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Migration, Shadow Economy And Normalization
 

Migration, Shadow Economy And Normalization

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    Migration, Shadow Economy And Normalization Migration, Shadow Economy And Normalization Presentation Transcript

    • Migration, Informal Economy and Normalization Bretones, F. D.; Rodriguez, M.J. & Gonzalez, J.M. (2007) Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • European Community Psychology Association II International Seminar. S eville (Spain). September 19th to 21st, 2007 Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Informal Economy: Definitions
      • The sum total of income-earning activities with the exclusion of those that involve contractual and legality regulated employment
      • It is unregulated by the institutions of society; in a legal and social environment in witch similar activities are regulated
      Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Marginal Informal Economy
      • Entrepreneurship
      • Illegal o quasi-legal means
      • Personal work
      • A networked-based embeddedness
      • A restrictive institutional environment
      • (Light, 2004)
      Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Size of the shadow economy (%GNP)
      • Developing countries: 35-44%
      • Transition economies: 20-25%
      • Developed
        • OECD countries: 12%
        • Spain: 18%
        • Andalucía: 21,8% (Avila, 1997; Scheniedir and Enste, 2003)
      • Differences between developed (growth) and less developed (survival) countries
      Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Social factors in informal economy
      • Business identity and professional career (Snyder, 2004)
      • Limited social networks (Portes et al. 1989, 2004)
      • Poor language skills and uncertain social reality /rumor (Harney, 2006)
      • Family, ethnic, linguistic and cultural ties
      • Migration and shadow economy in a developed country
      Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Methodology
      • 67 questionnaires face-to-face
      • 3 focus group (n=22)
        • Immigrant
        • Local
        • Immigrant & Local
      Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Sample Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Sample Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Ethnic business Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Activity Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Activity Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Family background Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Family background Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Results: activity and social networks
      • Work experience/Business activity (r s =0.189 p=0.078).
      • Family activity/Business activity (r s =0.338 p=0.011).
      • Social support: friends and family
      Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Results: motives of informalization
      • Local/Migrants: Limited support
      • Lack economic resources (t=-1,573 p=0,002)
      • Lack information (t=-0,431 p=0,032)
      • Family/Non-Family background: Economic motives
      • Avoid labor costs (t=-1,740 p=0,007)
      • Income increased (t=-1,687 p=0,012)
      • Regulations and licensing requirements (t=-1,201 p=0,031)
      Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
    • Results: normalization and attribution
      • Local/Migrants
      • Financial aids (t=-1,245 p=0,002)
      • Social support (t=-0,711 p=0,011)
      • Publics aids (t=-0,339 p=0,018)
      • Family allowances (t=0,255 p=0,009)
      Integrating New Migrants in New Europe