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Em Anate Issue2

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    Em Anate Issue2 Em Anate Issue2 Document Transcript

    • emanate ISSUE 02 February 2009 The Magazine of the Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Association EMA to Organize Life after Global Photo-Competition its First Thematic ‘Mundus’ Warming Capturing Changing Conference Climates Changing Perspectives of Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Climates
    • Introduction Many Perspectives on Erasmus Mundus ’Changing Climates’ Changing The theme of this second edition of Emanate is ’Changing Climates’. Last year the EMA Magazine Team invited all mem- bers of the Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Association (EMA) to make their personal interpretation of the theme and send in articles and photos which they would like to share with the EMA community. The team is very grateful for all the interest and the numerous contributions – and we hope you, as reader of this magazine, will enjoy diving into the many In its own unique way Erasmus different perspectives on ‘Changing Climates’ presented in Mundus is all about ’Changing Cli- this edition. We feel this issue truly reflects the diversity of mates’ – just as this edition of Ema- Erasmus Mundus students and alumni – not only because of nate is. The rare opportunity to live the many ways of approaching the theme, but also because and study in several European coun- of the numerous nationalities and disciplines that the authors tries within one master programme represent. is certainly an example of students Many contributors have chosen to reflect on climate change changing climates; not only with re- and its serious consequences for the environment and hu- spect to weather and temperature, manity. Climate change is high on the agenda – also in the but also with respect to cultures and minds and professional lives of Erasmus Mundus students and learning environments. The Erasmus alumni. On February 26th and 27th 2009 many EMA members Mundus experience challenges the will gather in Budapest to attend the very first EMA confer- cultural and intellectual skills of ence. This major event will address the role of higher educa- its students and produces unique graduates with amazing tion institutions in addressing climate change questions, and abilities to adapt to very different cultural and professional the potential of multidisciplinary solutions. In Budapest the circumstances. debate launched in this issue of Emanate will continue. The Erasmus Mundus concept itself is going through a We hope you will enjoy reading the second edition of change of climate. Next year a new round of Erasmus Mun- Emanate! dus (2009-2013) will begin. Novelties in the second round will include scholarships for Europeans, doctorate pro- The EMA Magazine Team grammes and more cooperation with universities in third countries. The EMA is looking forward to a new chapter of Erasmus Mundus beginning next year. The Emanate Team are (from left to right): Magazine Team Coordinator Rikke Skovgaard Andersen, Denmark | Karel Van Acoleyen, Belgium | Michael Eshiemokhai, Nigeria Jasmine Kang, India | Gregor Lichtfuss, Germany | Amber Parker, New Zealand | Zachary Rothstein, US Natasha Sardzoska, Macedonia | Valentina Villoria, Venezuela | Luca Zanaica, Italy 2 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Table of Contents and Table of limates Contents News from EMA The theme of this edition is – obvi- 2nd General Assembly in Italy: The EMA Keeps Growing................................................. 4 ously – also about one of humanity’s Feedback is Crucial – Student Survey from the EMA General Assembly ..................... 5 greatest challenges: climate change. Dancing Samba Together .......................................................................................................... 6 On the 26th and 27th of February, Er- Mexican Alumnus is New Vice-President of the EMA ...................................................... 7 asmus Mundus students and alumni will Together in Jakarta ...................................................................................................................... 8 gather at the Central European Univer- Does Erasmus Mundus Make a Difference? ......................................................................... 9 sity in Budapest to discuss how higher The Key to a Technologically Advanced Future .................................................................10 education can provide a response to cli- EMA at the Far End of the World .......................................................................................... 11 mate change. This is the first major EMA conference, with a highly salient topic. Climate Change Nowadays most academic disciplines are, in one way or another, concerned with climate change and the “Erasmus EMA to Organize its First Thematic Conference ...............................................................12 Mundus Conference – Higher Education Harvesting the Crops.................................................................................................................13 and Climate Change” will be a meeting Climate Change in the Arctic ................................................................................................14 place for EMA members of many differ- Climate Change in India – a Need for a Rights-Based Approach ................................15 ent backgrounds. Is Climate Change more Important than Environment? ................................................16 I hope you will enjoy reading this sec- Fruitful Future? Great Grapes to Wonderful Wine ...........................................................18 ond edition of Emanate. Experience in the Field: Internships at the UN Institutions ..........................................20 Climates of the Mundus...........................................................................................................21 HANNEKE A. LUTH Life after Global (“Mundus”) Warming ................................................................................22 President Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Higher Education News Association (EMA) Erasmus Mundus Round 2 – In Action! ...............................................................................23 Photo Competition The EMA Photo Competition ..................................................................................................24 Your Say Global Citizenship: Benefits and Challenges......................................................................26 India, the next Superpower: Myth or Reality?...................................................................28 International Health from within Germany ......................................................................30 3
    • News from EMA 2nd General Assembly in Italy: The EMA Keeps Growing by RIKKE SKOVGA ARD ANDERSEN, EMA Magazine Team Coordinator A new round of Erasmus Mundus, the launch of EMA regional chap- ters, Brazilian samba and a photo exhibition – these were just a few of the ingredients for this year’s biggest EMA event Delegates of Erasmus Mundus Master Courses The 2nd EMA General for Foreigners in Perugia the 2nd EMA at the 2nd EMA General Assembly. Assembly... General Assembly (hosted by EMA) and 4th Student Seminar (hosted by the Eu- and the 4th Erasmus Mundus Student ropean Commission) took place in Italy. Seminar were held in Perugia, Italy on The major Erasmus Mundus event coin- the 6th and 7th of June 2008. More cided with ‘Studybox’, the 1st European than 150 Erasmus Mundus students and Forum on the right to university study Welcome to EMA Regional Chapters alumni - delegates of courses, EMA serv- and was part of the local university’s ice team representatives, regional chap- celebration of the European Year of In- ter representatives and observers - made tercultural Dialogue. For Erasmus Mun- The event in Perugia proved to be an excellent example of the journey to Perugia, Italy, to attend dus students and alumni it were two the fact that the EMA keeps growing. EMA China and EMA the most important EMA event in 2008. days of serious debates, lots of fun and Latin America (EMA-LA) Chapters and the Erasmus Mundus On the kind invitation of the University networking with old and new friends. Association of India (EMAI) introduced themselves and shared their activities planned for the next year. Furthermore, some enthusiastic EMA members decided to start building pro- chapter teams in order to create new chapters. These teams Contact the EMA regional chapters Contact the pro-chapter teams were: Africa, Community of Independent States (CIS), and and associations North America. All of them are glad to welcome new people North America to their networks. EMA China Ryan Bushek | naema.info@gmail.com Mengmeng Cui Community of Independent States A New Round of Erasmus Mundus mengmeng.c@gmail.com Denis Popov | denis.a.popov@gmail.com EMA Latin America Southeast Asia Tahia Devisscher | info@ema-la.eu Iqbal Akbar / Chaidarun Iamphak Another big theme for the two days in Perugia was the sec- EMA African Chapter erasmusmundus.sea@gmail.com ond round of Erasmus Mundus which is scheduled to begin Karen Basiye in 2009. Among the speakers was Member of the European karen.basiye@mespom.eu Contact the regional networks Parliament, Allesandro Battilocchio (Italy), who has been EMA of India writing a report on the proposal for the new Erasmus Mun- Vijita Aggarwal Oceania dus programme for the European Parliament’s Committee on vijitaaggarwal@yahoo.com Gregor Lichtfuss | gregor@lichtfuss.eu Development. Mr. Battilocchio presented some of his conclu- sions and discussed the programme with the students and alumni present. 4 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • News from EMA Feedback is Crucial Student Survey Results from the EMA General Assembly in Perugia At the EMA General Assembly in Pe- rugia in June 2008, student and alumni representatives were asked to complete a survey evaluating their experiences at each university they attended within their Erasmus Mundus (EM) consortium. The questions asked respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 (with 1 = Poor, 3 some students in EM master’s courses = Satisfactory and 5 = Excellent) their with high tuition fees found the schol- experiences on Arrival and Settling, arship to be grossly inadequate. Local Culture, University Experience & Courses and the adequacy of the EM Many prospective students have had Scholarship. Student and alumni repre- difficulty finding information on stu- sentatives were also asked to answer a dent experiences in specific EM master’s series of open questions relating to their courses. While there is ample evidence overall experiences. The EMA received from the EMA survey and others which Making new friends in Perugia. 59 survey responses and is pleased with indicates that Erasmus Mundus is work- the overall positive feedback. ing well overall, it is less clear whether this general experience is true for all The average rating for Arrival and Set- EM master’s courses and all universi- tling was 3.6 with most respondents ties within them. As the EMA survey reporting positive experiences relating evaluated student experiences at each Between Cultures in to their welcoming from the host uni- university, the most interesting finding Photos… and Samba! versity. The price of student housing and was the variation in ratings given by re- assistance from the university in secur- spondents across different universities Next to the debates on regional chap- ing appropriate housing (particularly for within their consortium. ters and the new Erasmus Mundus students with families), were the areas programme the trip to Perugia also of greatest concern identified in the This initial survey was designed by the included plenty of social and cultural survey and written feedback. On expe- EMA Policy Team as a first step towards events. Among other things there was rience with Local Culture the average the involvement of the EMA into course an exhibition of 10 photos from the first response was 3.3 with most students quality and student feedback. The EMA EMA photo competition which provided reporting positively on integrating with will continue to work closely with the some insight into the rich multicultural local culture, but having greater diffi- European Commission to develop an life of Erasmus Mundus. Another suc- culties learning the local language and online survey and feedback system for cessful social event was a concert with interacting with local students. the EMA website, which will provide Brazilian singer Selma Hernandez who prospective students with more courses inspired a room full of Erasmus Mundus Most students rated highly the aca- and university specific information. The students to dance samba! demic opportunities in their master’s EMA has an important role to play in A big thanks to the University of For- course with University Experience & gathering honest, accurate and objec- eigners and the Project Erasmus Perugia Courses receiving an average rating of tive feedback directly from its members for their help and hospitality. 3.7. In particular, experiences were very and would like to thank everyone who positive regarding student-professor took the time to provide critical feed- Would you like to know more about relations, academic quality and overall back in Perugia. the conclusions from Perugia? academic experience. The survey found Please visit www.em-a.eu for minutes the EM Scholarship to be broadly ad- of the General Assembly and results of equate, receiving an average rating of About the authors: the statute voting. 3.3. This rating however varied greatly Peter Bentley is a student in the European among survey respondents, notably Master’s Programme in Higher Education. 5
    • News from EMA Dancing Samba Together How can a Samba dance be compared with the feel- ing of “we can change the world”? It might be a matter of rhythm, at least if you can follow it. Or maybe it is not the samba, but being together with Erasmus Mundus friends that gives you the powerful feeling It is a usual cliché that when one comes out of the university, one stops experimenting with life. Experiments which enable us to deviate from norms and embark on the path we are happy with. We somehow make ourselves believe that after education, we are entering a real world which will not tol- erate our happy-go-lucky nature and would not accept the changes we propose. We will have to fit in the system. Hence we stop trying anything new and just go with the flow losing the capacity for changes. More than one year has passed since I finished my Erasmus Mundus Master programme and I came back to reality. I have been no different, until my trip to Perugia for EMA General Assembly. There I felt that energy inside me again. Energy that makes me feel things can change and I can be part of that change again. The energy that once made me feel that I can change myself. It was the EMA event that refilled me with energy and reignited my creativity. Now I felt it again, that things can change. I met people that will accompany me and give me strength and energy to keep following the plans for a future. Now I am more aware of things that were preventing me; I was afraid of heights, speaking in front of the people, fearing nobody would agree with me and was getting used to agreeing with anything that life gave me. But the push that I received from my peers during the event gave me hope, as the audience was broad and open-minded to others’ opin- ions and different points of view. It is the magic of Erasmus, of both Erasmus and Erasmus Mundus programmes, that one 6 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • News from EMA by RIKKE SKOVGA ARD ANDERSEN, EMA Magazine Team Coordinator Mexican Alumnus is New can be accepted with less prejudgement Vice-President because everybody understands that we all are different and everybody comes with good intentions. of the EMA Once a friend told me that there are turning points in life when everything looks very fragile, however those can become important if you take advan- tage. For me, one of these points was Chapters, course associations and networking Erasmus Mundus. It was fragile because with other student and academic organizations I found an alternative way to live my life, a moment where everything was are on the agenda of the newly elected Vice- possible because we started believing President of the EMA: Ricardo Chávez Medellín in change and living a dream that the world now belonged to us. Within the from Mexico event, I saw new ideas being accepted, discussed, speculated, supported and pushed … It was fragile because I don’t see it everyday, not since I came back One of the outcomes of the 2008 EMA home to reality as I used to say, after the General Assembly was a decision to in- Masters programme. vite motivated EMA members to apply for the position as Vice-President of A samba concert at the impressive the EMA. In October last year the EMA Aula Magna of the University of Peru- Steering Committee selected Ricardo gia also taught me something. At the Chávez Medellín, a Mexican alumnus beginning we all sat on our seats and from the Joint European Masters in listened. But little after, there were Materials Science, as the association’s some people who started to move their new Vice-President. Ricardo is currently feet. They were not afraid of looking ri- a Ph.D. student at Darmstadt University diculous while moving with the rhythm. of Technology in Germany. We had the Many were moving in their own cultur- chance to ask Ricardo a few questions Ricardo Chávez Medellín al style. I couldn’t help myself and also about his background and visions for did some flamenco steps, luckily oth- the EMA: ers started following me, which made What will be your three top priori- me even stronger. We were moving What inspired you to run for the ties as Vice-President? together at the same rhythm with joy position as Vice-President of the Chávez: First of all I want to consoli- and „allegria“ - the word that often is EMA? date and to further develop the Region- used in samba songs. The scene was Chávez: There were actually two main al Chapters within the EMA structure. peculiar and beautiful because it came reasons. Firstly, I had the chance to see Then, secondly, I would like to promote form our energy inside. the process that led to the formation of the interaction between Course Repre- EMA. Since its beginning, the EMA has sentatives and EMA Steering Committee. It was a moment in life that took my shown a lot of potential and this deeply Lastly, it is my goal to create stronger dark side away and gave me a ray of impressed me. Therefore, I decided to ties between the EMA and other student light that would change my life. contribute as much as possible to its and academic organizations. further development. Secondly, I had the chance to serve as the Vice-presi- Where do you see the EMA in 10 dent of the Latin American Chapter. In years? this position, I got some experience of Chávez: I see EMA in 10 years as a dy- the development of regional chapters namic and well-known organization and their interaction with third-party with world-wide presence in which all About the authors: institutions and I would like to share its members contribute with their en- Andrea Piehl Harms is an alumna of the this experience with the rest of the EMA thusiasm and ideas to its further devel- Joint Master in Water and Coastal Man- community. opment. agement Programme. 7
    • News from EMA Biking trip around the center of Old Batavia ing intercultural experiences in a more Together in local sense. From the city trip, alumni Jakarta went for dinner at a famous Indone- sian ethnic restaurant, Lara Djonggrang. During this occasion, alumni discussed various key issues and agreed to launch the EMA Southeast Asia (SEA) chapter. This new chapter has several goals such as to enhance EM promotion to new Fifteen Erasmus Mundus alumni visited students and employers; trigger coop- eration between alumni and EU in vari- the Indonesian capital, Jakarta, to pro- ous local projects; and provide feedback to EMMC coordinators about the pro- mote the programme and lay the foun- gram. The participants agreed that the launching of SEA chapter will bring es- sential benefit not only to the regional dations for the establishment of EMA community but also to the EMA com- munity as a whole. Southeast Asian chapter Working as a team with fellow alumni On 1–2 November 2008, EMA held its 3rd networking event, the adequacy of the materials around was fun. Although the members had coinciding with the European Higher Education Fair (EHEF) the booth. EM also had a scheduled 55- never met before, the studies in Europe in Jakarta. 14 EMA members from Indonesia, Malaysia, the minute presentation, given by Mr. Koen certainly brought them together as a Philippines, and Thailand, plus one EMA Steering Committee Nomden (Education, Audiovisual and solid team. Being from different courses member came to Jakarta for this purpose. The fair was attended Culture Executive Agency, Brussels) and was a great advantage because inquiries by 88 education institutions from 20 countries, plus 1 booth Ms. Jennifer Lenhart (EMA promotions for particular programs can be referred from European Union. In the EU booth, EMA work hand-in- team). to fellow alumni. hand with the local European Commission (EC) delegation to The whole event was exhilarating and introduce Erasmus Mundus (EM), answer questions from pro- The networking event was held on had an incredible turnout. The allocat- spective students and parents, and share experiences of study- the first day and included a short city ed 1 seminar room was never enough; ing in Europe. EC’s support was excellent. They provided a vari- trip and dinner in the evening. During hence we utilized both seminar rooms. ety of promotional materials and were continuously monitoring the city trip, alumni explored the Old In addition, we also held an extra pres- Batavia which refers to the old name of entation session on day 2. The seminar Jakarta. The journey began with a little rooms were packed during each session. tour of museum Bank Mandiri, which The visitor count reached 15,000 (from was an old Dutch trading company, built expected of 4,000) for the two days – a with art-nouveau architecture that was smashing success on all counts. once famous in the early 20th century. To get more acquainted with the fine About the authors: details of this architecture, a black- Yansen Darmaputra is an alumnus of and-white movie made in 1941 was the Joint European Master’s Programme shown. Afterwards, the alumni went in Clinical Linguistics, Abigail Yao is an on a half-hour biking trip around the alumna from the CoMundus Programme center of Old Batavia. These joyful mo- and Iqbal Akbar is an alumnus from the ments indeed brought friendship among European Masters in Nuclear Fusion Sci- the alumni and an opportunity for shar- EMA members in Batik (traditional cloth from Indonesia) ence & Engineering Physics. emanate | ISSUE 02 8
    • News from EMA Does Erasmus Mundus Make a Difference? Overview of the Results of the Graduate Impact Survey b y ANA GOELDEN and NATALIA SPARTAKOVA, ICUnet. AG, EMA Ser vice Provider On request of the European Commis- How has your attitude towards Europe and the EU changed due sion ICUnet.AG, the service provider for EMA, has been conducting both quali- to your Erasmus Mundus experience? (In percent) tative and quantitative studies during 2007-2008 among first-year students 49,00 and alumni with the scope to evalu- 50 ate the impact of Erasmus Mundus on its graduates. Overall 817 participants 40 took part in the survey representing 92 30,50 countries. 30 The results provided us with important 17,00 insights into students and graduates 20 level of satisfaction with the EM, im- pact of the programme on their career 10 2,50 and personality, as well as attitudes 1,00 towards Europe and the EU. 0 in a very in a fairly no changes in a fairly in a very Among motives for application Eras- positive way positive way negative way negative way mus Mundus the factor of scholarship has been chosen by more than 50% of students. The “academic level of EMMC universities” also seems to be impor- employment rate tendency among Erasmus Mundus gradu- students and graduates lean towards tant to the students, especially in the ates is overall satisfying: 59% of graduates of September-De- intercultural competence, followed by case of non-EU country students and cember 2007 have found a job or a PhD position, even though communication competence and self- graduates. For the students who are the Survey was conducted shortly after the graduation or confidence. EU citizens, such categories as “joint even before the official end of the programme; 79% of earlier or multiple degree” and “availability graduates have a job or a PhD position. Attitude towards Europe, which be- of the subject” represent the most im- Another exciting finding that we were able to observe is the comes a home for Erasmus Mundus stu- portant motivation criteria. We plan to fact that Erasmus Mundus graduates earn considerably more dents for a significant time period, was look into the motivational factors even than first year students earned before starting the EM pro- also in focus of the survey. According more deeply in the next upcoming gramme, which signifies that the Erasmus Mundus has a sig- to the obtained results the majority of Graduate Impact Survey, which would nificant impact on participants’ income. students and graduates perceive the EU help the European Commission to in- in a positive way. fluence the processes of the future EM When asked to which extent the knowledge acquired during Last, but not least, the impact of the programme more precisely and react Erasmus Mundus studies is relevant for the present job, 78% EM programme on students’ social life adequately to the existing challenges. of respondents state that it was very or quite relevant. There seems to be quite considerable. Not When it comes to impact of the Eras- also seems to be a strong impact of the EM programme on only have many Erasmus Mundus stu- mus Mundus programme on the grad- the improvement of subject related competences among the dents found a lot of friends from all over uates, the categories “career” and “at- alumni. When choosing which additional skills gained during the world, but 26% of the graduates titude towards the EU” were preferred the EM programme are the most relevant for their present oc- also found a partner during the Erasmus by most respondents. We can conclude cupation, the majority of graduates named intercultural com- Mundus times. that the EM programme represents a petence, communication abilities and language skills. very important milestone and a solid Many survey participants state that the impact of the Eras- We will continue exploring the impact basis for successful career develop- mus Mundus programme on their personality is strong or very of Erasmus Mundus in the following ment, be it academic or industrial. strong. Upon choosing two areas where the programme had Graduate Impact research in 2008- According to the survey results, the the most impact on their personality, most Erasmus Mundus 2009. 9
    • News from EMA The Key to a Technologically Advanced Future 1st Erasmus Mundus Materials Science Workshop opment. As there is frequently a considerable time lag be- Institut National Polytechnique de Lor- tween a scientific discovery and its useful application, people raine, France; Universitat Politècnica often forget the important link that connects fundamental de Catalunya, Spain and Luleå Tekniska research and future prosperity. It is only with continued in- Universitet, Sweden) as well as within vestment that the discoveries of today and the highly trained several industries will certainly raise experts necessary to develop and exploit them will also be awareness of Erasmus Mundus Master available for the innovative products of the future. courses. Within the field of Materials Science, the barriers that divide It was with some financial support academia, government institutions, and the industry must be from the EMA Thematic Conference reduced if not completely eliminated. Only in this way will it Events Funds that EMA became part of be possible to turn fundamental discoveries into practical ap- this project. The EMA Thematic Con- plications for the benefit of Europe. Promoting links between ference Events Funds was initiated by researchers, theoreticians, industrial scientists, and managers Conferences and Events Team on be- Concentrating on the technologically through collaborative schemes and joint research institutes is half of the European Commission with advanced future an obvious solution. For this reason a thematic chapter in the the main idea to facilitate the internal area of Materials Science was created, fundamentally for the and external communication as well as prosperity of Europe and its High Education and more specifi- networking among Erasmus Mundus cally within the Erasmus Mundus programme. Students. EMMSSA, a students’ wing of the EMMS (Joint European Aveiro, one of Portugal’s most beauti- Masters in Material Science) hosts an Annual Workshop with ful cities, had the honor to be the host a poster and oral section for students, professors and indus- of this event. Three enriching days with Materials Science is an interdiscipli- try interaction. The success of this workshop is proven by the around 60 participants, including EM nary field involving the properties of continuance of this project over the years. students and alumni (EMMS, AMASE matter as well as its applications to var- and FAME) and course coordinators ious areas of science and engineering. It Progress is the vital word for Erasmus Mundus and based expressed themselves among others. is within this science that the relation- on that, expansion was the next step. Therefore, collabora- EMMSSA also had the honor to invite ship between the structure of materials tion between related Erasmus Mundus Master courses EMMS speakers from the Erasmus Mundus Se- at atomic or molecular scales and their and AMASE (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) lection Board, the Portuguese Erasmus macroscopic properties are investigated. was formed and the 3rd EMMS & 1st Erasmus Mundus Ma- Mundus representative, the Portuguese It embraces elements of applied chem- terials Science Workshop entitled “Materials Science: The National Structure as well as guests istry and physics, as well as mechanical, Key to a Technologically Advanced Future” was created. This from University of Aveiro. chemical, civil and electrical engineer- project is equally beneficial for EMMS/AMASE students and The Erasmus Mundus National Struc- ing. This is an on-growing natural sci- alumni, for the EMMS/AMASE professors and for the over- tures are contacts and information ence that has faced several challenges all EMA community. With this project it is possible to create points in each of the European coun- at the beginning of the 21st Century. a great networking opportunity between fellow students as tries participating in Erasmus Mundus. The first main challenge is to convince well as professors from both consortiums. The publicity of this Leonor Santa Clara, the representative the industry, the public, and politicians event within the 7 Universities (University of Aveiro, Portugal; of the Portuguese National Structure of the importance of materials science Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany; Aalborg said “It was with great pleasure that in driving modern technological devel- Universitet, Denmark; Universität des Saarlandes, Germany; we participated in the 3rd EMMS & 1st 10 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • News from EMA The participants of the Erasmus Mundus Materials Science Workshop Erasmus Mundus Materials Workshop throughout and beyond Erasmus Mundus. As stated by Juliano may provide the solution in order to re- that took place in September at the Soyama, an EMMS student who just started his masters : „This duce the considerable time lag between University of Aveiro. This was the occa- workshop was a great opportunity to meet my fellow students a scientific discovery and its useful ap- sion to see the evolution of one of our from Erasmus Mundus and to have an overview on what they plication. Therefore, in this way we are pioneer EMMC especially through the have been developing. It was also important for me to realize trying to promote future collaborative contact with the students and the un- the extension of our EMMS program concerning its interna- schemes and joint research institutes. derstanding of their experiences. This is tional character and post-activities.“ both useful and motivating for National Structures. Congratulations! “ The organization of the 1st Erasmus Mundus Materials Sci- The main objectives of this event were ence workshop should be considered as a milestone in the About the author: to facilitate the dissemination of knowl- story of the Materials Science EMMC programme. Since net- Sonia Pinho is an alumna of the Joint edge and promote interdisciplinary dis- working among EM students, who are future researchers, the- European Masters in Material Science cussions regarding material science oreticians, future industrial scientists, and future managers Programme. at the Far End of the World EMA ErasmOz - an Initiative for EMApac, the EMA Pacific Region Network by GREGOR LICHTFUSS The Pacific region is not only home to iting EMA members with local professional and social support. site and let us know what you think of numerous Erasmus Mundus students, At the same time information on Erasmus Mundus and study- a regional base, whether you would like but also the home of EM course insti- ing in Europe can be provided and promoted to interested stu- to actively or passively participate and tutions and an exciting destination for dents and educational and research institutions. what you would expect of such an ini- research activities across study fields. tiative. As the Pacific region is somewhat uncharted territory in the Based in Australia, the regional ini- EMA world, a primary aim of ErasmOz is an appraisal within You will find the short questionnaire tiative ‘ErasmOz’ for the Pacific region the EMA community to evaluate interest. here: http://www.EMApac.eu/ and you aims to lay the foundation for a regional If the country you are coming from, you are currently living can also join the ErasmOz/EMApac Fa- home for Erasmus Mundus Students, in, you are going to live in or you are going to study/work in cebook group. Don’t hesitate to contact alumni, lecturers, friends and interested enclosed by the circle from Tokyo to Hobart to Christchurch to us anytime with questions or sugges- people. Clipperton Island to Hawaii, this call is for you. tions or if you would like to get involved ErasmOz aims to provide resident or vis- Please take part in a short online survey on the EMApac web- in the process! 11
    • Climate Change EMA to Organize its First Thematic Conference Higher Education and Climate Change, on 26-27 February 2009 in Budapest, Hungary Climate change is the most pressing Mundus Master Courses (EMMCs), embraces a great national The EMA Climate Change Confer- threat to the world‘s environment, al- and cultural diversity of people in different fields of study: ence is organized by the Conference & ready contributing to a visible effect on from agricultural and forestry sciences to architecture, ur- Events Team. The Team currently con- human health, food security, economic ban and regional planning, business studies, communication sists of 32 members and its mission is activity, water and other natural re- and information sciences, geography, environmental studies, to assist the Association in constructing sources and physical infrastructure. Ris- health and humanities, engineering, technology, law and so- a strong community with ever-lasting ing concentrations of greenhouse gas cial sciences. This diversity has substantial potential to offer a inter-personal relationships among its emissions into the earth’s atmosphere, variety of multidisciplinary solutions in addressing the issues members, through the organization of brought about by human activities, are of climate change. EMA-supported conferences and events. leading to changes in the climate, and To achieve this goal, the first General the result of this will impact on all areas Recognizing the challenge and the potential contribution Assembly of the EMA in October 2007 of human activities. towards climate change, and with support from the European (held in Brussels, Belgium) has defined Commission, the EMA is going to organize its first thematic threefold roles and responsibilities for the conference on higher education and climate change. This team: first, to create a platform for the Erasmus Mundus Conference will bring together students, communication and cooperation among alumni and scholars mainly from the EMMCs to discuss what the EM students and alumni body via role higher education can play in front of the changing climate the implementation of EMA supported today. It offers a communication and networking platform for conferences and events; second, to pro- the students and alumni and the EMMC faculty members to mote networking among EMA members broaden their knowledge and insight on climate change issues and contribute to the establishment of a beyond their own fields of study and to utilize different angles united community through the provision for meeting the challenges climate change poses to human of various means of support for different society. This conference will also involve experts and profes- events; and third, to promote Europe as sionals in the emerging climate change sector, which will be a centre of excellence in international an excellent opportunity for EM students and alumni to es- higher education on all EMA organized tablish connections with climate change professionals and to conferences and events, in close coop- deepen their commitment to professional development in the eration with other EMA teams (esp. the field of climate change. Promotion Team). Chunyu on his way to a hydropower project site on the eastern Tibetan The two-day conference intends to accumulate valuable ex- Plateau. perience and to create a model project for the preparation and organization of future EMA conferences. It will consist The scale and long-term potential of of a plenary session delivered by internationally recognised the impact of climate change has drawn experts specialising in higher education and/or climate enormous attention from policy-mak- change, as well as parallel workshops focusing on different ers and academics to media and citi- subjects contributed by EMA members. The participating Er- zens from countries around the world. asmus Mundus students and alumni have the opportunity to Higher education institutions as the bring issues from their field of study associated with climate knowledge centre of mankind assume change. They also get a possibility to interact with one an- About the author: a crucial role in finding the means to other in order to find ways of addressing such points through Chunyu Liang is Coordinator of the EMA respond to climate change and to train the course of higher education. The conference will also seek Conferences and Events Team and an the future leaders to tackle it with a to establish an Erasmus Mundus Forum on Climate Change to alumnus of the Master’s Programme holistic approach. The Erasmus Mundus continue the dialogue and networking in the climate change in Environmental Sciences, Policy and Programme, consisting of all Erasmus field among the interested EMA members. Management. 12 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Climate Change Harvesting the Crops How Changing Climate can Affect Agriculture in Developing Countries Global warming is influencing our climate. It could get drier or wetter, warmer or colder. We are able to fight against these changes by taking off clothes or adding more... But what about plants and especially food crops that are cultivated by 80% of the world population in order to feed themselves? In Europe, we observe the effect of climate change on the delay of seasons and the changing temperatures but as we are living in temperate climates the impact on our lives and especially our agriculture is not really important. Contrarily, in Asia, Africa or Latin America, the impact of cli- Province of Mwaro, Burundi, 2007. On the left side, cultivated valleys of vegetable mate change is more important because the variability be- crops and on the right, the same area after a heavy rain, all the crops are lost. tween the seasons in those tropical and arid areas is extreme. Cyclones and heavy rains are intensifying the precipitation archaic methods, bad quality or absence realized by the United Nations Devel- level during the wet seasons; heat waves and droughts are of inputs (seeds, fertilizers, irrigation). opment Program in 2007-2008, shows increasing temperatures during the dry season, which induces Moreover, the land they use is some- in the figure below strongly developing water stress. In these countries, the majority of the popula- times infertile or eroded. Added to these countries could have their agricultural tion consists of farmers with small surfaces to cultivate with fragile conditions of production, there output potential affected by climate are extreme climatic conditions, which change in 2080. induce more soil erosion and loss of fer- tility and lower yields. From the green Solutions have to be found to al- Change in agricultural output hills of Burundi cultivated with cassava, low the agriculture of these regions to potential sweet potatoes and beans to the arid adapt and fight against climate change valleys of Yemen full of watermelon and effects. European farmers are generally (2080s as % of 2000 potential) maize, farmers can watch, in one day, all protected by their government in case their production disappear, which rep- of climatic catastrophe; for example -20 -10 0 10 20 resents several months of food for their in the south of France where there are family. In some countries of Africa, this many orchards, farmers can be insured Industrial countries kind of event has forced parents to feed against frost damage. Developing coun- their childrens with mud pancakes. tries’ governments have to implement structures that can support vulnerable World According to the Study, carried out by farmers when they are touched by bad the US journal Science in 2007, climate climatic conditions. Moreover, as their Developing Countries change could cause severe crop losses economy depends mostly on agriculture, in developing countries over the next it is inevitable to find adaptations to ag- Asia 20 years. Its results demonstrate that ricultural policy. “by 2030 southern Africa could lose more than 30% of its main crop, maize About the author: Middle East and North and South Asia 10% of rice, millet and Julie Mayans is a student in the Agris Africa maize crops”. As these crops represent Mundus Master’s Programme in Sus- Latin America the main food of those populations, it tainable Development in Agriculture. could be catastrophic. Another study, Africa Source: Human Development Report 2007-2008: “Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world”, UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 13
    • Climate Change Climate Change in the Arctic The Arctic is a hotspot for climate change research. A Spanish Erasmus Mundus alumna reports from a research trip to Svalbard by ANDREA PIEHL system. This master thesis project was released his movie “The Inconvenient part of a broader project which studied Truth”, raising awareness and surprising how the species of Arctic water, such as audiences, including me. The IPCC also These are times of change in the environment. The Arctic plankton are the food elements for cod did a remarkable job, being a scientific is an area where this change has scientifically already been and local sea birds and consequently organization working together to give a observed for some time. I can consider myself fortunate to larger marine mammals like seals (i.e. sound basis to what had previously been have been there before it was too late, but especially to have the whole food chain), are being af- only treated as a theory. I definitely taken part in a scientific expedition that contributed towards fected by the intrusion of warmer and agree that both IPCC (Intergovernmen- the understanding of the main driving-forces that influence more saline Atlantic water masses. This tal Panel on Climate Change) and Al the whole ecosystem of a fjord. My master thesis took place is what science can do. Gore deserved the Peace Nobel price for in the remote island archipelago of Svalbard, located 79ºN what they achieved in raising to the top within a Norwegian-founded research project, in the fjord of the international agenda the prob- The Momentum of Kongsfjorden where a community of international bases lem that Climate Change may cause the of scientists work together in what is called the “the World world and humankind. I would have to Northernmost community”, the population of which varies But other advances, as well as setbacks, congratulate also the German presiden- from 100 in summer to about 10 scientists during winter. have arisen recently. Thanks to some cy of the European Union for setting the key public actors and initiatives, cli- target of reducing the emissions of CO2 My background in Marine Science and the Joint Erasmus mate change has been put top of the in Europe by 20%, by 2020. I feel proud Mundus Master in Water and Coastal Management gave me international agenda. Some of these ad- of the EU for taking the lead on Climate the unique opportunity as a Spanish citizen to go to the Arc- vances have created a momentum that Change issues. Nevertheless, nowadays tic and study the oceanographical characteristics of the fjord. has inspired many important political all these advances are being severely Basically, local Arctic cold and fresh water masses in the fjord initiatives. The first I remember, back in threatened by the world economic cri- are being increasingly influenced by the intrusion of warmer 2006, was the so-called “Stern Report”, sis. Unfortunately, the environment has and more saline water masses from the northernmost exten- a report ordered by the UK Government traditionally been regarded as the last sion of the Gulf Stream. The result of this intrusion is an which concluded that ignoring climate priority, as a “luxury” asset. unstable change in the whole ecosystem. My Master thesis change would be economically more ex- project task was to develop a tool to identify the short-term pensive than putting in place measures There is a very special initiative tak- changes in water masses that would allow scientists to fore- to halt it. At the same time, Al Gore, ing place at the moment that I would cast a consequent change in the long term of the whole eco- the former vice-president of the USA, like to highlight. The International Polar 14 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Climate Change Year (IPY) is an enormous research ef- Climate fort taking place for the 4th time be- tween March 2007 and March 2009. Change in India This initiative promoted by the World Meteorological Organization has given the polar scientific community the op- portunity to study in a coordinated and A Need for a Rights-Based Approach detailed way the polar environment and socio-economy, at the same time. It must be said that this time-frame em- by BUDDHADEB HALDER braces the two summer seasons of both franchised and so there is a high pos- poles, the most suitable season to take sibility of arising internal conflict over samples in these extreme environments. Climate Change presents a real chal- the natural resources and agricultural I will be very excited to see the outcome lenge and danger for India. A developing products like water and food grains. of this considerable research effort. country like India will face huge human Now, let us examine the standpoint of and environmental problems in coming the Indian Government in regard to deal- New Dangers years due to climate change. Geographi- ing with the impact of climate change? cally, India is a tropical country with a Mr. Pradipto Ghosh, Ex-Secretary of the However, there are some concerns - long coastline and having a large number Ministry of Environment and Forest, has the Arctic has remained one of the last of poor and rural population, India is said: ‘‘India is certainly not responsible frontiers on Earth and now, with the highly vulnerable to climatic changes for the mess. We are, in fact, victims International Polar Year, another spe- which will dramatically affect human of it. So why expect us to tighten our cial issue has arisen. The sea ice in the rights, either directly or indirectly. belts?‘‘ Thus, the position of Indian Gov- Arctic cap is in fact retreating and for India‘s emissions are now rising and ernment on the issue of climate change some key economic sectors this is seen projected to be among the top three in is easily understandable. The govern- as an advantage. For example, drilling less than a decade. As India has 7500 ment‘s argument is not entirely rational for fossil fuels in the area will increase km coast and 50 million people at risk because the global climate cannot dif- due to their accessibility, which will of sea level rise, so these large num- ferentiate between borders. And here cause serious damage to an environ- bers of people will be displaced from lies the main question: is it possible for ment already changing and, as is occur- the coastal zone and will move inwards. the government to guarantee ‘Right to ring now, an international discussion Seven of the world‘s major river basins Development‘‘ to the Indian population about the ownership of underwater originate in the Himalayan and Tibetan after having such a position on this very mineral resources. Maritime traffic will plateaus which are the source of water particular issue? also increase after the retreat of the ice for the population of China, India, Ne- cap. So a vessel travelling from Rotter- pal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Apart from this, the other concerns are dam will reach Asia saving 40% of the Climate change will also cause flooding on the issue of ecological displacement, time. All these new topical issues will in low-lying regions and the deltas will different diseases, food insecurity and need international regulation as well as turn infertile. Agricultural productivity the growing poor population in India. sound research to understand and pre- will decline; so hunger and food inse- Recently, in June 2008, the Government vent further problems. curity will increase rapidly. This climate of India launched the National Action change will damage economic assets Plan on Climate Change. Though the Climate change has been put on the and the infrastructure of India. Thus, intellectuals have described this action international agenda, and I think we the impacts of climate change on hu- plan as incorporating the country‘s vi- will have to congratulate these people man lives will be felt not just in years, sion of sustainable development, it was for at least raising the public profile of but over generations. business-as-usual it seemed. It has an ecological concern that will make already been proven that most of the us all work for the earth to be a bet- We have already seen the impact of victims would be the poor and the mar- ter place. I wish this could also be done climate change across South Asia. In ginalised group of society, whose rights with other issues such as the loss of 2007, 20 million were diplaced due to have always been neglected, so there is biodiversity which urgently needs our “wild weather” in South Asia. Climate a real need to introduce a human rights- public attention, as well as many others. change will affect the identity and the based approach to different action and However, in the meantime I am happy culture amongst India‘s tribal and in- development plans to deal with the is- that people are at least changing their digenous communities. These commu- sue of climate change in India. behaviour to some degree for one eco- nities will be obliged to change their logical reason. This will make the path food habit, cultural identity and so on. About the author: easier for further ecological needs that Diseases such as malaria, dengue, and Buddhadeb Halder is an alumnus of the we have been putting aside and that are cholera have increased already in the Human Rights Practice Master’s Pro- of a concern to us all before we destroy region. Its greatest victims will be the gramme. the planet we are living on. poor, the marginalised and the disen- 15
    • Climate Change Photo: geralt/PIXELIO Climate Change more Is Important than Environment? For decades, environmental protection has been overlooked, but the fight against climate change might provide a golden opportunity for change No doubt about it, climate change has According to two of the latest updates of the Eurobarometer that challenge the responsibility of hu- received a lot of attention in the last cou- surveys, ‘Attitudes of European citizens towards the environ- mans in bringing about changes in the ple of years within the international po- ment‘ and ‘Attitudes of European citizens towards climate climate. While it is true that it is an litical arena, media and even EMAnate has change‘, 75% of EU citizens believe that climate change is extremely complicated subject and the drawn attention to it as its second theme. a very serious problem, 62% consider climate change as the impacts are far from understood, it also In fact, it could be argued that, among most serious problem the world is currently facing (higher seems clear that we humans are living other mistakes made by President Bush, that international terrorism with 53%) and 57% mentioned it beyond our natural means. According to his timid response to act on climate as a top concern among their top five [global] environmental the latest WWF’s Living Planet Report change has played a role in the low concerns. 2008 “more than three quarters of the ratings. Indeed, in the present United world’s people live in nations that are State’s elections, the candidates’ pledg- ecological debtors – their national con- Ecological Debt es to address this issue have certainly sumption has outstripped their coun- been an important point in the debate. try’s biocapacity”. On the other side of the Atlantic, cli- However, there are still some climate change sceptics. Some For my work at the European Commis- mate change seems to have become a believe that the discourse has been exaggerated, others think sion, I was asked to assess which projects great concern for EU citizens. that the science behind it is misleading and there are those funded by the external cooperation of- 16 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Climate Change 75 % of EU citizens believe that climate change is a very serious problem, 62% consider climate change as the most serious problem the world Photo: helei/PIXELIO is currently facing. fice (EuropeAid) of the Commission were is an important cause of global warming. According to the Environmentalists have fought for many actually related to climate change. As it Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change released decades to protect the environment, to turns out, due to the complexity of eco- in 2006 by economist Lord Stern of Brentford for the Brit- halt biodiversity loss, to stop the deple- systems and the factors driving climate ish government, deforestation is responsible for more than tion of natural resources, among many change, the issue of climate change (the 18% of global greenhouse gas emissions, which is more than other environmentally related issues. mitigation strategies and the adaptation the transport sector. At the same time, forests, and especially Some of them may agree that the fact to ‚change‘) is a cross-cutting concern tropical forests (paradoxically, tropical forests are being lost that climate change has become a top covering a very broad range of topics: the fastest), host an immense number of species making them priority on the international agenda has biodiversity, energy efficiency, air pollu- essential for preserving biodiversity. Besides that, they also opened many doors either to influence tion, recycling, transport, deforestation, protect soil and water quality along with a number of other environmental policies or channel more human health, disaster preparedness, benefits for the environment and society. In conclusion, curb- - but not enough - economic resources diversification of energy sources (energy ing deforestation is not only good for tackling global warm- to environmentally related projects... or security), sustainable consumption and ing, but for many other things such as preserving biodiversity development. food security, among many others. and water quality. If climate change has become more im- portant than environment and both are For instance, one of the many examples clearly linked, then why shouldn‘t we Development and Adaptation of the links between climate change take advantage of this as a starting point and other environmental issues is for- for influencing politicians and advocat- ests. As far-fetched as it might seem to Many believe that promoting good development polices will ing for changes in people‘s behaviour? you now, what you eat affects forests, make those most affected by climate change less vulnerable. If it is genuinely good for fighting cli- by encouraging the conversion of for- As the Stern Review report stated, “development itself is key mate change (and scientifically-based), est areas into cattle grazing land or crop to adaptation” by building resilience to cope with the inevita- it should be good for the environment land. Moreover, as you surely know, by ble impact of climate change. and societies around the world. reading this article online instead of a It is as simple as this: if you live in a shanty town without a printed version on paper you are con- proper health care system there is a higher risk of not surviving tributing to a reduction in the exploita- and not recovering from a climate-related natural hazard, such tion of forests. Nowadays, even trans- as a hurricane or a flood. On the other hand, if you are better portation is linked to forests: trees are off, you will be less vulnerable when facing a heat or a cold About the author: being cut down to produce agrofuels, wave. Furthermore, in general, economies of developing coun- Valentina Villoria is an alumna of the which are used to power vehicles. By tries depend on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture, to Joint Master in Water and Coastal Man- now, it is well known that deforestation a much larger extent than those of the developed states. agement Programme. 17
    • Climate Change Fruitful Future? Great Grapes to Wonderful Wine There are several main climate chang- and Spain being the first, second and duction of grapes at an optimal qual- es and predicted changes affecting ag- third largest producers (in hectolitres) ity for each variety. When the growth riculture described by the Inter-govern- worldwide. Grapes are grown across and ripening period of a variety is well- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the continent of Europe with thousands adapted, great grapes can be obtained and the Special Report on Emission of varieties found in different regions: to make wonderful wine. Scenarios (SRES) by the IPCC in 2007 from Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon (Table 1)¹. in Bordeaux, Nero d’Avola in Sicilia, This balance will be disturbed by the Even without considering the effects of Agiorgitiko in Greece to the Gruner climate changes that have been predict- human activity, which to a large extent Veltliner in Austria. ed. The increase in temperature, espe- drives these climate changes, tempera- cially minimal temperatures are crucial tures will continue to increase globally to grape ripening. The change in the an- Rising Temperatures in the future. So we might be happy nual precipitation cycles and CO² have with warmer weather as we head to all been predicted to play a role. Stud- the beach, but what are the effects go- So what will happen to this crop and ies have already shown that the average ing to be on agriculture in the future? the quality of wine that will result if temperature of viticultural regions have Are crops going to grow out of control, the climate continues to change as pre- increased by 1.3°C during the growing shrivel up, or no longer be grown in re- dicted? Development of the grapevine is season over the last 50 years. Further- gions that they are grown today? Will dependent on local conditions and most more, between 1950 and 1999, 17 out England become the new Italy, France importantly the temperature, as well as of 27 viticultural regions tested indicat- or Spain for growing grapes for exam- being dependent on how quickly a va- ed an increase of temperatures during ple??!! riety undergoes its physiological devel- the growing season. These regions cor- opment (for example Chardonnay ripens responded to: 7 in France, 1 in Spain, 4 Grapes are grown across the world for before Merlot). Due to the climate and in the USA, 2 in Australia, 2 in Portugal consumption and wine-making. 15 of varietal interactions different grape va- and 1 in Italy. The climate changes have the top 20 producing countries (in hec- rieties have been historically planted been seen to affect worldwide grape tolitres) are in Europe with Italy, France in different regions that allow the pro- production!² The harvest time which 18 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Climate Change can estimate the ripeness of the variety become unbalanced resulting in lesser wheat, potato, rice etc. Hence, the ef- has been observed to mirror that of the quality wines. Establishing relationships fects of climate change on these crops temperature changes; a study of Pinot between the ‘vintage ratings’ of well- need to be well-explored. However, Noir between 1370-2003 showed that renowned wine tasting guides and ex- economically, grapes represent an im- the harvest date was as good as other perts on one side and the temperature portant part of agricultural production temperature reconstruction methods increase on the other side has already especially in Europe and an important (for example tree ring measurements)³. been done with some success, but this part of history and culture. Changing Therefore, we can already see that in- is still not easy to quantify. There have climates do not need to change this creasing temperatures are causing ear- been optimum temperatures suggested historical and cultural importance, but lier ripening of grapes on a global level. above which current varieties in the re- an understanding of these changes will gions should not pass if a quality wine ensure great grapes for wonderful wine The changing climate is going to drive is desired. in the future. changes in the viticulture world, notably Photo: weinkellerei mertes/PIXELIO A Helping Hand varieties that are suited to one region ¹ For further details on the impact of climate change and and its climate today may no longer the SSRES see: http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/index.htm ² Jones, G.V., White, M.A., Cooper, O.R., Storchmann, K. be suitable in the future. We can turn So science needs to give us a helping (2005). Climate Change and Global Wine Quality. Climate back the clock, and let history teach us hand to ensure that grapes will con- Change. 73, 319- 343. ³ Chuine, I., Yiou, P., Viovy, N., Seguin, B., Daux, V., Le Roy about the geographical distribution of tinue to ripen as desired. Grapes rep- Ladurie, E. (2004). Grape harvest dates and temperature grapes. During the period “Little Opti- resent only one agricultural crop. Given variations in eastern France since 1370. Nature. 432, 289-290. mum” between 900-1200 A.D the aver- the effects already seen, measured and age temperature in Europe was approxi- predicted for this crop, one can only im- mately 1°C higher than it is today. And agine the impact that current climate About the author: yes, grapes were grown in England and change will have on other crops. Grapes Amber Parker is a student in the Interna- also on the Baltic Sea coasts. Winding for wine production do not represent tional Master “Vintage”, Vine, Wine and the clock forward a bit to the “Little Ice a staple crop for human nutrition like Terroir Management. Age” (1550-1850), these more northern vineyards disappeared due to the de- crease in temperature. Change observed Forecasted changes So a 1°C difference can have a serious (predictions from the 40 different scenarios proposed) impact on the grape distribution! Grape growers are going to need to have a bet- ter understanding of their local climate Increase of greenhouse gases by CO² will vary between 490-1260 to ensure future production of great 1.5ppm CO² between 1980 and ppm grapes and the possibility of adapting 2000 grapes that ripen later than the current ones that are planted. A temperature increase of 0.2°C A continual temperature increase What does this all mean for the wine? between 1990-2000 with this pe- of 1.4-5.8°C from 1990 to 2100 One of the great difficulties in the field riod being one of the most hottest is to quantify the effect of adapting to be recorded in history a variety that ripens well in the local conditions and therefore can produce An increase of the average global An increase in average tempera- a quality wine. The temperature af- temperature by 0.6°C during the ture of 0.2°C during the next two fects the development of the sugar and 20th century, and of 0.15°C each decades (a average value obtained acid in grapes, the colour compounds decade since the 1970s from the 40 different scenarios) and the flavour components. If grapes ripen too quickly due to the increased A change in precipitation cycles An increase in extreme daily rain- temperatures, these compounds could with an increase in evapo-transpi- fall even when the overall rainfall ration levels are predicted to decrease 19
    • Climate Change Experience in the Field: to a globally changing environment. It is in such a sense, that EM graduates are aptly suited to work within various Internships at the UN fields. Whether for an internship, or for proper employment, EM prepares us for the international climate change UN Institutions discourse. A UN internship would compliment most EM programmes and includes a dimension of learning (what is globally relevant) as well as contributing to the ongoing workings of UN agencies (directly applying your education and informing others about new academic knowledge). In essence, it is about ex- ”Addiction is a terrible thing. It consumes WHO (World Health Organization) ad- change. dresses how climate change will impact and controls us, makes us deny important health vulnerability, including psycho- After recently completing a UN intern- truths and blinds us to the consequences logical health and how to cope with ship myself, I would sincerely recom- of our actions. Our society is in the grips extreme heat and cold; mend it to any interested EM student. of a dangerous greenhouse gas habit…” UNICEF (UN International Children’s UN internships last between three and Fund) examines how climate change six months and can suitably compli- As the above quote of UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon will influence youth and young persons; ment a summer holiday or thesis period. expressively and bluntly states, climate change is the defining UNIFEM addresses how climate change Whether or not your want to work with issue of our time, requiring a variety of responses at different will influence gender equality – as many a UN institution after graduation, the levels. Climate change proves that environmental thinking and of the pending burdens will be dispro- experience will prove worthwhile, and related polices can no longer be an afterthought. It touches portionately experienced by women, help wandering souls (like myself) find and will continue to impact every element of our daily life. including longer distances to gather a career direction. Such an experience Current and future impacts include a rising sea-level, chang- water and firewood. looks great on a CV and for a reason: ing land rights and property damage; water scarcity, which is at the UN you get to be part of a spe- affecting agriculture, rural livelihoods and customs; increased Inherently then, these and other UN cific task and learn to understand the flooding, endangering sub-standard housing, as well as ex- institutions have now started to address overarching linkages between climate treme weather events which are predicted to severely affect climate change in a targeted fashion change and related environment/de- global biodiversity loss, as natural species are unable to cope based on a particular organization’s in- velopment/policy and technical issues. with rapid changes. ternal strength. Climate change is not the only environ- ment/social issue that needs to be ad- The United Nations – in its varied activities, goals and pro- In a similar fashion, Erasmus Mundus dressed, but it is a hot topic involving grammes – is in the process of attempting to streamline all proves a like platform to address cli- various perspectives. related climate change activities. Inherently different institu- mate change from various academic After 6 months in Nairobi, Kenya work- tions can tackle different elements of the equation by having perspectives. Climate change mitiga- ing with UN-Habitat’s new initiative, a clear focus as how to best mitigate (prevent future contri- tion/adaptation strategies will require CCCI, I have learned to value my EM butions) and adapt (coping with current and future impacts) new technological solutions, of which education for what I have learned and to climate change. EM technical programmes can assist. It how to apply it to globally relevant is- will require a new addressing of human sues. And while this Nairobi adventure is UN-Habitat, (United Nations Human Settlements Programme) rights and humanitarian assistance. It over, my time as a UN intern has opened for example, has recently started a new initiative: The Cities in will require new economic models, new many doors and opportunities – and has Climate Change Initiative (CCCI). This initiative will try to ad- reporting from journalists and a new even interested employers. And what dress how cities – which contain 50% of our population and approach to urban planning, forestry happens next? As for myself, I will hap- contribute an equal or greater portion of greenhouse gases and agricultural management as well as pily let you know in a few months! – can help to reduce their emissions (via public transport, en- attention to fresh and saltwater sourc- ergy-efficiency in supply and infrastructure and planning com- es. In one sense, small or large, climate pact cities) as well as to adapt to climate change (green space change is a part of nearly all of our EM in cities, urban storm-water and upgrading urban slums). academic disciplines, meaning EM is a About the author: UNEP, as the UN’s Environmental Programme focuses on cli- small part of a potential solution. EM Jennifer Lenhart is an alumna of the mate change in all its work programmes; students and graduates study globally Master’s Programme in Environmental UNIDO (UN Industrial Development Organization) addresses relevant degrees with direct application Sciences, Policy and Management. She energy provision and access and how to “green” energy op- in the real world. Beyond our academic is the coordinator of EMA Promotion tions in rural communities; discipline, we learn to interact and adapt Team. 20 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Climate Change Climates of the Mundus Climate shows it vivid hues at dusk in Oslo. A fun-filled story of an ordinary Erasmus Mundus student as he leaves his sheltered life at home and discovers the many shades of climate to a new home, Greece! Never having seen snowfall in my life, I never thought I was adventurous. I it was a big disappointment after reaching Greece to learn guess I was just another city boy from a that it was snowing back in England! Anyway, I was quite crowded place that is New Delhi, where hopeful that I would see lots of snow in Thessaloniki (the city summers see temperatures soar to 45 At a beach with friends in Greece. we were to study in) for our course mates from previous year degrees, where monsoons bring rain and saw plenty. where winters are short and never so in- tense. This was the climate I had grown up in and I had not seen any other faces Though initially a bit disappointed to reach a place not as of it. modern or developed as the UK, I slowly knew that Greece held its own charm. The scenic beauty, the warmth and the It all changed when I decided to study relaxed nature of Greek people, delicious Greek food, Greek with Erasmus Mundus. As was ex- music and dance and above all, the revered Sun God was eve- pected, each and every member of my rything that I had missed in England. It was so much like back large family chipped in with their advice home! But alas, winter was coming to a close and I still had about handling the ‘extreme’ winter of not seen a snowfall. my first destination, England – ‘wear April came and it was time to move to the Land of Toros – Rain in Spain. this big jacket, it should cover you from Spain. I had heard so much about the Spanish summer that head to toe’, ‘eat these dry fruits’, ‘drink there could be no better time to be in Madrid. It was time to some brandy or some wine but not too slip into shorts and sneakers, sit in the sun, sip some sangria much!’. If it wasn’t for the limit on bag- and have an occasional siesta on a hot summer weekend. Af- gage, they would have prepared me ter all the cold that I had braved, the Spanish summer couldn’t well for a trip to Iceland (which they have been more welcoming. thought was sheer ice unlike Green- The three months in Spain flew thick and fast and soon home land, which was green!). Nevertheless, beckoned. It was a time to meet family, narrate stories, present although the three months of October, souvenirs and see their ‘But, you look the same!’ expressions. November and December were not that But inside me, I knew I had changed, that I had learned from easy, they weren’t that difficult either. I each of those experiences and that I would never be the same was so busy and excited meeting new as earlier. After the stint at home, I headed back to Spain for Braving the snow in Switzerland. people, exploring England and learning my six month dissertation. Lured by the cheap tickets offered how to be on my own that I almost for- by airlines, in November we decided to travel to Norway. In got about the cold. But then, December fact after all this travel, if there is anywhere I have ever felt came and it started to get chilly. I got the coldest in my life, where the chill seemed to ‘penetrate my a feel of ‘real British weather’ when it bones’ and no matter how many clothes I wrapped around me, began to get dark at four in the evening I couldn’t be outdoors for more than a few hours at a stretch, with rain that never seemed to stop. To it was in Norway. However, my endurance did pay off in the top it all, there were all those exams end and I got to see my first snowfall there! and assignments to finish. All together, it was starting to look like one gloomy Over Christmas, my friends and I headed back to Greece to month. meet friends that we had made earlier and to see how Christ- Then came Christmas with all its fes- mas is celebrated typically. We stayed with our friend’s fam- Looking ahead into the future. tive spirit and excitement that I had ily, enjoyed the Christmas feast, went to lots of parties and only heard and read about. There were entered the New Year together. After returning to Madrid, it lights, music, shops open till late, loads was time to work hard on the dissertation. Months passed and of people on the streets - nothing short soon, the course was nearing its end. Each of us would head in About the author: of what I had hoped for from a Christ- our own directions, some back home, some would stay in Ma- Paras Mehta from India is an alumnus mas in a Christian country. And soon drid and some would move to England or elsewhere. In all this of the Network and e-Business Centred after in January, it was time to fly away time of being together, saying goodbye was the hardest part. Computing Programme. 21
    • Climate Change b y N ATA LYA BIC HURIN A Life after Global (“Mundus”) Warming I am between glimmering constellations of European cit- would perceive themselves as different while living abroad, yet when they came ies in cloud gaps and a blue-blue sea with a single star. back home afterwards they found out My Mundus is over. Every cloud that I’m leaving behind is that they were so changed that they no longer belonged to ‘their’ culture either. irreversibly turning my present into the past. I have just They got lost between the two worlds; been surrounded by people from all over the world, free some even don’t speak any language without an accent anymore… to do nothing but communicate, under the Mediterranean sun. Now it is time to change the climate back, isn’t it? I miss my Mundus friends who live so far away that they seem almost imag- ined. Without them, without my way of I’m approaching home – back from life abroad I feel deprived of something Southern France to North-Western Rus- important - something inside myself, a sia. Boundless snow-covered fields… new part of myself that I acquired and no, this is not snow, for it’s July, these would even perceive as my whole new are sleeping clouds and the rising sun is self (together with semi-mythical rep- awakening them with its golden touch. resentations of who I had been before ‘Today’ has become yesterday, memories leaving). I feel I have to make an effort disappearing in the wing mirror. I don’t to stay as changed as I became during know what I will do once back home: the Mundus programme when every- lately I have been answering this ques- thing here has remained the same way tion so often that I feel lost in my future and I‘m even offered the same job as I and tired of it. As it is approaching I re- had before. It‘s hard to imagine staying alise that I’m scared of the uncertainty here, I feel like going travelling again – Flying home though it appeared so certain being far just because I am used to being dynamic away. whereas everything here seems static… … Months have passed; I arranged my It is hard to ‘change climates’, it is the moment when you decided to leave. Suddenly you’re ex- life back home and thus became a ‘le- hard to come back and change a famil- whatever and no one at present. You have to create yourself gitimate’ part of this society anew. iar life to the one which is supposed to a future in order to become someone again. This is also hard: Nevertheless I feel that the intricate in- be familiar and used to be so but which not because you can fail but because you are not sure what terlacing of my Mundus friends’ person- is not anymore. I’m happy to be with my you want. Because you feel lost - lost in the city, which is so alities and cultures are now entwined in friends again and even strangely glad to strange even though it’s your own, lost in your apartment full my own identity which influences my be in this indifferent crowd of strangers of irrelevant things from your past self, lost in yourself. attitude to others: I can recognise my- who are my compatriots. However it is self in the immigrants in my home city, not easy. What is most difficult is not to Our northern summer is indeed a caricature of southern win- I perceive differently people in other know who you are. You know who you ters, as the poet Pushkin called it. I feel cold and everybody countries, so that for me the atmos- used to be before leaving but you have thinks I’m just pretending. They don’t seem to understand that phere of my year abroad made a ‘mun- changed; you are not the one you have the organism does get used to the climate it lives in, even dus’ i.e. global warming possible. just been abroad either because you are though temporarily. Similarly it was annoying when after hav- not in that setting anymore with those ing lived abroad for months I would meet remarks of friends people and activities. You don’t know from my county of origin like ‘okay, you got up at 8 am but what your status is. Even though your it’s not so early, it’s 10 am our time!’ Gradually local habits About the author: ex-work colleagues, ex-classmates, ex- become yours as well: when the initial ‘jet lag’ (i.e. culture Natalya Bichurina is an alumna of the sports team-mates are excited to see shock) passes, you start considering new features of life as Crossways in European Humanities Pro- you, you no longer belong to any group ‘normal’ and getting more alienated from home, almost with- gramme. because you lost your membership at out noticing, or not noticing at all. I know some people who 22 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Higher Education News “Education is one of the materials that could not be enriched otherwise if not open towards the rest of the world.” Marielle de Sarnez, member of the European Parliament Erasmus Mundus Round 2 Erasmus Mundus coincide with the In Action! Lisbon Strategy (i.e. EU), which po- litical dimension includes the edu- cation of future generations from emerging countries; in a worldwide Member of the European Parliament vision Europe nowadays represents one competitive, savant and eco- Marielle De Sarnez tells about her impressions nomic context with authentic ref- erence d‘excellence with regard to of the new Erasmus Mundus programme the phenomenon of „brain drain“? The goal of this programme is absolutely b y NATA SHA SARDZOSK A not the promotion of brain drain, which is the reason why particular attention The European Commission‘s proposal for a second round of the students that wish to do their doc- is given to the overall evolution of the Erasmus Mundus Programme (2009 – 13) was voted upon by the toral researches within European programme. The students and the re- European Parliament in October 2008. Member of the European universities? searchers will be encouraged, if they Parliament Marielle de Sarnez, from the Committee on Education The students that are doing their EM want to, to apply all their knowledge and Culture, has been in charge of drafting the Parliament‘s opin- masters could continue their EM doc- regarding the development of their ion on Erasmus Mundus II. Emanate got the chance to talk to her toral studies. Universities from at least countries, but also if they are willing to about Erasmus Mundus and the Parliament’s decision. three different European countries will complete their education in Europe and propose an EM doctoral programme work on their doctoral studies they can The proposal from the Commission and the report from and this will allow the students to have do it too. the European Parliament provide for new opportunities the possibility to work on various sub- and challenges: Erasmus Mundus visas, linguistic diver- jects of research and to have access to Erasmus Mundus is an excellent sity, structural co-operation between universities from more documentation through different tool for the promotion of cultural third countries, access for minorities: as the draftsperson, libraries. exchanges, co-operation and dia- what are your impressions? logue. In short, how does this Er- First of all, it was a great contentment to achieve the sat- How many scholarships will be asmus Mundus notion establish and isfactory agreement during the first reading of the report available for the students that strengthen the idea of Europe and for the realisation of the second generation programme. The are EU citizens and what is their make it more open to different kind programme brings many changes for the students from third amount approximately? of knowledge? countries, for whom a particular effort is going to be made in A European student, on average per The educational programmes proposed order to make the administrative procedures, especially, re- year, for mobility exclusively in Europe by different joint university consortia garding the visas, easier, as well as for the European students, will receive a scholarship of 9 000 euros. will allow the students to have a „cross- who will take advantage of the scholarships. I truly believe There is also a foreseen period of mobil- world“ approach to their study field and that this news will allow the interested students to access the ity in a third country, where a scholar- subjects. Europe is rich in its diversity; European academic education. ship will be 11 000 euros per year, on av- education is one of the materials that erage. Approximately 4000 scholarships could not be enriched otherwise if not With Erasmus Mundus II we are facing a strategy for for European students will be awarded open toward the rest of the world. The the promotion of joint doctoral studies. How could Eras- between 2009 and 2013 according to network of universities offers truly ex- mus Mundus students use these modalities considering the expectation of the European Com- traordinary opportunities for the stu- the fact that there are more and more Erasmus Mundus mission. dents. 23
    • Ure dolupta tincing Daniel Abreu Mejía Dominican Republic , Public Poli- cy (Mundus MAPP) A difficult balance: Humanity faces a challenge of unprec- edented complexity : balancing the steps forward to improve the quality of life wh ile reducing harmful impacts on our environ- mental systems... a luminous or apocalyptic future relies on this difficult bala nce. nounced ion was an o Competit ite with a The Phot e EMA webs year on th - online book last te for an ft certifica We are prize. gi g the first e rest in th store bein r the inte ateful fo os ot very gr all the ph n and for llow- competitio . On the fo received at we have six best th lected are the se flect the ing pages thought re , that we in the photos ng climates c of changi topi ve way. n will be most creati competitio er of the Please go The winn ar reader. by you, de 09 rch 27, 20 chosen u before Ma www.em-a.e photo. urite to r your favo and vote fo Yours, ne Team EMA Magazi The EMA Photo Competition Alexander Thornton USA, Master in Manage ment and Engineering of the Environment and Energy (ME3) The person in the pho to is star- ing straight into the storm clouds ahead with res olve, just as humanity must do with our current climate cha nge situa- tion. 24 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Anuradha Chou dry India, Crossw ays in Europe an Humanities Francesco Nu . llo‘s statue stands witnes „changing cl s to imates“. His robes and ha dark with po nds are llution. The trees are ba Values, for re. which people gave up thei have changed r lives, and so has th e world. Only geons apprec iate his pres pi- ence now - bu happens when t what they also ar e gone? Bilal Aurang Zeb Pakistan, Public Policy (Mundus MAPP) Time flies by and we‘ve seen these waves rising with us. This photo was taken at Scheveningen, The Hague in the Netherlands. It shows an old couple sitting on the beach facing the ocean. This depicts the climatic change over time. Mia Lafontaine Canada, Master in Man agement and Engineering in Enviro nment and Energy (ME3) The world is ever cha nging. But we must not be carele ss. Protect what is important to you and show your commitmen t. ed Farah Aham ng (MA LLL) long Learni ph was e photogra Kenya, Life s knees? Th anda, Arua on it Northern Ug Our future a school in vernment ers are go ide taken outs The onlook driven in 2007. s, who have District, and official re ol. They we ectors t the scho school insp r to inspec crawling by r ca a naked ba up in thei entrance by her lit- has parked ted at the The baby gree what will en sand. of them - in the barr r in front s ate change toy ca ct of clim tle wooden ? The impa those we hold more so, by her future l, and even eir fu- say how th felt by al are chance to and choic- have a decisions will never ed by our impact tures were 25 es.
    • Your Say Global Citizenship: Benefits and Challenges We All Have an Obligation to Reason and Act as World Citizens Our generation, more than any other ments and people at all levels. As we become aware of com- of place, identity and category, and rec- before, is faced by the realities of what mon concerns and work together on shared issues, regardless ognise all human beings as equals while it means to be a citizen of the world, and of our geographical location, we are unconsciously building and respecting humanity’s inherent diversi- these realities bring with them a host of helping to make the world a better place. ty. Within their own sphere of influence, changes and new demands, large and global citizens seek to imagine and work small. The issues of global poverty and With technology we can communicate instantly across the towards a better world. social justice are, to my mind, the cen- globe and explore almost any topic. I am sure you marvel at Being an effective global citizen is all tral challenges today for humanity. They the power of the internet and educational tools we could about how you view the world and in- present daily threats, opportunities, and scarcely imagine 20 years ago. Never before have so many teract with it. Interacting with it is no dilemmas for all of us. What can and people had opportunities to develop their skills and talents longer an option, it is a daily reality. should we be doing about it? and to savour so much of what the world has to offer. The world is no longer “out there”. It is However, the two sides of globalization, prosperity and mis- right here in our backyards. We are con- Global citizenship has become a popu- ery versus opportunity and abundance, epitomize many of the nected to each other in many ways. Our lar phrase. The philosophy of global citi- challenges and dilemmas we face today as a human family. challenge is to understand and manage zenship is based on the awareness that We have a world of enormous opportunity, creativity and di- these connections. the stimulating experience of meeting verse prospects; but we also have billions of people who are people from different cultures and living not benefiting from this plentiful situation. Global citizenship cannot remain as in foreign countries help us develop as merely vacuous rhetoric, and it is not people. As we clarify our understanding based on a pronouncement from na- The Global Village of ourselves and our world, we improve tional governments. It must be driven the quality of our lives. by a wide awareness of the world’s in- This term creates an awareness of the In the context of globalisation, thinking and acting as global terconnectedness, worldwide values of existence of a whole category of inter- citizens is immensely important and can bring real benefits. responsibility, and a widespread will to nationally-oriented people who derive Global citizenship is about the responsibility we take for each act. satisfaction by discovering the world. other. In a village where people know, support and help each We are now realizing that all people on Ideally, global citizens are open-minded other, they can share their lives, they can rejoice with each this planet are affected, though not nec- individuals from any culture who are in- other and cry with one another. essarily with the same result, by global terested in the world at large and are Being a global citizen is not a rejection of our own nationality, systems. It is our fate to share because passionate about living fulfilling lives. race, religion, or anything else that makes you who you are. we live on the same planet. Being a global citizen has nothing to Each of us has a unique background and unique perspectives Some global systems such as weather do with travel. It means honouring the on the world and it is from that position that we engage with patterns are bio-physical, some are pri- calling to be your true self - wherever the rest of the world. The idea is to develop a personal and marily human such as cultural diffusion, you live in the world. When we are true unique vision about a worldwide network going beyond bor- trade arrangements, terrorist attacks to ourselves, we can generate positive ders, cultures and nations. and geopolitical strife. Many bridge the change not only in our own lives, but The very notion of global citizenship is a challenge: it suggests two such as the systems creating cli- also in our communities, families, busi- big responsibilities in a small world. It commands optimism in mate change, resource destruction, and nesses and professions - leading to bet- the face of the certain knowledge that the human rights of new diseases. ter communication and cooperation on people are being violated - politically and socially. And being a Issues like the Asian tsunami, the sub- a global scale between nations, govern- global citizen means one is willing to think beyond boundaries prime crisis, earthquakes in Peru, Ja- 26 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Your Say pan or Iran, September 11th, the Bes- actions that effectively build a better world. To do this, lan Massacre in Russia, the Rwandan promotes humility and confidence in you need not only the equipment and technology, but also Genocide, Darfur, Hurricane Katrina, approaching problems. Through such a skills, passion and knowledge. You also need to have a keen the elections in Zimbabwe, Human and philosophy, awareness of daunting chal- awareness of the ethical and cultural issues that constantly Drug Trafficking in Venezuela and Co- lenges becomes recognized as the first shape views and actions across the globe. lombia, but also around the world have step not the end point of inquiry. sharpened awareness in the countries of What must I do? What can I do? What Part of the solution consists of striving for a new level of un- the Global North that they are no longer will I do? Whose job is it? These are the derstanding about the complexity of the web of connections isolated from the Global South. They are critical questions that must be on eve- among issues, cultures, and countries, part in harnessing the no longer protected from their pain and ryone’s mind as we move forward. Each power of technology, experience, energy and ideas that we daily suffering. The concept of global one of us must take responsibility. know exists. But it is also important to work towards a strong- citizenship lies in growing universal Of course, these are all contested ques- er global dialogue, a compassionate, open, and demanding awareness of the need for people to tions with vast ramifications, and are quest, with more appreciation of the complexities and dilem- see themselves as having responsibili- concepts that can be studied in depth. mas that face us and more respect and humility in the face of ties and rights that transcend national They help us to think about the personal differences, intolerance, racism and such difficulties. borders. behaviour dimension of being a good We must go beyond the confines of a country, a discipline, The idea that an individual can com- global citizen, as well as its political di- an argument if we are to find solutions. We do not have all mit to making a difference by being a mension. The most important thing that the answers and we all have much to learn. There is not one “global citizen” presents an antidote we have to remember in enhancing our “globalization” solution, and what appears simple one mo- to the pessimism, and indeed cynicism, ability and being global citizens is that ment may raise the most complex problems in reality on the engendered by much of the corporate every detail makes a difference, because ground. media and scholarly analysis. One feels we are all part of this globalized world. We all have an obligation to reason and act as world citizens. less helpless in facing global challeng- Therefore, it is necessary that all of us equip ourselves with es when one knows that one is facing We need to confront with vision, cour- necessary skills to deal with the global world economy - such them with others who feel, by reading age and persistence the deep-seated as foreign language fluency, an open-minded mentality to- this magazine, as global citizens, a re- practical and ethical dilemmas that are wards other cultures and cross-cultural communication skills. sponsibility to act. part of the international development We all face the challenge of a lifetime of learning, stretching challenge. These are deeply rooted in us to understand new cultures and disciplines, and to adapt cultures and differences in religions, tra- to new realities. A New Philosophy ditions, and values. Today, we face a global challenge where Becoming global citizens does not only every country, region and community mean that we can act, but that we can has a unique history and character, yet learn to act in ways that mitigate com- is bound to each other in ways we could About the author: plex problems. Individuals who know not envisage before. Today, no problem Jorge Marcano from Venezuela is a student in the European they do not have answers to the world’s stays dormant in any geographic area. Master’s Programme on Work, Organizational and Personnel problems can still feel empowered if We have an individual and collective re- Psychology. they have developed a philosophy of ac- sponsibility for leadership in translating Email: jorgitomarcano@gmail.com tion and learning that simultaneously this potential for global citizenship into 27
    • Your Say India, the next Superpower: Myth or Reality? A Look at the Journey Towards a Holistic Social and Human Approach to Life their product in the trains, buses; the auto rickshaw drivers; the fishermen; the cooks - all carry mobile phones with them. And it is no more considered to be a luxury item; people are increasingly coming to a situation where they can- not really afford to work without it. This is, indeed, a big leap forward. If this can be called advancement then there is no hesitation in saying that India has made considerable progress. In the present international scenar- io China and India are being seen as economies with enormous potential. Their incomes have been growing at remarkably high rates over the last two decades following a period of liberali- zation of their economies to a relative extent. India as well as China are be- ginning to attract the attention of the multinational corporations in view of the relative stagnation of the econo- mies of USA and Europe. Due to their India should direct its attention towards improving the lives of its citizens. large populations, their growing military strength, economic potential and influ- ence in international affairs these two Currently India is being visualized as a superpower in the to contend with the developed econo- countries are being cited as having the making. And it is in this context that a vital question can be mies of USA or Europe or fast develop- capacity to influence the future course raised: can India be a superpower? To better understand the ing economies like China and others. In of action in world politics thereby hav- position of India in the international arena, let us begin with the field of economics India is thought ing the potential to reach the status the dictionary meaning of the term ‘superpower’. The term ‘su- to reflect tremendous results. Indeed of superpower. Whatever the reasons perpower’ implies a powerful and influential nation, especially India has come a long way. There are for enlisting them as ‘Asian giants’ in a nuclear power that dominates its allies or client states in amazing improvements in the field of the category of superpower, attention an international power bloc. In its generic sense, those few science and technology, in the IT sector should be paid towards the actual posi- states with power may be referred to as superpowers where major strides have been taken forward. tion to see whether they are real ‘giants’ a combination of a series of variables are considered to be Many other instances can be cited to or not. This would mean that the mere essential for transcending the rest of the states in the inter- show that India is really moving forward setting up of shopping malls in any and national arena. These variables include the size of the popu- in certain sectors of life. Cases may be every corner of the city will not solve the lation, economic wealth and military strength, besides other illustrated from our day-to-day lives to problem. In reality, shopping malls cater requirements. All these factors contribute to make a nation show that the advancement in the area to a very small segment of the popu- developed. of science and technology is no longer lation. Care should be taken to provide With the booming Information Technology (IT) sector India is the preserve of a small segment of so- basic amenities to the masses in view being visualized as an upcoming country competent enough ciety. Today even the hawkers selling of the situation that an inequality be- 28 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Your Say the lack of transparency and account- tween the rural and urban populations tion, these facts are of vital importance to a country’s growth ability at all levels of administration. has been growing at an alarming rate, and progress. India has a population of more than a billion And although it has more than 250 Uni- resulting in unrest among the impover- and it has the world’s eleventh largest economy. Although it versities, still the fact remains that 39% ished majority of the population. aspires to become a superpower, one should also be aware of adult Indians are unable to read or of the fact that more than a quarter of the world’s poorest write. The adult literacy rate is 61% and Being very positive about India’s abil- people reside in this portion of the world. Today widespread this rate is behind the literacy scenario ity to become a developed nation, it poverty has become a remarkable trademark of India. Poverty of Rwanda and barely ahead of Sudan. could be argued that the development is also the cause of many other problems like child labour, This could be arguably overstated, since paradigm is to be shifted away from unemployment, health and other issues. Even after more than people who are considered literate mere economic development. The aim 50 years of independence it is a shame that the world’s largest sometimes can hardly do anything more should rather be towards developing number of poor people reside in India. It is estimated that of than sign their names. a more holistic social and human ap- its nearly one billion inhabitants, 260.3 million are below the The enrolment rate of children in schools proach to life. This implies that devel- poverty line of which 193.2 million are in the rural areas and is another problem area. The enrolment opment should be much more than just 67.1 million are in urban areas. of 6-15 year olds in schools is showing achieving high rates of gross domestic signs of decline and it is being seen that product (GDP). Development, in order to about 40 million children who are sup- be effective, should focus on all round “India, in order to posed to be in school are not. It is equally development of the nation rather than unfortunate to find out that more than a just measurement of development in become a significant quarter of India’s population live on less terms of GDP alone. A country’s level than a dollar a day. If we turn our atten- of human development is to be linked tion to the 2006 United Nations Human with the issue of a well-developed and player in the inter- Development Report we will see that In- prosperous economy. The human devel- dia ranks 128th in terms of human health opment index (HDI) denotes much more national economic and welfare out of 177 countries. than high income or productivity of a country. HDI emphasizes the process scene on a sustained of how high income or productivity is There can be no doubt about the great turned into education and health op- potential of countries like India and Chi- basis has to over- portunities and consequently into high- na but at the same time one must also er levels of human development. It may be aware of the severe structural and be pointed out here that HDI includes institutional lacunae existing here at come these pitfalls three basic dimensions. They are life ex- all levels of functioning. And with such pectancy at birth as an index of popu- acute problems the hype about Indian and roadblocks.“ lation health and longevity; knowledge economy in the world of affairs seems and education, which are measured by to me somewhat premature. India, in adult literacy rate and the combined order to become a significant player in primary, secondary and tertiary gross the international economic scene on a enrolment ratio; and the standard of Although reduction of poverty has been a declared goal of sustained basis has to overcome these living measured by GDP per capita. In the development planning of the Indian government since the pitfalls and roadblocks. It should direct short, it denotes a means of measuring 1970s it may be said that much has not been achieved yet. its attention towards improving the lives standard wellbeing. Needless to men- One of the reasons for this state of affairs can be attributed to of its citizens. Experience in India shows that it has a long way to go in order to feed millions of its citizens, provide pure There are major differences between drinking water, electricity, education, urban and rural life in India. paid employment and such other basic amenities of life. It goes without saying that when these requirements are ful- filled, India, or for that matter any other developing country, will be able to raise itself to the status of superpower. About the author: Aktar Ali from India is a student in the European Master’s Programme in Life- long Learning: Policy & Management. 29
    • Your Say International Health from within Germany How Tropical Medicine can Become a lot of Fun Outside the Tropics Berlin, June 14, 2008 – Virchow Science - Biotech Park Berlin, Robert Koch-Institut All these were united by mainly one fea- ture: most happened in the context of “I am counting down: three … two … one … One and a half years earlier Africa or rural Asian settings. Still, my flashbang, flashbang, flashbang!” new office was as far away from the During the last two years I studied In- next malaria case as it could be: I found The door blew open, six police Special Forces officers wearing ternational Health as an EM TropEd stu- myself spending some time in Berlin at armour, weapons and respirators stormed into the laboratory. dent and I was introduced to its many Germany’s federal public health depart- There, a person in a yellow Tyvek overall, wearing a mask and different aspects: from tropical diseases ment, the Robert Koch-Institut. goggles, was mixing solutions in front of an animal cage. He and sexual health through public health From the perspective of the Federal was taken by utter surprise. Stunned by the speed of the ac- and epidemiology to health economics. Government (Health is generally a re- tion the subject in the protective suit was wrestled down and hand-cuffed without any resistance. “German police! You are under arrest! Do you understand?” A faint ‘yes’ could be heard distorted by heavy breathing un- der his mask. 25 seconds after the door flew open, the labora- tory was secured, the subject in custody. He was brought out and relocated to the mobile decontamination facility. Out- side of the view from the laboratory complex a small mobile tent-city had been put up just an hour earlier. Between the erection of tents and the hectic set-up of container-based facilities, a combined task force of Police and Public Health forces prepared for the takedown. Officers from the Federal Police, Federal Criminal Office and the Robert Koch-Institut were working together to develop the best tactical approach, necessary protective equipment, medical treatment options and discussed the strategy on how to best investigate the sus- pected terror laboratory and how to make sure that neither evidence nor specimens were compromised. The transition of the workplace for an International Health expert: Top row: Scenes of the clinical training course Advanced Management of biological Threats AMBIT, developed to train clinical personnel and public health officials in the management of highly contagious diseases. Middle: The Guesthouse of the Federal Foreign Office, the ‘Villa Borsig’, venue of the 2008 G8 AMBIT LEPH, a G8 workshop on forensic epidemiology, where the Public Health sector met the Law Enforcement sector to discuss and train national and international cooperation in the dealing with crime involving bio- logical agents. Lower row: Scenes of LEPH (Law Enforcement and Public Health) coopera- tion, which has many aspects: Joint tactical operations include set-up and man- agement of ‘mobile towns’ that include tents and containers for coordination, communication, decontamination and medical treatment; Special-ops, aided and advised by biologists and medical doctors; Border posts at airports, which comprise the first opportunity to detect the importation of diseases by travelers that are manned by trained federal police officers. 30 emanate | ISSUE 02
    • Your Say Berlin, June 12, 2008 sponsibility of Germany’s federal states), BIT for a special audience: the Global next to crunching of nation-wide health Health Security Initiative, a multi-na- A Scenario unfolds data, there are two special circumstanc- tion network dealing with all aspects of es when a degree in public health comes health emergencies. I realized: this was in handy: a state-spanning outbreak or my first act of international health from Representatives from the G8 public health and law enforce- the threat of such an outbreak by the WITHIN Germany. The course’s success ment sectors were meeting at the guesthouse of the Foreign importation of infectious diseases by seeded even a more interesting project: Office in Berlin. A discussion on protective equipment was travelers. A particular case of ‘impor- the organization of a G8 conference on interrupted by the ringing of the phone in the conference tation’ could also be the intentional Forensic Epidemiology. room: A detective of the Federal Criminal Office reported the release of a biological agent referred Forensic Epidemiology in this context receiving a video-threat message at the Federal Chancellery to as bio-terrorism. As many of these basically describes the cooperation of depicting a man in protective gear, diseased animals, a labo- diseases originally come from exotic the public health and law enforcement ratory and pictures of diseased patients in a rural hospital. The places, knowledge of tropical diseases is sectors in prevention and investigation message was immediately relayed into the conference room a valuable add-on. By chance, I landed of crime involving biological agents. To- and a joint investigative task force was formed. in such a convergence zone: the federal gether with the German Federal Foreign Over the course of the day participants had to face numerous coordination center for biological emer- Office and our US partners, the Depart- situations which needed to be solved by public health and gencies. Besides a multitude of other ment of State, the Centers for Disease law enforcement sides. Together it was established that the responsibilities my new workgroup had Control and the Federal Bureau of In- received message posed a credible threat as reports emerged developed a practical training course for vestigation, we developed a 3-day pro- of a smallpox-like disease carried by travelers in Italy and the medical first responders on the man- gram, in the course of which we decided UK at the same time. Finally, a sick and suspicious passenger agement of highly contagious diseases: to try an interactive and PowerPoint- was picked-up by boarder security officers at Berlin’s airport Advanced Management of Biological light AMBIT approach for one day. and needed to be interrogated although being contagious and Threats – or, in short – AMBIT. My first in serious medical condition. A real-life interrogation revealed task was to help to internationalize AM- the possible location of the laboratory and a developed joint strategy for the takedown which climaxed in “German po- lice! You are under arrest!”, ending not only the career of the man in the protective suit, but also, for the time being, my own at the Robert Koch Institute, which I left soon after the G8 conference to embark on a PhD in Australia; dealing with health-only issues again. Beyond G8 International terrorism became a constant topic on the agenda of the yearly G8 summit. In the case of bio-terrorism, where detection, investigation into the source of disease and containment are critical components, efforts in international capacity building can be rewarding beyond national security, by the accelerated identification of the source, improved in- ternational cooperation in disease surveillance and informa- tion exchange on infectious diseases; all integral elements necessary to prevent global epidemics of diseases. Besides individual out-reach initiatives to other countries by the G8 nations, the G8 AMBIT was observed with interest by rep- resentatives of the European Union, Interpol and the World Health Organization and in this way hopefully contributed to make knowledge and expertise also available beyond the cir- cle of the G8. About the author: Gregor Lichtfuss is an alumnus of the TropEd Programme. 31
    • Visit the EMA website at www.em-a.eu emanate “Emanate” is the official magazine of the Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Association (EMA). Editors (EMA) Rikke Skovgaard Andersen (EMA Magazine Team Coordinator) Karel Van Acoleyen Michael Eshiemokhai Jasmine Kang Gregor Lichtfuss Amber Parker Zachary Rothstein Natasha Sardzoska Valentina Villoria Luca Zanaica Editors (ICUnet.AG) Natalia Spartakova Ana Goelden Dan Marsh Project Management What is the EMA? ICUnet.AG The Erasmus Mundus Students and Alumni Association is a network Rindermarkt 4, D-94032 Passau of students and alumni of the European Erasmus Mundus masters www.icunet.ag programmes. EMA is a forum for its members to meet and exchange experiences. EMA also works to ensure good conditions for interna- Graphic Design tional students and graduates in Europe and to improve the quality of PR+Werbung Ludwig Faust Erasmus Mundus study programmes. You can reach EMA at Prüfeninger Schloßstraße 2 service@em-a.eu D-93051 Regensburg www.pr-faust.de Any thoughts about the website? EMA is a community with vast geographical distribution, and cultural Print Shop diversity. In an endeavour to bridge the gap, we are committed to pro- Rotaplan Offset Kammann Druck GmbH viding a host of useful web-based services to the community. Please Hofer Straße 1 forward your feedback, queries, and suggestions about our online serv- D-93057 Regensburg ices to IT@em-a.eu. This project has been funded with sup- Are you a prospective Erasmus Mundus student? port from the European Commission. View a complete list of available Erasmus This publication reflects the views only Mundus Masters programmes here: of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use http://ec.europa.eu/education/programmes/ which may be made of the information mundus/projects/index_en.html contained therein. Education and Culture Erasmus Mundus