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Construction material ferrous metal & alloy

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Construction material : Ferrous metal & alloy ,
Compiled by : Manish Jain Architect   Gr. Floor , Ashoka apartment  Bhawani Singh Road C-scheme , Jaipur -302001  Rajasthan ( INDIA) Ph. 91-0141-2743536 , 91-9829063132 Email: fdarchitect @gmail.com  Web : www.frontdesk.co.in 

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    Construction material  ferrous metal & alloy Construction material ferrous metal & alloy Presentation Transcript

    • Compiled by : Manish Jain Architect Gr. Floor , Ashoka apartment Bhawani Singh Road C-scheme , Jaipur -302001 Rajasthan ( INDIA) Ph. 91-0141-2743536 , 91-9829063132 Email: fdarchitect @gmail.com Web : www.frontdesk.co.in Construction MaterialFERROUS METAL & ALLOY by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • STEEL : HISTORIC OVERVIEW round 800 B.C. the general use of iron 16th-19th century wrought iron / cast iron round 1870 A.D. the first production of modern steel late 19th century multi-storey iron structure buildings early 20th century the use of tower and mobile cranes in constructionAr. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) by
    • Metal & Alloys Classifications  Ferrous – Iron as base metal  Nonferrous – No iron in composition ALLOY definitions  Combination of two or more elements  Combination of two or more metallic elements by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Metals Ferrous Metals  Non-ferrous metals  Cast irons  Aluminum and its alloys  Steels  Copper and its alloys Super alloys  Magnesium and its alloys  Nickel and its alloys  Iron-based  Titanium and its alloys  Nickel-based  Zinc and its alloys  Cobalt-based  Lead & Tin  Refractory metals  Precious metals by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Alloys In Metals Compounds  Chemically bonded  Distinct from its constituents Mixtures  Not chemically bonded  Retains individual identity of ingredients Solutions  Liquid  Solid by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Properties of metal & alloyMechanical properties of materials Strength, Toughness, Hardness, Ductility, Elasticity, Fatigue and Creep Physical properties Density, Specific heat, Melting and boiling point, Thermal expansion and conductivity, Electrical and magnetic properties Chemical properties Oxidation, Corrosion, Flammability, Toxicity, … by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • PROPERTIES OF METALSStrength - The ability of a material to stand up to forces being applied without it bending, breaking, shattering or deforming in any way.Elasticity - The ability of a material to absorb force and flex in different directions, returning to its original position.Plasticity - The ability of a material to be change in shapebypermanently. Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALSDuctility - The ability of a material to change shape (deform) usually by stretching along its length.Tensile Strength – The ability of a material to stretch without breaking or snapping.Malleability - The ability of a material to be reshaped in all directions without cracking. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALSToughness - A characteristic of a material that does not break or shatter when receiving a blow or under a sudden shock.Conductivity - The ability of a material to conduct electricity.Hardness – The ability of a material to resist scratching, wear and tear & indentation. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALSFatigueFatigue failures occur when metal is subjectedto a repetitive or fluctuating stress and will failat a stress much lower than its tensile strength.• Fatigue failures occur without any plasticdeformation (no warning).• Fatigue surface appears as a smoothregion, showing beach mark or origin offatigue crack by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALSFusibilityFusibility is defined as the ability of a metal to becomeliquid by the application of heat. Metals are fused inwelding. Steels fuse at approximately 2,500°F, andaluminum alloys at approximately 1,110°F. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALSCreepThe mechanical strength ofmetals decreases withincreasing temperature andthe properties become muchmore time dependent.Metals subjected to aconstant load at elevatedtemperatures will undergocreep, a time dependentincrease in length. Creep in metals is defined as time dependent plastic deformation at constant stress (or load) Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) form of a typical creep curve by and temperature. The of strain versus time is shown in Figure
    • Strength Strength is the property that enables a metal to to resist deformation under load The ultimate strength is the maximum strain a material can withstand. Tensile strength is a measurement of the resistance to being pulled apart when placed in a tension load. Fatigue strength is the ability of material to resist various kinds of rapidly changing stresseS and is ex- pressed by the magnitude of alternating stress for a specified number of cycles. Impact strength is the ability of a metal to resist suddenly applied loads and is measured in foot- pounds of force. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Hardness Hardness is the property of a material to resist permanent indenation. Because there are several meth-ods of measuring hardness, the hardness of a material is always specified in terms of the particular test that was used to measure this property. Rockwell, Yickers, or Brinell are some of the methods of testing. Of these tests, Rockwell is the one most frequently used. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Toughness Toughness is the property that enables a material to withstand shock and to be deformed without rupturing . Toughness may be considered as a combination of. strength and plasticity. It is metal ability to absorb energy before fracture. Recall that ductility is a measure of how much something deforms plastically before fracture, but just because a material is ductile does not make it tough. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Toughness The ability of a metal to deform plastically and to absorb energy in the process before fracture is termed toughness. The key to toughness is a good combination of strength and ductility. A material with high strength and high ductility will have more toughness than a material with low strength and high ductility. Therefore, one way to measure toughness is by calculating the area under the stress strain curve from a tensile test. This value is simply called “material toughness” and it has units of energy per volume. Material toughness equates to a slow absorption of energy byJain (www.frontdesk.co.in) by Ar. Manish the material.
    • Elasticity When a material has a load applied to it, the load causes the material to deform. Elasticity is the ability of a material to return to its original shape after the load is removed. Theoretically, the elastic limit of a material is the limit to which a material can be loaded and still recover its original shape after by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) the load is removed.
    • Plasticity Plasticity is the ability of a material to deform permanently without breaking or rupturing. This property is the opposite of strength. By careful alloying of metals, the combination of plasticity and strength is used to manufacture large structural members. For example, should a member of a bridge structure become over-loaded, plasticity allows the overloaded member to flow allowing the distribution of the load to other parts of the bridge structure. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Brittleness Brittleness is the opposite of the property of plastic-ity. A brittle metal is one that breaks or shatters before it deforms. White cast iron and glass are good examples of brittle material. Generally, brittle metals are high in compressive strength but low in tensile strength. As an example, you would not choose cast iron for fabricating support beams in a bridge. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Ductility and Malleability Ductility is the property that enables a material to stretch, bend or twist without cracking or breaking. This property makes it possible for a material to be drawn out into a thin wire. In comparison, malleability is the property that enables a material to deform by compres-sive forces without developing defects. A malleable material is one that can be stamped, hammered, forged, pressed, or rolled into by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) thin sheets.
    • CORROSION RESISTANCE Corrosion resistance, although not a mechanical property, is important in the discussion of metals. Corrosion resistance is the property of a metal that gives it the ability to withstand attacks from atmospheric, chemical, or electrochemical conditions. Corrosion, sometimes called oxidation, is illustrated by the rusting of iron. Table 1-2 lists four mechanical properties and the corrosion resistance of various metals or alloys. The first metal or alloy in each column exhibits the best charac-teristics of that property. The last metal or alloy in each column exhibits the least. In the column labelled "Toughness," note that iron is not as tough as copper or nickel; however, it is tougher than magnesium, zinc, and aluminium. In the column labelled "Ductility," iron exhibits a reasonable amount of ductility; however, in the columns labelled "Malleability" and "Brittleness,"(www.frontdesk.co.in) it is last. by Ar. Manish Jain
    • Metal Types The metals that Builders work with are divided into two general classifications: Ferrous and nonferrous. Ferrous metals are those composed primarily of iron and iron alloys. Nonferrous metals are those composed pri- marily of some element or elements other than iron. Nonferrous metals or alloys sometimes contain a small amount of iron as an alloying element or as an impurity. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • FERROUS METALS The word is derived from the Latin word ferrum "iron"). Ferrous metals include all forms of iron and steel alloys. A few examples include wrought iron, cast iron, carbon steels, alloy steels, and tool steels. Ferrous metals are iron-base alloys with small percentages of carbon and other elements added to achieve desirable properties. Normally, ferrous metals are magnetic and nonferrous metals are nonmagnetic. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • IRON Pure iron rarely exists outside of the laboratory. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore to pig iron through the use of a blast furnace. From pig iron many other types of iron and steel are produced by the addition or deletion of carbon and alloys. Blast PuddlingIron Pig Iron Process Wrought Iron FurnanceOre Bessemer Process Acid Open Hearth Process Steel Basic Open Hearth Process by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • IRON ORES Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H2O)) or siderite (FeCO3). Hematite is also known as "natural ore", a name which refers to the early years of mining, when certain hematite ores containing up to 66% iron could be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. 98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economyJain than any other by Ar. Manish (www.frontdesk.co.in) commodity, except perhaps oil.
    • IRON ORES IRON ORES ORE APPEARANCE COMPOSITION % OF IRONMAGNETITE STEEL GREY OR BLACK Fe3O4 72-62HEMATITE(a) RED HEMATITE EARTHY OR ROCK ,RED Fe2O3 70-60(b) BROWN HEMATITE BROWN EARTHY 2 Fe2O33H2O 60-42SIDERITE OR SPATHIC CRYSTALLINE GREY FeCO3 48-35IRON STONE GREY TO LIGHT BROWN FeCO3 42-30 by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • IRON ORESMAGNETITE:HEMATITE:(RED)HEMATITE:(BROWN) by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • PIG IRON Pig iron is composed of about 93% iron, from 3% to 5% carbon, and various amounts of other elements. Pig iron is comparatively weak and brittle; therefore, it has a limited use and approximately 90% produced is refined to produce steel. Cast-iron pipe and some fittings and valves are manu- factured from pig iron. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • WROUGHT IRON Contains 0.15% carbon wrought iron to resist corrosion and oxidation. The chemical analyses of wrought iron and mild steel are just about the same. The difference comes from the properties controlled during the manufacturing process. Wrought iron can be gas and arc welded, machined, plated, and easily formed; however, it has a low hardness and a low- fatigue strength. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • WROUGHT IRON• It can be molded easily andhas good resistance tocorrosion.• Wrought iron is usedextensively where corrosionresistance is needed. Wrought Iron Gate by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • WROUGHT IRON•It’s ductility is lower than steel.• It’s tensile strength is lower. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) Wrought Iron Fence
    • WROUGHT IRON by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) Wrought Iron Rack
    • CAST IRON Cast iron is any iron containing greater than 2% carbon alloy. Manufactured by reheating pig iron (in a cupola) and blending it with other material of known composition. Alternate layers of pig iron (with or without scrap steel) and coke are charged into furnace. Limestone is added to flux the ash from the coke. Heat necessary for the smelting is supplied by the combustion of coke andbyairManish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) Ar. supplied by the blast.
    • CAST IRON•Cupola function to purify iron andproduce a more uniform product.•When sufficient metal is accumulatedat the bottom of the furnace, it istapped. Cast Iron Teapot by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) Cast Iron Pots
    • CAST IRON•Cast iron has a high-compressive strength andgood wear resistance;however, it lacks ductility,malleability, and impactstrength. Alloy-ing it withnickel, chromium,molybdenum, silicon, orvanadium improvestoughness, tensile strength,and hardness. A malleablecast iron is produced througha prolonged annealing Cast Iron Benchprocess by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • INGOT IRON Ingot iron is a commercially pure iron (99.85% iron) that is easily formed and possesses good ductility and corrosion resistance. The chemical analysis and properties of this iron and the lowest carbon steel are practically the same. The lowest carbon steel, known as dead-soft, has about 0.06% more carbon than ingot iron. In iron the carbon content is considered an impurity and in steel it is considered an alloying ele-ment. The primary use for ingot iron is for galvanized and enameled sheet. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • STEEL Contains up to 1.5% of Carbon (Specific Gravity 7.7) Of all the different metals and materials that we use in our trade, steel is by far the most important. When steel was developed, it revolutionized the American iron industry. With it came skyscrapers, stronger and longer bridges, and railroad tracks that did not collapse. Steel is manufactured from pig iron by decreasing the amount of carbon and other impurities and adding specific amounts of alloying elements. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • STEEL Do not confuse steel with the two general classes of iron: cast iron (greater than 2% carbon) and pure iron (less than 0.15% carbon). In steel manufacturing, con-trolled amounts of alloying elements are added during the molten stage to produce the desired composition. Carbon in excess of 1.5% does not combine with iron , but will be present as free graphite , Thus the dividing line of cast iron and steel is presence of free graphite . If there is free graphite then it is cast iron, otherwise it is steel. Steel and wrought iron can be distinguished by putting a drop of nitric acid on metal , steel will produce a gray stain due to higher carbon content. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Carbon Steel Carbon steel is a term applied to a broad range of steel that falls between the commercially pure ingot iron and the cast irons. This range of carbon steel may be classified into four groups: Low-Carbon Steel 0.05% to 0.30% carbon Medium-Carbon Steel 0.30% to 0.45% carbon High-Carbon Steel 0.45% to 0.75% carbon Very High-Carbon Steel 0.75% to 1.70% carbon by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • LOW-CARBON STEEL Steel in this classification is tough and ductile, easily machined, formed, and welded. It does not respond to any form of heat treating, except case hardening. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MEDIUM-CARBON STEEL These steels are strong and hard but cannot be welded or worked as easily as the low-carbon steels. They are used for crane hooks, axles, shafts, setscrews, and so on. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • HIGH-CARBON STEEL Steel in these classes respond well to heat treatment and can be welded. When welding, spe-cial electrodes must be used along with preheating and stress- relieving procedures to prevent cracks in the weld areas. These steels are used for dies, cutting tools, mill tools, railroad car wheels, chisels, knives, and so on. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • STAINLESS STEEL This type of steel is clas-sified by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) into two general series named the 200-300 series and 400 series. Each series includes several types of steel with different characteristics. The 200-300 series of stainless steel is known as AUSTENITIC. This type of steel is very tough and ductile in the as"welded condition; therefore, it is ideal for welding and requires no annealing under normal atmospheric conditions. The most well- known types of steel in this series are the 302 and 304. They are commonly called 18-8 because they are composed of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. The chromium nickel steels are the most widely used and are normally nonmagnetic. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • ALLOY STEELS Steels that derive their properties primarily from the presence of some alloying element other than carbon are called ALLOY STEELS. One or more of these elements may be added to the steel during the manufacturing process to produce the desired characteristics. Alloy steels may be produced in structural sections, sheets, plates, and bars for use in the "as-rolled" condition. 2.Nickel Steel 3.Chromium Steel 4.Chrome Vanadium Steel 5.Tungsten Steel 6.Manganese Steel by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Nickel Steels These steels contain from 3.5% nickel to 5% nickel. The nickel increases the strength and toughness of these steels. Nickel steel containing more than 5% nickel has an increased resistance to corrosion and scale. Nickel steel is used in the manufac-ture of aircraft parts, such as propellers and airframe support members. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Chromium Steels These steels have chromium added to improve hardening ability, wear resistance, and strength. These steels contain between 0.20% to 0.75% chromium and 0.45% carbon or more. Some of these steels are so highly resistant to wear that they are used for the races and balls in antifriction bearings. Chro-mium steels are highly resistant to corrosion and to scale. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Chrome Vanadium Steel This steel has the maximum amount of strength with the least amount of weight. Steels of this type contain from 0.15% to 0.25% . vanadium, 0.6% to 1.5% chromium, and 0.1 % to 0.6% carbon. Common uses are for crankshafts, gears, axles, and other items that require high strength. This steel is also used in the manufacture of high-quality hand tools, such as wrenches and sockets. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Tungsten Steel This is a special alloy that has the property of red hardness. This is the ability to continue to cut after it becomes red-hot. Because this alloy is expensive to produce, its use is largely restricted to the manufacture of drills, lathe Cutting Wheel tools, milling cutters, and similar cutting tools. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MANGANESE STEELS The amount of manganese used depends upon the properties desired in the finished product. Small amounts of manganese produce strong, free- machining steels. Larger amounts (between 2% and 10%) produce somewhat brittle steel, while still larger amounts (11% to 14%) produce a steel that is tough and very resistant to wear after proper heat treat-ment. Railroad tracks, for example, are made with steel that Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in) by contains manganese
    • IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURINGPROCESS by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURINGPROCESS by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MANUFACTURE OF STEELBESSEMER PROCESSOPEN HEARTH PROCESS :(SIEMENS MARTIN PROCESS)L. D. PROCESS :( LINZ – DONAWITZ PROCESS) by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MANUFACTURE OF STEEL :BESSEMER PROCESSThe Bessemer process was thefirst inexpensive industrialprocess for the mass- productionof steel from molten pig iron. Theprocess is named after itsinventor, Henry Bessemer, whotook out a patent on the processin 1855. The key principle isremoval of impurities from theiron by oxidation with air beingblown through the molten iron.The oxidation also raises thetemperature of the iron mass andkeeps it molten. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MANUFACTURE OF STEEL :BESSEMER PROCESS by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MANUFACTURE OF STEEL :BESSEMER PROCESS by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MANUFACTURE OF STEELOPEN HEARTH PROCESS by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • MANUFACTURE OF STEELL D PROCESS (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS)In the basic oxygen process, steel is also refined in a pear-shaped furnace thattilts sideways for charging and pouring. Air, however, has been replaced by ahigh-pressure stream of nearly pure oxygen. After the furnace has been chargedand turned upright, an oxygen lance is lowered into it. The water-cooled tip of thelance is usually about 2 m (about 6 ft) above the charge although this distancecan be varied according to requirements. Thousands of cubic meters of oxygenare blown into the furnace at supersonic speed. The oxygen combines withcarbon and other unwanted elements and starts a high-temperature churningreaction that rapidly burns out impurities from the pig iron and converts it into by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)steel.
    • PRODUCTION OF STEEL by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • PRODUCTION OF STEEL by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • PRODUCTION OF STEEL by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • PRODUCTION OF STEEL by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • PRODUCTION OF TMT BARS Tempcore: TMT BARS are removed from cooling zone. A temprature gradient is established in the cross section. It causes heat to flow from centre to surface. The martensite left at centre is tempered by heat flow. So it is known as tempcore. After the intensive cooling, the tmt bar is exposed to air and the core reheats the quenched surface layer by conduction, therefore tempering the external martensite. helps them attain a higher yield strength.surfacecore by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • PRODUCTION OF TMT BARS by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Stainless steels• Characterized by their corrosion resistance, high strength and ductility, and high chromium content.• Stainless as a film of chromium oxide protects the metal from corrosion. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Stainless steels • Five types of stainless steels: 2. Austenitic steels 3. Ferritic steels 4. Martensitic steels 5. Precipitation-hardening (PH) steels 6. Duplex-structure steels by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Basic Types of Tool and DieSteels T 5 A. B5 LE T y pe AI SI He i sd ge hp Md b (l e a mn s o u e y m b ) T sb (g a t t s ue e n n) Hk or to w H1 r i b 1 9o a t o ( ms H c u e h m ) H 3n b 2H g a 0 9 s s t o ( t t e e u n) H 5 oe b 4H ld a 0 9 yus t o ( bm mn e ) Co o r l k dw Dc nh m ( h ogr i ) h a ,i c u i r hh m gb o Aul, rr i) (da a dg m l ia n eim hn oy e S rs h en O r i) os g ci kt i ( hn o dg ia n l e S Ml oe lts dse P 1 wn 1 9 c ) t o( a Po r l b o P P tr 2 3h 0 9e to( s o) S l r e L a) p ps e u c p ia o ( l l l oo w y Fog (b n ) cn s a- t r t e un We aai thn er n W r dg by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Processing and ServiceCharacteristics of Common Tooland Die SteelsTABLE 5.6 Processing and Service Characteristics of Common Tool and Die Steels ApproximateAISI Resistance to Resistance to hardness Resistance to Resistance todesignation decarburization cracking (HRC) Machinability Toughness softening wearM2 Medium Medium 60–65 Medium Low Very high Very highT1 High High 60–65 Medium Low Very high Very highT5 Low Medium 60–65 Medium Low Highest Very highH11, 12, 13 Medium Highest 38–55 Medium to high Very high High MediumA2 Medium Highest 57–62 Medium Medium High HighA9 Medium Highest 35–56 Medium High High Medium to highD2 Medium Highest 54–61 Low Low High High to very highD3 Medium High 54–61 Low Low High Very highH21 Medium High 36–54 Medium High High Medium to highH26 Medium High 43–58 Medium Medium Very high HighP20 High High 28–37 Medium to high High Low Low to mediumP21 High Highest 30–40 Medium Medium Medium MediumW1, W2 Highest Medium 50–64 Highest High Low Low to mediumSource: Adapted from Tool Steels, American Iron and Steel Institute, 1978. by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Metal Identification Steel Numbering Systems  SAE – society of automotive engineers  AISI – American iron and steel institute by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Metal Identification by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Metal Identification C = carbon Cr = chromium Mn = Manganese Mo = Molybdenum Ni = Nickel Si = Silicon V = Vanadium by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • Metal Identification First number indicates type of steel Second number approx. % of dominate element Third and fourth digit denotes % of carbon in hundredths  1018 = Carbon steel with .18% of carbon content by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)
    • IS CODE :STRUCTURAL STEELIS : 226-1975 Structural steel (standard quality) (fifth revision)1s : 961-1975 Structural steel (high tensile) (second revision)IS : 1977-1975 Structural steel (ordinary quality) (second revision)IS : 2062-1980 Structural steel (fusion welding quality) (second revision)IS : 8500-1977 Weldable structural steel (medium and high strength qualities)SHEET AND STRIPIS : 277-1977 Galvanized steel steel sheets for general purposes (second Expanded metal sheets (plain and corrugated) (third revision)IS : 412-1975 revision)IS : 1079-1973 Hot rolled carbon steel sheet and strip (third revision) Cold rolled carbon steel strip for general engineering purposes (firstIS : 4030-1973 revision) Cold-rolled medium, high carbon and low alloy steel strip forIS : 7226-1974 general engineering purposesTUBES AND TUBULARSIS : 1161-1979 Steel tubes for structural purposes (third revision)IS : 1239 Mild steel tubes, tubulars and other wrought steel fittings:IS : 1239 (Part I)-1979 Part I Mild steel tubes (fourth revision)IS : 1239 (Part II)- Part II Mild steel tubulars and other wrought steel pipe fittings (third1982 revision)IS : 4270-1967 Steel tubes used for water wellsIS : 4516-1968 Elliptical mild steel tubes by Ar. Manish Jain (www.frontdesk.co.in)IS : 4923-1968 Hollow steel sections for structural use