and  the  header  is  64-­‐bit  aligned  to   enable  fast  processing  by  current  processors    76   Diagram  Source:  www.cisco.com  
  • 77. IPv6  addressing  •  128  bits  of  address  space  •  Hexadecimal  values  of  eight  16  bit  fields   •  X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X    (X=16  bit  number,  ex:  A2FE)   •  16  bit  number  is  converted  to  a  4  digit  hexadecimal  number  •  Example:   •  FE38:DCE3:124C:C1A2:BA03:6735:EF1C:683D   –  Abbreviated  form  of  address   •  4EED:0023:0000:0000:0000:036E:1250:2B00   •  →4EED:23:0:0:0:36E:1250:2B00   •  →4EED:23::36E:1250:2B00   •  (Null  value  can  be  used  only  once)  
  • 78. IPv6  Addressing  Structure   128  bits  0   127   32   16   16   64   ISP   /32   Customer     Site  /48   Device  /128   Subnet  /64  
  • 79. IPv6  u?lisa?on     •  U?lisa?on  determined  from  end  site   assignments   –  ISP  responsible  for  registra?on  of  all  /48   assignments   –  Intermediate  alloca?on  hierarchy  not  considered   •  U?lisa?on  of  IPv6  address  space  is  measured   differently  from  IPv4   –  Use  HD  ra?o  to  measure   •  Subsequent  alloca?on  may  be  requested   when  IPv6  u?lisa?on  requirement  is  met  79
  • 80. FINISHING  UP  80  
  • 81. Need  any  help?  
  • 82. Member Services Helpdesk- One point of contact for all member enquiries- Online chat servicesHelpdesk  hours     9:00  am  -­‐  9:00  pm  (AU  EST,  UTC  +  10  hrs)   ph:  +61  7  3858  3188  fax:  61  7  3858  3199  •  More  personalised  service   –  Range  of  languages:    Bahasa  Indonesia,  Bengali,  Cantonese,  English,  Hindi,  Mandarin,  Thai,     etc.      •  Faster  response  and  resolu4on  of  queries   –  IP  resource  applica?ons,  status  of  requests,  obtaining  help  in   comple?ng  applica?on  forms,    membership  enquiries,  billing  issues  &   database  enquiries    
  • 83. APNIC  Helpdesk  chat  
  • 84. APNIC  Website  84  
  • 85. Summary  •  APNIC  is  the  Regional  Internet  Registry  for  the  APNIC   region  •  APNIC  (the  Secretariat)  facilitates  the  Policy   Development  process  •  Members  have  access  to  APNIC  services  including  IP   addresses,  ASN  numbers,  MyAPNIC  tools  and   subsidized  training  •  APNIC  helps  members  to  create  Reverse  Delega?ons  •  APNIC  encourages  organisa?ons  to  request  for  IPv6   addresses  •  APNIC  is  involved  in  various  projects  in  the  APNIC   region  85  
  • 86. Ques?ons?  86  
  • 87. Thank  You!    <champika@apnic.net>