Compiled by : FD Architects Forum
Gr. Floor , Ashoka apartment
Bhawani Singh Road
C-scheme , Jaipur -302001
Rajasthan ( INDIA)
Web : http://www.frontdesk.co.in/forum/
Elements of fire protection
use of non-combustible building materials,
use of fire-resistive building assemblies,
installation of automatic detection devices and
development of improved fire fighting
A building construction in which the structural
members (including walls, partitions,
columns, floors, and roof) are of
noncombustible materials having fire-endurance
ratings at least equal to those
specified by the appropriate authorities
"fire resistance rating" is a legal term utilized by
model codes to regulate building construction.
The fire-resistive ratings of various materials and
constructions are established by laboratory tests
Specified in terms of hours a material or assembly
can be expected to withstand exposure to fire.
For exterior walls, floors, and roof of masonry or fire-resistive
material with a fire-resistance rating of at
least 2 hours.
An assembly is a combination of materials put
together in a specific way that achieves the
fire resistance rating required in the building
For example, gypsum wallboard applied to a
Fire-resistance ratings apply only to
assemblies in their entirety.
ROCK WOOL PERLITE BOARDS
Brand : ROCKINSUL by
Rockwool india ltd.
Brand : Mowco Perlite Board
And Pipe Insulation
Calcium Silicate Board
CALCIUM SILICATE BOARD
Gypboard®/ Gyproc® gypsum
plasterboards are the ultimate lining
solution for today's buildings,
providing high levels of performance
in terms of fire rating, acoustic
insulation, thermal insulation,
Gyproc® CalSica is an extra strong
calcium silicate board with excellent fire
and moisture resistant properties. It has
high abrasion resistance and is a
termite proof board. When used with
metal framing system in drywalls it is
good sound insulator.
Fireproofing of Construction
In construction, heavy wood timbers have a relatively
high fire resistance, because fire tends to burn very
slowly inward from the surface, leaving enough sound
timber in the center to prevent collapse.
Wood framing can also be impregnated with ammonium
phosphate solution or covered with special mastics.
To be classed as fire resistive, buildings must be made
of reinforced concrete or protected steel that will stand
considerable fire with minor damage;
While steel retains its strength up to a very high
temperature, it fails rapidly at temperatures over 1,000°F
Fireproofing of Construction
Structural steel may be protected in a number of ways. It can be faced
with brick, concrete, or tile; however, construction with these materials
usually adds too much weight to a building.
A protective layer of concrete over all surfaces of a beam or over the
steel bars in reinforced concrete has to be at least 2.5 in. (6.4 cm) thick
to be effective;
hollow clay tile used to cover beams and girders has to be at least 4 in.
(10 cm) thick.
most buildings use lightweight fireproofing such as gypsum, perlite, and
vermiculite mixed in plaster; one inch (2.5 cm) of such materials will
absorb an equivalent amount of heat as 2.5 in. (6.4 cm) of concrete.
Some recent buildings circulate water inside each column, protecting
the structure against meltdown.
In urban areas, buildings must also provide protection against fire in
neighboring buildings through fireproof exterior walls-preferably
windowless, since windows are fire openings.
Installation of Automatic system
1. Fire alarm system : Smoke Detector
2. Active Fire protection system : Sprinklers
3. Active fire protection device: fire extinguisher
& fire alarm system
A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
Commercial, industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm
system, while household detectors, known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local
audible and/or visual alarm from the detector itself.
Sprinklers & fire protection system
A fire sprinkler is an active fire
protection measure, consisting of a
water supply system, providing
adequate pressure and flow rate to a
water distribution piping system, onto
which fire sprinklers are connected.
Although historically only used in
factories and large commercial
buildings, home and small building
systems are now available at a cost-effective
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish
or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for
use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling,
endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard,
etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically,
a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel
containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire.
1. Water Type Fire Extinguisher
2. Mechanical Type Fire Extinguisher
3. Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher
4. CO2 Fire Extinguisher
5. Dry Powder ABC Stored Fire Extinguisher
FIRE RESISTANT DOOR
A fire resistant door, just like an ordinary door, needs to be opened, closed,
locked, latched, bolted, cleaned and maintained. At the same time, unlike an
ordinary door, a fire resistant door need to be power packed with anti-fire
characteristics, display robust construction with capabilities to take on a wide
assortment of fitments, glazed panels and ironmongery.
There are two forms of Fire resistant doors that are for the picking.
(a) Timber door frames and
(b) Steel Door frames.
How to Build a Fire Resistant
Install fire alarm system and fire protection systems .
Install GFI (ground fault circuit interrupters) outlets and
circuit breakers.. It can, in just 1/30 of a second, trip the
internal circuit, effectively cutting off the flow of electricity
in the event of a possible short.
Use as much concrete as possible in the structure of your
Use hard materials for flooring, doors and roofing. Carpet
is highly combustible.
Install safety features. Fire alarms
Indian Standards (IS CODE) for FIRE
IS CODE Title
IS: 2190: 1992
Code of practice for selection, installation and
maintenance of portable first - aid fire extinguisher
IS: 21775: 1988 Heat sensitive fire detectors for use in automatic electric
fire alarm system (second revision)
IS: 1641: 1988
Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general):
General principles and fire grading and classification (first
IS: 1642: 1989 Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general):
General Materials & details of construction (first revision)
NBC -PART4 FIRE & LIFT SAFETY
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