Studying Immigrant Entrepreneurship

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Studying Immigrant Entrepreneurship

  1. 1. STUDYING IMMIGRANT ENTREPRENEURSHIP Francisco Diaz Bretones Department of Social Psychology University of Granada (Spain) Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008 P rinceton University,
  2. 2. Bretones, F . (2008). Graduate Colloquim Series. May 6, 2008 P rinceton University Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  3. 3. <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction: a summary of studies of entrepreneurship to date </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship and migration </li></ul><ul><li>Our study: Immigrant entrepreneurship in Andalusia </li></ul>Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  4. 4. Introduction: a summary of studies of entrepreneurship to date
  5. 5. Theory of Planned Behavior Attitude toward behavior Subjetive norm Perceived behavioral control   Behavioral intentions Behavior B = BI = w1AB + w2SN + w3PB (Ajzen, 1991) Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  6. 6. Hofstede’s model <ul><li>Individualism/collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Power distance </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity/femininity </li></ul>(Hofstede, 1980) Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  7. 7. Total entrepreneurial activity (2003) Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  8. 8. Entrepreneurship and migration
  9. 9. Percentage of all U.S. firms Source: 2002 Survey of Business Owners Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  10. 10. U.S. percentage change 1997-2002 Source: 2002 Survey of Business Owners Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  11. 11. Ethnic enclave <ul><li>Spatial concentration of business. </li></ul><ul><li>Owned and operated by member of the same cultural/linguistic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with each other (customers and/or suppliers). </li></ul><ul><li>Selling ethnic goods. </li></ul>Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  12. 12. Premigration characteristics Migratory history Postmigration characteristics Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  13. 13. Our study: Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Andalusia (Spain) - Consejería de Innovación, Ciencia y Empresa de la Junta de Andalucía ( P06-HUM-01758). - Dirección General de Coordinación de Políticas Migratorias de la Junta de Andalucía (2006/184). - Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (JC2007-00091).
  14. 14. Source: Eurostat, 2006 Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  15. 15. Resident citizens in Spain with foreign nationality (1995-2006) Source: Eurostat, 11.14.2007 Total (millions) Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  16. 16. North African immigrants worldwide Source: OECD, 2003 France: 2,296,979 Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  17. 17. Latin American immigrants worldwide Source: OECD, 2003 U.S.: 13,476,759 Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  18. 18. Objetives <ul><li>To create and analyze behavioral profiles of non-EU immigrants entrepreneurs in Andalusia. </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze precursor and barrier variables in the social and psychological strategies developed by them. </li></ul><ul><li>To explore social and economic responses, proposing strategies to improve the social integration </li></ul>Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  19. 19. Andalusia Surface: 54,430 square miles Population: 7,357,558 Labor force: service sector: 65.6% construction: 15.3% industry: 9.9% agricultural sector: 9.2% Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  20. 20. Immigrant rates in Andalusia Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  21. 21. Foreign-born residents in Andalusia (2005) Total amount: 420,199 (Dec 31, 2005) (Source: National Statistical Institute) Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  22. 22. Foreign-born entrepreneurs in Andalusia (1995-2006) Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  23. 23. Local/foreign entrepreneurs LOCAL FOREIGN Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  24. 24. Immigrant entrepreneurs in Andalusia by origin (1999-2003) 6337 7586 8406 10103 11351 1840 2194 2353 2514 1067 1112 1295 1640 753 877 1121 436 549 683 891 179 230 370 499 608 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year Entrepreneurs European African Asian Latin American Others Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  25. 25. Immigrant entrepreneurs by origin (Granada, male) Granada (Male) 225 266 296 386 364 419 535 499 596 71 94 104 101 120 39 62 207 55 27 23 22 16 15 11 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year Entrepreneurs European Áfrican Asian Latin Américan Others Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  26. 26. Immigrant entrepreneurs by origin (Granda, female) Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University Granada (Female) 94 106 134 156 204 33 44 58 52 60 28 36 39 48 54 65 51 24 29 24 35 22 14 9 9 0 50 100 150 200 250 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year Entrepreneurs Europa Comunitaria África Asia América del Sur Europa Resto
  27. 27. Immigrant entrepreneurs by origin (Almeria, male) Almería (Male) 364 427 509 595 659 112 111 169 184 37 39 56 58 67 71 130 38 45 43 36 38 24 14 15 4 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year Entrepreneurs European Arican Asian Latin American Others Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  28. 28. Immigrant entrepreneurs by origin (Almeria, female) Almería (Female) 145 171 201 233 295 12 15 22 24 26 15 31 48 11 14 19 27 33 28 22 7 9 16 26 28 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Year Entrepreneurs European Áfrican Asian Latin Américan Others Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  29. 29. Methodology <ul><li>2007-2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical databases </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth interviews (immigrants): 60 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires (experts): 40 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups: 15 </li></ul></ul>Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  30. 30. Study variables <ul><li>Employment history </li></ul><ul><li>Migratory history </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Motives, attributions and perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Sociodemographic variables </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative non-entrepreneurial group </li></ul>Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  31. 31. Graduate Colloquium Series. May 6, 2008. Princeton University
  32. 32. … thank you so much Francisco Diaz Bretones [email_address] [email_address]

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