There are 2 commands (called Boolean operators) used to combine search terms – OR, AND. OR is used to search for related terms; the journal article may be about either term, so you will increase the number of your search results, e.g., exercise or walking (GB suppl. note: 20 articles, 1 overlap = you obtain 19 articles with OR, 1 article with AND) AND is used to retrieve articles that are about all your search terms; you will decrease the number of your search results using AND. If we wanted articles that discussed both cross infection and knowledge transfer, we would combine both subject headings with AND. Note that we tend to say AND in the English language when we mean OR, e.g., I want English and French articles. When I say this, I really mean that I want publications in either language, English or French. If I used AND in my search strategy, I would obtain only references to bilingual articles, very few or non-existent. (Show them how to combine the search sets from previous exercises.)1- exp Cross Infection/ 20658 2- exp "Diffusion of Innovation“/ 9720 3- 1 and 2 17
PubMed Essentials Feb 22, 2011 ROBIN FEATHERSTONE,SLIDES: www.slideshare.net/featherr
Levels of Evidence Pyramid Systematic Reviews of Less Time Randomized Controlled Trials Less Work Less Evidence Critically Appraised Topics FILTEREDRandomized Controlled TrialsCohort Studies & CaseReports UNFILTERED More TimeCase Controlled More WorkStudies More Evidence
Needs Assessment• How often do you use PubMed?• Why do you use it?• What are you looking for?• What (if any) problems have you encountered?
ObjectivesAfter this class, you’ll be able to do the following in PubMed:1. Execute a simple search2. Locate full text3. Use subject headings4. Use Single Citation Matcher5. Apply limits6. Save searches
What are you looking for? Well… I’m working on this research team and we’re investigating the use of magnesium sulfate as a possible mechanism for improving neurological outcomes after acuteIdentify your traumatic brain injury inkey concepts: young adults. We’d like to know what studies have been conducted.
Find the key concepts…1. What are risk factors for myocardial infarction as a postoperative complication after infrarenal infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair? repair2. Are childhood cancer survivors more likely to have gastrointestinal complications later in life?3. What impact does population density have on population density incidence of Type II Diabetes Diabetes?
Combining search terms• Use OR to find MORE results on the same concept ex. heart attack OR myocardial infarction• Use AND to find LESS results using two or more concepts ex. heart attack AND diet therapy
AND or OR?A. myocardial infarction B. infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair
AND or OR?A. myocardial infarction B. infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair AND
Exercise: Search PubMed using these terms with either AND or OR1. myocardial infarction ? heart attack2. diet therapy ? caloric restriction3. childhood cancer ? gastrointestinal complications4. population density ? Type II Diabetes
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)• MeSH Terms are added to references to describe the subject of these articles• Search with MeSH Terms to increase the relevancy of your results
Search Using MeSH• Identify key concepts• Search MeSH database to find MeSH Terms• Send terms to the Search Box with AND or OR• Search PubMed
DemoUsing MeSH, find articles about cardiaccatheterization methods for patients awaiting aheart transplant
Exercise & 10 min BreakUsing MeSH, find articles on the following:1. NSAIDS for rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy2. Metformin for breast cancer preventionBonus – immunosuppression for HIV infected patients following kidney transplantation
ObjectivesAfter this class, you’ll be able to do the following in PubMed:1. Execute a simple search2. Locate full text3. Use subject headings4. Use Single Citation Matcher5. Apply Limits6. Save searches
ScenarioYou’re looking for:• A particular article• Articles written by a specific author• Articles published in a particular journal
Demo• Find an articles published in 2011 in the journal Diagnostic Cytopathology about fibroadenoma of the breast
Exercise• Using Single Citation Matcher find:1. Articles written by Daniel M. Bernad2. Articles published in Canadian Journal of Surgery in 20103. An article about hospital construction in the journal Modern Healthcare
Limits• Filter your search results using practical screens Examples: Date range Articles published in the last five years Type of article Only review articles Age group All infants Species Only articles about humans
Demo• You need to find a case report, published in French or English over the last five years of pregnancy in lupus nephritis.
ExerciseUsing Limits, find:1. Review articles on electrocardiography for left ventricular hypertrophy published in the past two years2. Clinical trials on perioperative anxiety in children3. An English language practice guideline for treating postoperative pain TIP: REMOVE your Limits after each search
Create a My NCBI AccountA free account with My NCBI will allow you to:1. Save your searches2. Create reference lists3. Set-up email updates of new search results
Demo• Save and set up a monthly email alert to the search for lupus nephritis case studies in pregnancy
Exercise• Register for a My NCBI account (must verify via email)• Run a search on a topic of interest to you• Save your search and set up an email alert (optional)
Recap – Fill in the Blanks• PubMed is a ___ information resource• Combine synonymous search terms with ___• Search ___ when the publisher link doesn’t find the full text• Increase the relevancy of searches with ___• Find an article by a particular author with ___• Use ___ to screen results by publication type• To set up email alerts, ____ your search