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Lighting & light in Building
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Compiled by : Manish Jain Architect ...

Compiled by : Manish Jain Architect
Front DESK Architects
Gr. Floor , Ashoka apartment
Bhawani Singh Road
C-scheme , Jaipur -302001
Rajasthan ( INDIA)
Ph. 91-0141-2743536
Email: fdjaipur@gmail.com
Web : www.frontdesk.co.in

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Lighting & light in Building Document Transcript

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  • 2. t LL.tJMINltiIDI'(l ft: (1) !--QW i 1j;v-tA...b~ S.~~!- ill~r~.'h,A£"M CM ~~a d(A..(. ~ 'CYM.~ i'd~C<. ~ ~ I VAyf~ _j" VtU ~ "" "'I "'""'" 1 11-< d.is-t••,,«- tJ f" 0'"f ~ -seu.•ce.. lt1~i~ ~ ~~ .• r ~~) 10+'0 -'f-fO)t .• I..f~!. <:l",) G) ~Mb eN1:'~ Ct>''S1'he. tAUl ~ 6~ I'~UL 11{l.t~' d.~ ~ ~ -* ~~M tldA'~eJ ~ ~."('.. d~~~ i ~~~~t))( ~ • ~ a~lC. 8 . ~ ~~..,.""~c..eM'~ ~ 'tllL.tt'1i<.~""''''''' M ~~h'.",<.J;'",. t"P tk4 Ccl ~ k6Y..,,~1 fdl6"t.U •. &, rM~e f1·h.~ == ~ '?~o id c:! ~ u. o:z::. .,aa L~ iIIt(Mft~"'~ ~ .t~u ~ ~t!A-1t/ kS.tYCM uTI! '" 4kt SCM" i t4v.. ~6 ~ ·il((.t ~lI 4i""", l€ ., Sf of' E::2-t es of" • =-:J • (1I4Mi hot.,'O' ~ .L~ sow(u oj. fl-tf,'••t'k ILtjf-k r. VISU1tL E FF( C.tEN.C'1 f'uYpose ~ MSl-b a [aa--PRtt.t...1c:.Al' - to ~t:.eJ1re.. tk p~~oV u. ~ _ eJ'tSt4~ VI'!.~ ~ t<R f IS.1 ((!. - -tD c.~ CiM.t-c.%i .., e..Mt.)VI~A-4 eve 14- ;t1lJ01iY~t-("lt1 c pt'opc'fW ~ c:a...l ) _---~"" [0'&Lla.t '31"c.ie:33''' ~~ C"1 ~ 1..1~ HtN4 ~ f"I4A"'-'" ON . TH~eE FA:c.~T C.ltSPEc..r) 1. • Vt'sl-'AI- "c:v'"t'~ . (S~~ -a- ~t'0V) (Yf) 2.. CONS1R.S;t S e.Ns.rtl VI''1 cc:s) .: ~,. VIS'V,,1.. Pe.~Fo~M ANC.E
  • 3. • , :4' : .E.A~'TptS't",.elir o? OC~ c..1 VWOlO ~ .'1'- ~ C.(~~) .2., c.o~T~~Si $EtJ~I1'V'Ity CCs).. r'f'.LOOU~ ~ ~ .,. cs = ~..".,~~Uf't.lhlc (",.....••••••0. ..r1~"- l..0.- t.J IO~ tL.t ,~ ..•'~H!~U. ~ '3, VlsvAL. peltF<>RJ'IAI'lClS ' "e -It,,,e 4~ -(eo- ••••••.• S'=~ , ' eo p"""" ~ p"CS1 "'~ as t4 ••.•.••••be<- ~ cIAttYG~y .s po"Q.{~ f>D" "ta:<M" dr 0>< "":l a>wI f"""'''' ""'" 5=1<2. •.•0,." •••",'100.$ seW LEV!!!!:.-fcv d.~~ -fl-c.'ViWe.D .~ y-eef'O'la s -It> '" 'fYJ. ~... 1 III" r,If"''' U"", Ie.wI ell..", ••.•'it +rD"" o- f - ,,," t p,..L/ """"", I(t,: "" ~"'" y .t-z> to000 0 I&»t. C ""'" ~ st..N $' ~')..t. ) f'UY pf'aeJ../c,..t ~ ~ ~ 00'1) !- 100 1" 2. .. c~. ~. 4" c..ftSUA 1- g Ee.tJ~ • • ovd "'':':J +osl<., ~i fI''I ~ ~l • ' woc-cf ~t.ck1~..:J' ~ ~ ~~) severe I PYO''''O~ -ta.sk.. Cnl«. """,~, Silk w"",~· !Jo" ew",",p-,'.,.,.".lj gLVC-YL -t<><:."'- ,,~w~ "''''~) zooo-'3lXJ O -rU..0n1INA,1(bN ~ ~U.,4.1..lTJE? _." 1... "'2. ~. 4 s. .. .. c.olou y oi L(~h..C colour Ye~eYi~ (i'~kt" dt'sJ,·,."".,"'(..;Ol1 (dl~~cJ CA cl1~) fr.Lcdon1 tytMt .:j,,-y<z luMtt'O..t6Z a.t"WI ~"";01 "
  • 4. GLARE ~_ / co~tvdl~.sH~ eH~~ ~- ~ ~ CW~ i~ It'S~ ~"qse.l:J _.. ItNd ~ I~ -to- t"'!DeI! ""I'OW~E., "Veltewp~lIl1US -.:.a""VA"'" av, etf~e.h (_ ~ ~v~ 1t.( fMl4ttli.t. .• ~~ ~~ ~500~ cA/M~ (90000 ~f1,) ()~ve.~p:»suye t- tess t Su.l-a l~ l~ tc..trMt~ ~ M ~ ~ ~ ~ lMtW~ ON~ ( OV€Y~"posa,..e :... d(.co"" Q:"t cat(.()eJ.. w; ~vi,U t1KM M ~ ~ ~ l~ hJ Mi~D1.I) ~, ct.'SCOWl~t ~l~ (l~ ~ ~ _ ","'C./'IITVOS c} ~t'"'" l.diGatd ~ < d,;;;al:t11il<:J jl...-e. C ,., ~ """''''':J 91..OOl"'JE:~Fe0 t- e~~e..J by E!.'IC'!.&Mlw. ~~ ~ ~ "~M- ~~0<1Y ~ diM", '~b'O~ott.. ~LYees_ ~ DA.'1L.l6t·rt_ --' '@] qlff~ (J'( S~lrjkh. ilAr0'tl1.. 1 U)'wJo,.) C/f ~ • tEl exl-eVMY -cef(cd.-4 h,1<t: ~l-t fI.o< qlO~ Of ~ loo.<lJ(}) . i<YIl+ fk< r.rv.W ~ IHte.wlUJ ,,*<Cl-eJ l/,+t •. ~ ~.s, c.1ll'd IY ,,!i-hv • /<tu.Itol • dit I. d~ 0. SI.-..1,r..t ~ 1>-1, -tk< SUIt. iI.~ ""~ ~ OV 1t> ~ 8~ f'C"t1+ Si = (t{4~ ..h1.~f1'~ iwdocrY tll- tk po'",*I f;o __ illUft.hl4t.,lo-, Dt..td oUY, ~ a.t1 W1 o1SJ.,ud-~ 8~ ~' s~ DAY U6Hi -¥a.ctov ~C.IZpf"' (s vall' (DF::'LoW?r) ~~L~ ut.uiDV. ovev .tt ~ ~c:iU.f'"1 ~ ~ -iA No PfReG1 / 1J"'Y 1...uHT FAC1"O~ COF) 14 A j~'" I>tMlctt~, A.t- '" c..Wdi.. ~Mt, i/-t 'lI.f,'o iIu. S'l'IIW ~"~ 0 •••.•.- doot' IlIu"' •.••.4t.'"" I ~)(pk'lO e..I ,~ ~~ d~ u,t-..r 1a~ COP) ~ O"F == •.~~ X (00 tie) iM 1~(If u.~J1~U~ it> M a. 'UCt.M~cr
  • 5. ~ ~ ~~ - 1 SkLt ~ .sC 2. eA1fc.ut~ ~ect~ ~~ :3 t~Ct-lLJ ~ ~~ "Thus tpF '= SC l' E~C. -I"IRe] 0Mtfe't~ • ~~ O'Y If ~f111 ~44/e, J ~ 5C 6~C G areA 1 ~~",·.ti'bl~ ~ fk po'* o ~ ~!Wh1d.t -e- C 11AM.ht~ 1~ -d .w ~tf«-) ~ f') w rN()~ C''Z.t!: t> • po£ ltolJ ,'w, ~~ ~ ~tt-- .. C) ~.~ '1 w"kd(~ r)C~ ~ (!)q~'±J ~ ~ CJ ex~~ ~ck'~ ~ +k a~q, ~ U~)l.t.l ~ V~i~le ~ 4lL t'Dl~ !:> ~~~~a ~ ~~~ ~ . ~ itA S'Je + t-Ocm1 £) ~ Y'a";:' 1- wAUl efoc" o ~w.t4(A. t"..., ~{a)..:0)1 ~ LU)'l-u!f"-iJ ~ e )e.K~ctc:t~a..'} 'l-1..tlo~ !~Q.~ '-. PES(~ N g~Cf '.- ~ OF ct.,oti1d.s 0't1 ~~ nf,,~)4hJ'0')1 ~vt4lA,blL hcrm S~ ~ {~.fu~ dLpe~ 0V1 ~ 4. t.(olAd ~ A~ p"s,I~ 1- St> l1. i+, ~ ~~' ~ c: "n ••ts vtly/Othle. ~~ ~ d~~~ ~ lA)1t4"'-1> (Lt' 1 •• ~ ca.!Attc:t~ k~~(.eol')~ 1)~) We "Sll fJ(..(M-f ~11~ .f.t~ ·oeS/4,u gu.y" , . Ira 9' J;tfS/41lJ!:.1t!i If.I-"t')1IN~Tf"N V14ltl~:- ~ ~ ~~ LoetUlovt.. ,!:os t»t t::MJ- tJ0uy i ({U/I'tf'~ aJIPf;f tete! (G$) ~)fik4 Vr a.u:I t...I i"I • ~Oy.'C cr- ISX) oj -liMe tJ d.O;J ItjA./" ltIua (-H.#" Hw.. ~ ~~k ~ 4LtH.!Sd- ~Lt- -I/..a. :t~.) VALVE s W c.lt4/~'}f "tt;' /I/Clj)f tn..:J,' ~ ~ c3l.e..tt ,?, +A.k/~. /'JdW h; frrntAl ~ D F == Sl)( 100 Ju- EO::J I(J~ (dv>~"~lI:JI ;JJt." 1i?:o ; Ill.(,..,'It~J,'/JI.1 • ~ e- esr~hl,;sl,..~.J);- l'A1-1 k ClMV'N e.f fb 0 F
  • 6. ,deS1B11 S~' I~ bYra.~ C~ kt(J. r4.{~ It(J" (,I J ~ i Itro..,44$1 ,41' t..ohJe~ LA111TVlOE5 '7- rowe".. 0 F UMA ~ I..ubl -tb o.dtel'V.e .s~ E •.. gwppe.M~t-a.2J ~~:::.,,~ l'~k.·tt~ .r~modev'c.nz. cl'~Ah~ H· is pra.G.'~ Iho.po&.siJ,~ 'f!, ~yf~ ~q~ ~ t('~lt Cpr:. 2..7) i., 5td.L /t- ~ •...... P~A f..., 7lt 8h!m :- C pUfl1cmU'ti:. ~¥plem01f~ MWfr::4 ~141!1? mfrAliMj ~_ J 1l1.~ ;KteytdY'~ ~ YOl7Y'1 ~ lib ~-tM~ ~ el~cJ1'((: ~ I -to, ~de ~ ~s;~MJ iltI.{Thit1t1.I1~ ,.., ~.t6t a w~ ~ ~ o~ iMf~ ftwt 1 d.~ ~ hS~I~' I~S flUl.""'"AA~ • PA~ gy~1on C pumtWI€Mt tMJr~/bJ. J)~AftJ) l.t. f~1'lll .•••••..dOf tt~"*' o!~~, f'""t~ ""I~ to> WW~ ~(ro Wle.tt Wl>!dooo ~ Ik- .-..~eotf'<"*- '+ I-<- ~ eltvtIJvpe :"- so.v~ 1l1~'d o¥ "'. c. wa><t4 Ix. t)~ tI-4' 4$ w$~ ()- P A- L., ~ ~~ elI(Onamic bote¥h ",.,...fJ rn ~ •.••••.• ""W..wllM ~l<if:r £Nt fUL PPrL . .~~ -! -,'~. '-' CO""""'- ~.•.~~ 1!1 ~. »{ fLlYf'O~"d- ~""" ""'" J""> r It> ~d..t- ~ Ug-,..t,'(j bt4- dleo V1~u..Al ~K!(. 'u,ll-k <3lJ's1<te ~. ~ ~ U~ ~ .• PA-SLf SLJ&~ -c» "m~ ~a+I's~~ w{~ Y"t.g(4.~ ~e tAI'~, 'i ELE 01 ~,c.. L~ P Ir ~d e,3 CtlMt- __ ~ .f~()ves~ ~ ~'ssio.o'l1! ~ .1'& dishi"~ Sf. J'~I.t ~S'/. ~ ~li'. 'i5~ -a'/. ~
  • 7. H{ SCADWC.I GC A. L OBJecT/V5$ (1) R~«chCm 1- C3.Ul'Y OW1.cL..J (?J '"!:).1CyeM€YIl-- i., .5~Uz. ~ak«e ,t-us1-tA ~ ljy f,:;,mp r'> ~ at::- I''II'cf Nle. H"t ~) ~iy mil~~t tt:>rtejV-') sluLJd ~ l.col~ Q~q ••• dw"l-- tf (t-e;u.f ~ . FOIQ~AND P'-"NtJlt,llt ~- (1) COM POtC b!J f.>1~tl-1~ ~) 11 kJo..rd ttIS1a (f I"" ~) . N- S oY1'eMtO-u"" c..tf) douhle roo~ fIf1~~' ur) L.aW y~cZ.. ktM'lcb..j' L11 ~p.a~H.J pl~~l1et# :- • G~ pl(lCt~ A.o I'(..(~ ol:U)rnoc((lJ,:Q.1 ~ J:>(J.ubl~ u~ ~ ~ , ~~ {o~ ~ SUl'1 A~ ~t ail" w"l1 he; """Si~~ re.ss~~ • ~ aM~l~ "~(~ados. eM- ~Nl ~t- wAL Cttc. .~d..~ c..cn1( d&!cW4j~ ~ fz, ~ o~ ..Mpe CJ.'~ "t ~ , plA~ aose; -foS~, I'14nu-t ~t- Ba";." "'" .ex~.-vJ t.-U4 • (2) t.,~ loo~~- It ~rt..u eM<:'oS~ ~o~~ ts: ~')(aJ..J..d. ~~ ,'., YVI~ fAlOj' H'Jl- w~ M 11 .fM &M1 ~ ~ ~ ~~ s.~ Ot~ CoUA-~~ ~ ar~ ~ ----=....:.&~ tw- ct~. CooleL aw Cool~ S;~.s.. ~
  • 8. .'#-====~~eD1lAU.P It~ cut ~CSI"'1 'DAY. NICfHT ~) N- S o,(eMtolACM,. ~- • ~-s t!h.viAAAOA ~~ ~ I~t- Nz~ la~ ~ S01tW ~d..t'D.t,,~ • W~.1r Q'Y(~~~ rs we£r. pe!'" •• N~- "'~bH~~ ~ <: ~f&yV', h:>if~ e,1~) &tt u'~ ~.J b~.yyJ~ ~ 4 p1~.,tI~ ~rt pl-.W CM ~f:' C7r ~t s''c:Ite...
  • 9. ~. I. L.tmh'lotlS tlu~ l4) • 'k~Ik eGJwvo.€M~ ~ ~7 ~o..1~ •. ~o.dia.Mk poweA- env.1i~ ~ soura. IJ ~ e...f Lu.r(ll VI. c?'0 ft~ pe;r secOY'td evo.lu.a.~ 't1ll~.1 a1 l~ lI"s~ ef(eek. -+--~ ;lIttmmaMU or) ,,- ~ pLhHk ~ ~ I1tZ1Y'2. IS I t·m/m2. ie u.~ .....+---~11't~ one I~~~ eM ~"" S4J m .(J.fr(.A .) 'Cel ;'c::.:r '1& =dU~) [..V=4~ Sc, e-et:j8; ~=~7 ~!::-. . t u~'forrt1~11,~ , ~~ uJo.H,., ..W'l'U W;I.b 'II,~~ '1 I CD.V1.d2la. 8 z. Lt.4l)'IVO(AS lV ten~-,(.r:) , ~ -nu. G1"AawH~ t..J,WcM deSOcMLoeg ~ po~1Y 4 d< -to ~+ uakt 'Wl ~ 3'1~ d,v-ecHo-rv WL ~"""'-" ~vj< ~ I"€-"- Ll"J)- solo</ """'81"- "(f '''I "dJ,<AL<. t'~ '" clAY'e~0Y'I lA ~lli.J ~ ..lMvv'l- Vl.O ',vttrM.n I ~ . UN,H- ~ vd el~ Urn./S~) eo lAYLL- ((J'( M,{N'Yl~~ ~) CoNldelo. 1_ .,tY<.r _I~'u' eot~ ',,, i<Am <} "-<>MM", ~ ~.~ ~ aD ~~t- 1- W'5rJi~ Il,ljj eJdf~ c::v.>. C61 ...dela. l's UV1At- q Lu m:'l UIAD 1>1te'"sit:1 1h rY~.u h-1d", 1< YWI '1 LtAMAn"0 /v,k>/)'" of 1.&J1ll '1 0. blad e. b~ .. mcL'c<lzJY O'f'em~~ ~t tl-te. t"-!>lpey-;;17J.re: ot ~ ,,01 idifi'c.ati ov, '* pia+i VIU M • I co.VldeJa. = O' ~8 '2.. L~del Cl'ItetUto.h·CI1~l) ov iI t.Mi VG t(O n • 1J.A,m1YM.0 iWx .,'Ad,*e'VlJ- p.et.. u.v.Jd- t). y&? fs ~11~ iI (.)KYlh'la vtCL. . • iIu.m,"""VlCL a>M"'* be. el,)' c/i ~ t4'f'" ecia t-e<I '":J Vf'-' ~ <eQ.:l eJf-;t:;fr 4- nItA M i'MVllL " '" I"o.lU'j • wjrtu... 4 "0=!- fV a-e. C/Y IV':J •••. ,,"'" "'~~ b r>1"':")V'Atu.<i6 01- I1ILlmi'vld'Vl"'- aM 'r4i<'<f<K p~
  • 10. LUMINAN(.E CL) o l/l~ C.4/ m'l. • ~dW)~' at f{u. llBhf emt~ LV) 3~ cl1WCh'oY) VJey ~~Gte4 Cl~ 1 o; ~~ ar ~e~~ S~Ce.-. ~ pl~ 4- • eF ~oY) ~ ~l~ &b ttu.. .ul-t.e ~ SlS N:- (~) oS z:. ~ Y'e-", 4D ~ ~~ tk d..{~[,j0Vl 8P eGi~ ~ ~ 4.fJplt~ err ~~~ a..~. ~ ~~~A 1 1 ",,""Y--l , ~ ~~a¥Ut ~~ M a.posKlb e.sb) .~ ,} ~,... 4~· I-- . W""""""-' x: r x ~ech',"l'''J = ~s~ ~m:.V1tU1 DCa"h) = i"LMMA'y)avuez~ B - Yefte.cf-~ ft~ 11.Gi~ ftux f= I f=-D . - p~1:- y-e}eec./Vv reA.fecl- ~.sCIYberY Effec~ve,1tt0Y.>'>tr) Lon~~ l'nrlAk- pawa' (rn e.4/.)L{reJ [1-1 WM) fD ~s fs, cAlle..cJ ik<Z eff'1'(.OL~
  • 11. ZlLU 1Yl N A-t!O N ',- ------ 2- "(k d<-£d- HI""" "''''''''cc: ",-to.. poi'1 r- "'" '" ~ ~ CEv) N ~Ctv?.r~e. n(urn'II1(AV' C.L tY' a. yucryyJ s~u dJo..o.L 9~ ~ cMwd- flux ~ -tilL4f- re.aU~ bet. ye~e-cIiOYl cjf ~ £..tA.AfOtC0 lE""v) C-t) G?-.(oJol-C 0- oJ d..1Yt'd ~ o.~0"") L, i . 4"2- II-~~ 1- SUl.J..tM. -- L C9l -r6~ «()~ .= 41"1.. tn, d..t'SWtYll-t - •• I-t rh 1.0 1 A is j-Icrv0 Ct:M ~1d.eN POvJ- B, jlAv-u- ~~ I1.aNc cYt4 ~ I' (J;:L 1'<2tU)wJ 1di<1-= I!: """'" fl P a - D 2, 11I,tuN,)~ -IA vtDvV ~l9 1'tt s~c..c. ~ 1'O, 'v.clJaM c..c..., 10 0 ~ ~1.4~ Vt-O =r: l'nd,..'co. tes #t-.r.. fC!>(PIrr ¥=en ..J.e ~ citre~ CvJ ~~ ~~ -, J01V~ -fk.. ~ P"'~ ~ ~~ il'u.mlfAU~
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  • 13. • lYF ~eMOh OnE ~ ~;~ cl;=k:4::Lr<~~~~ ~eCdaV7OZ..3 ~ 'rdVh1 s.~~UQ h~ = .rn~ H~~ C H.~~ '1 ~¥ ~~ L = ~ "-'~ v-'lLAk.L) W 'Z' lMc::t Ii....- A r~u,laY ~ i L..um 6Y1t;wt-0 -w pto.;lM1..e...r iz ;:.a,ie"~ 0W1 ~ ~ 1 ;~t~0vYl4 2, Low W'jrvYl~ - La-~ MlA/Jh to€. ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <rf- -tW- d'peJro. fvy ~ ~ ~LL- ~ ocfj ~ ~ Cl~, ']. ~~Ii sd U::3hJ"(j . - ~ f-kt. fwtW~ or: ~8'h{VitM ~ f-i)o~ ~ (,l$.e. ~ +y~ 1 .Lt~5~ , .£:::Kampl e... tv) Ubr-~ ~ ~ USh K6- t--, Lv6LI u 4 ~u~ '/4 ~ ~ (Yla,i..-, ~tlvl ~ ['1.:3 ~"1 ~ Icl e. ~ ~ fk.L ~ ~?tCk.. ILuJ(Y'I IN-I-tIO N ~OAUlll5$. ~ _ I. :L 3- Lt. i. qLARE , ~tc:M.D1~ b-rlBl--kNJ'l) ~ ~ ~~ 1- Vt'e0 UtJM..J 9l~~ .~' ..e.(DN "T"R!ts -r - o:;ed-s a-re.. f{ ~~~eyt.ftfZ. ~~ ~ ~ ':J L.?~t-rz:;v.,t- <=ea>w1"aA'11e,p 0,~s ~ Grnrrctl.)t c:.;,tt.-, ~ yo ~IL ~ ) h'lClY'e.- V)'sibl.e. ~ Q~ec~.
  • 14. 3•. l)~fo~~ - Vo.AAo.V1oY1 1 l'IlW1'~o.Ma 6'Vec wOYkJ~ areA skcWJ vtfr h~l/y b~ S'I.{~ rn 1V) t's. let') u.."- ~ 0 a..fJ r'-'<-ffj 'el t ave.ra..Je. .• e~sure ~ ~cmnrn~V1a.ut S~/h.. ~h''o ~ ~ b6 r e'l(cu.-/. e..i .& A $1 c.. U 41-{ r sa..JR.C E S :, • pot'r1r lJ~kt s:'C:>UTCL , rAb~ ~ b-~ IVY) Uj~ p~ lA:>A-tt- ~ ~uaY~ Lp.~ ,. , e ~ coto.v- 'v'"'<2-A.dd"lon ., •• ~ V'1ot... t?-1d..L l'? ~ I".V? 'S.'Mpv.> ~&~ CO~~IPER....A..nc>~ IN UfYlp S.EtEctIO~S • LAMf ufe.... C!t tl....rN!M ~p~ · effr~• er-e'(t:..li O ~pe.,o..h.t~ • vo~e ~u...t'Yt!.. '"I}~ • ~ yeV(:fd'~l1 • U~V Lt"'SM:; $'~ , ~CJ'Y'£ e.:~t::1~ ~ l'vIcP~~(LA •.. L6~ Y<!M.cGlAh ~e.Q / ole..lux CDv1 ~ - d.ou-?} ~ <...-. ~ Vsh-.- j • o...~'he.Y.) u~ 'isfJtD I p IFFv~cD
  • 15. Unle •• otherwise indicated, all data in this .ection have been ob.trocted, with per- mission, from the IES LIghting Handbook, 5th ed., publi.hed by the Illuminating Engineering Society in 1972, and from other publication. of th.. Soci ••ty. a. noted. GLOSSARY OF LIGHTING TERMS Not ••, Many af th •••• t••rm. may be found in th•• American National Standard Nomen- c/a/vre and Definitions lor Illuminating Engi- n.-ring. ANSI/IES RPI6-1967. Oth en have appeared in mar •• recent publication •. D••fI- nitionl of electrical terms common to lighting and to oth ••r field. are available in American National Standard Definitions 01 Electrical and ElectroniCl Tenns,ANSI/IEEE Stci 100- 1972. For additional and more detailed defini- tion., .ee IES Lighting Handboob, /981. .: Absorptonce: Ratio 01 the flux obsorbed by a medium to the incident Ilux. Absorption: Generol term for the proc ••• by which incident flux i. dissipot.d. (Not.: All the incid.nt flux is accounted lor by the proc ••••• 01 reflection, tr cns- mission, and obsorption.) Acc.nt lighting: Directionol lighting to .mpho.ize a porticulor object or draw ott.ntion to a port of the lield 01 view. Soffl.: A .ingl. opoqu. or tronslucent ele- m.nt to shi.ld a source from direct view at certain ongles or to abs.orb un- wont.d light. Sollost: D.vice used with .I.ctric dischorge lamp to obtain the necessary circuit con- dition. for .torting ond operoting. "Slock light": Populor t.rm lor ultroviol.t • nergy n.or the vi.ible sp.ctrum. 8rlghtn.ss: S•• lumlnanc •. Candelo (cd): The unit of luminous intensity (••• Fig_ 11. Candlepower: luminous intensity .xpr •• sed in cand.lo. (se. Fig. I). C.lllng ar.o lighting: G.n.ral lighting .ys- t.m in which the .ntir. c.iling is, in .f- f.ct, on. larg. luminair., a. in louv.r.d c.iling. and luminous c.iling._ C.lllng cavity: Cavity formed by th. c.iling, the plan. of the luminaires, and the wall surfac •• betw.en th••• two pia ••••. Channel: Enclo.ur. containing the bollast, .tort.r, lamp hold ••• , and wiring for a fluoresc.nt lomp_ Coefficient of utilization: Ratio of the lumi- nous flux (lumens) from a luminaire received on the work plane to the lumens emitted by the luminaire's lamps alone. Cold-cathod. lamp: Electric discharge lamp of the glow dischorge type. Cornice lighting: Lighting by means of light lOurce. shielded by a panel parallel to the wall and attached to the ceiling that distribute light over the wall. Cove lighting: lighting by means of source' shielded by a ledge or horizontal rece •• that distribute light Over the ceiling and upper wall. Cutoff angle (of a luminoire): The angle, meo.ured up from the nadir, between the vertical axis and the first line of sight at which the bore source is not visible. Diffuse ref/ectonc.: Ratio of th.· flux leaving a surface or m.dium by diffuse reflection to the incident Ilux, Diffuse reflection: Proc ••• by which the in- cident flux is redirected ov.r a rang. of angles. Diffuse transmission: Process by which the incident flux passing through a surface or medium is scattered. Dlfluse transmittance: Ratio of the diffus.ly tran.mitted flux leaving a surface or medium to th. incident flux. Dlffus. lighting: light that i. not predomi- nantly incident from any particular dir.c- tion. Diffuser: to.VIC. to redir.ct or scatter the light from a source. primarily by th. process of diffus. tronsmiuion. o/rect-/ndlr.ct lighting: Variant of gen.rol diffuse lighting in which the luminair.s emit little or no light at angl •• near the horizontal. Direct lighting: lighting by lurnineires dis- tributing 90 to 100 per c.nt 01 the emitted light in the direction (usually downward) 01 the surfoc. to be illumi- nated. Disability glare: Glar. resulting in r.duced visual performance and visibility. Discomfort glare: Glore producing discom- fort but not necessarily impairing visual performance or visibility . oownllght: Small direct lighting unit that can be recessed, surface-mounted, or suspended. Electric discharge lamp: lamp in which light is produced by the passage of an elec- tric current through a vapor or a gas, as in fluorescent, cold-cathode, and mer- cury lamps. Filter: Device for changing, by transmission, the magnitude and/or the spectral com· po.ition of the flux incident upon it. Floodlight: Projector designed for lighting a lCene or object to a luminance consider- ably greater thon its surroundings. Floor cavity: Cavity formed by the work plane, the floor, and the wall surface. between the •• two planes. Fluoreseent lamp: low-pressure mercury electric discharge lamp in which a fluorescing coating (phosphor) transforms SOme of the uitraviolet energy generated by the discharge into light. Flush-mounted or receued: lumina ire 0' 'S<.,Y LI6HTING-1 Glossary fig. 1. "-'tl RelatiofUhip bet1OU!t candelos; lu- men.!, and footcandles (l=). A uni- form. point source (luminous intenaity or candlepo-wer = 1 candela) is shown at the center of a sphere of 1 ft (1 m) radiu.a. It is (l881Lmedthat tJt.e sphere is perfectly transparent (i.e., Ita.& 0 reflectance). 'I'M illuminance at any point on the sphere is 1 fc (1 lm/ft») WM1l tJt.e radius is 1 ft, or 1 lz (1 Im/ m') WM1I the rsdiu» is 1 m. The 80 lid angle subtended by the arec A, B, C, D is 1 steradian (sr). The fl= density is therefore, 1 Im/sr, which corresponds to a luminous intenaity of 1 cd; a" originally cs- :fUmed. The sphere Ita.& a tot~1 area of U57 (.~.••.) ft· or mI, and tJt.ere is a luminous fl= of 1 1m falling 01l each. square foot or square me- ter. Thus the ,ource provides a to- tal of If.57 1m. mQ.unted above the ceiling with the open- ing of the luminaire flush with the surface of the ceiling. Footcandl. (Ic), The unit of illumination, tne illumination on a surface 1 tq ft in area on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of 1 lumen (see Fig. 1). Footlomb.rt (ILJ, Unit of luminance, the luminance of a perfectly diffusing surface emitting or reflecting light at the rate of 1 lumen per tq ft. (Nate: The luminance in footlamberts of any reflecting surface is the product of the illumination in foat- candle. and the luminoul r.flectance of tne surface.) Go •• "". d/seharge: Emission of light from gas atoms excited by an electric current. General diffuse lighting: lighting by lumi- noire. distributing 040 to 60 per Cent of the emitted light dcrwnward and the bol- onCe upward and horizontally. 4-271
  • 16. LI&HTlNG-2 Glossary; light and vision / Glore: Sensation produced by luminance within the visual field sufficiently greater than the luminance to which the eyes are adapted to cause annoyance. discomfort. or loss in visual performance end visi- bility. Illuminance, The density of the Iuminous flux incident on a surface. Indirect lighting: lighting by luminaires dis- tributing 90 to 100 per cent of the emitted light upward. Infrared radiation: Radiant energy within the wavelength range 770 to 10- nano- meters.. Instant start lIuorescent lamp: One designed to start by high voltage without preheat- ing of the ·electrodes. Lamp: Generic term for a man-mad. source of light. La•." Acronym for Ught Amplifcation by Stimulated Emiuion of Radiation. Highly monochromatic and coherent beam with a .teady oscillation. Uf/ht 10" foctor (LLFPFactor used in calcu- lating level of illumination after a period of time. It toke. into account temperature and voJtage variations, dirt accumulation, lamp depreciation. etc. louver: Series of boffle. used to shield a source from view at certain ongles. louver shielding angle: Angle between the horizontal plane of boffle. or louver grid and the plane at which the louver conceals 0" abjec" above. Lu_ (1m),The unit of luminou. flux (••• Fig. 1). lum/na/r.: Complete lighting unit consist- ing of a lamp or lamps together with the porll designed to distribute the light. to position and protect the lamps. and to connect the lamps to the power suppl.,. Lum/na/r. eHlcieney: Ratio of luminous flux emitted by a luminaire to that emitted b., the lamp or lamps used therein. luminance (photometric bright". •• ): The luminous intensity of a surface in a given direction per unit of projected area of the surface as vi_ed from thot direction. lum/nau. ceiling: Ceiling area lighting .ys- tem comprising a continuous lurface of diffuse transmitting material with light lOurce. mounted above it_ Lumlna<,. den.,ty: Quantity of light per unit volume. Lum/novs eHleac., 01 a sourCe 01 light: Quotient of the totol luminous flux emit· ted by the totaf lamp power input ex- preued In lu••••••• per watt. LumiltOUs flux, The time rate of flaw of light (_Ag.l). Lux (/xJr The SI unit of illuminance. One lux II one lumen per square met ••. (lm/m2). Ma/nte""n,e lac tor: See light Iou lactar. Mercury lamp: Electric discharge lamp in which the major portion of the rodiation 4-272 is produced by excitation of mercury atoms. Mounting height above the work plane: Distance from the work plane to the light center of the luminoire or to the plane of the ceiling for receued equipment. Polarization: Proce •• by which the trans· verse vibrations of light waves ore oriented in a specific plone. Preheat (switch start) IIuar.scent lamp: One de.igned for operation in a circuit requiring a starting switch to preheat the electrode. in order to stert the arc. Rapid-start IIuorescent lamp: One designed for operation with a ballast that provides for preheating the electrodes and initiat- ing the arc without a starting switch or the application of high voltage. Recessed: See lIush-mounted. Reflectance of a surlace or medium: Ratio of the reflected flux to the incid.nt flux. Rellected glare: Glore resulting from spec- ular reflections of high luminances in polished or glossy .urfaces in the field of view, especially within or in close prox- imity to the visual task. Reflectlo~ Process by which the incident flux leaves a surface or medium from the incident side. Reflector: Device u.ed to redirect the Iurni- nous lIux from a source by the prace •• of reflection. Refraction: Process by which the direction of a ray of light changes as it pa •• e. obliquely from on. medium to anoth., in which ita speed is different. Regressed lum/na/re: One mounted above the ceiling with the opening of the lumi- noire above the ceiling line. Room cavity: Cavity formed by the plane of the luminaires. the work plane. and the wa" surface. between these two planes. Semldlrect lighting: lighting by luminaire. diltributing 60 to 90 per cent of their emitted light downward and the bolance upward. SemI-IndIrect Itghtlng: lighting b., lumi- nair •• distributing 60 to 90 per cent of their emitted light upward and the bol- once downward. Shade: Screen mode of opoque or diffusing mat.rial deligned to prevent a light lOurce from being directly visible at nor- mal angle. of view. Shielding angle (01 a lum/na/re): Angle be- tween horizontal line through the light center and the line of sight at which the bore lOurce firat becomes visible. Specular .urlaee: One from which the re- flection is predominantly regular (specu- lar). Starter: Device uled in conjunction with a bollost for the purpose of starting an electric dilchorge lamp. Surlace-mounted lumlna/re: One mounted directly on the ceiling. Suspended (pendent) lum/na/re: One hung from a ceiling by supports. Transmission: Proce •• by which the incident flux leaves a surface or medium on other than the incident side. Transmlttanc.: Ratio of the transmitted flux to the incident flux. Troller: Recessed lighting unit. u.ually long and insta"ed with the opening flush with the ceiling. Ultraviolet radiation: Radiant energy within the wavelength range 10 to 380 ncno- meters. often divided into the following bonds: OIone-producing Bactericidal (germicidal) 220-300 Erythemal 280-320 "Block light" 320-400 Valance: longitudinal shielding member mounted across the top of a window or high on a wall to conceal light source. distributing light both upward and down- ward. 180-220 Veiling luminancet luminonce brightness su- perimposed on the retinol image which reduces its controst and results in de- creased visual performance and visibility. V.lllng reflection: Regular (specular) r e- lIections superimposed upon diffuse reflections. partially or totally obscuring the details of the task by reducing the Work plone: Th. plane ot which work is vsu- ally done. Unle.. otherwise indicated. it is a •• umed to be a horizontal plane 30 in. (760 mml above the floor. LIGHT AND THE ENERGY SPECTRUM light (visible radiation) is only a small port of the entire radiant energy .pectrum. os can be S_n in Fig. 2_ VISUAL ENVIRONMENT Physically. the viluol environment is a three-dimensional pottern of brightne •• and colors visible to a peraon within the environment. It 0110 includes emotional and esthetic values that are Ie.. easily measured but nanethele •• important to the design. The visual field When a perlOn with a normal seeing ap· paratus looks at on object with both eyes at the some time. the vOluol fields of the two e.,es intermesh. as illustrated in Fig. 3. The areo, Hen by the two eye. or. not coex- tensive because 0 portion of the field of each eye il blocked off b., the nose. eye- brow. and cheek. Thus the visual field for both eyes includes more spoce thon the field of either eye. The binocular field is that seen by both eyel limultoneausly and i. approximotel., 60 deg in radius.