Migration, Shadow Economy And Normalization

656 views
621 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
656
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Migration, Shadow Economy And Normalization

  1. 1. Migration, Informal Economy and Normalization Bretones, F. D.; Rodriguez, M.J. & Gonzalez, J.M. (2007) Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  2. 2. European Community Psychology Association II International Seminar. S eville (Spain). September 19th to 21st, 2007 Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  3. 3. Informal Economy: Definitions <ul><li>The sum total of income-earning activities with the exclusion of those that involve contractual and legality regulated employment </li></ul><ul><li>It is unregulated by the institutions of society; in a legal and social environment in witch similar activities are regulated </li></ul>Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  4. 4. Marginal Informal Economy <ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal o quasi-legal means </li></ul><ul><li>Personal work </li></ul><ul><li>A networked-based embeddedness </li></ul><ul><li>A restrictive institutional environment </li></ul><ul><li>(Light, 2004) </li></ul>Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  5. 5. Size of the shadow economy (%GNP) <ul><li>Developing countries: 35-44% </li></ul><ul><li>Transition economies: 20-25% </li></ul><ul><li>Developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OECD countries: 12% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain: 18% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andalucía: 21,8% (Avila, 1997; Scheniedir and Enste, 2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences between developed (growth) and less developed (survival) countries </li></ul>Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  6. 6. Social factors in informal economy <ul><li>Business identity and professional career (Snyder, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Limited social networks (Portes et al. 1989, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor language skills and uncertain social reality /rumor (Harney, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Family, ethnic, linguistic and cultural ties </li></ul><ul><li>Migration and shadow economy in a developed country </li></ul>Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  7. 7. Methodology <ul><li>67 questionnaires face-to-face </li></ul><ul><li>3 focus group (n=22) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigrant & Local </li></ul></ul>Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  8. 8. Sample Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  9. 9. Sample Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  10. 10. Ethnic business Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  11. 11. Activity Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  12. 12. Activity Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  13. 13. Family background Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  14. 14. Family background Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  15. 15. Results: activity and social networks <ul><li>Work experience/Business activity (r s =0.189 p=0.078). </li></ul><ul><li>Family activity/Business activity (r s =0.338 p=0.011). </li></ul><ul><li>Social support: friends and family </li></ul>Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  16. 16. Results: motives of informalization <ul><li>Local/Migrants: Limited support </li></ul><ul><li>Lack economic resources (t=-1,573 p=0,002) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack information (t=-0,431 p=0,032) </li></ul><ul><li>Family/Non-Family background: Economic motives </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid labor costs (t=-1,740 p=0,007) </li></ul><ul><li>Income increased (t=-1,687 p=0,012) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations and licensing requirements (t=-1,201 p=0,031) </li></ul>Integrating New Migrants in New Europe
  17. 17. Results: normalization and attribution <ul><li>Local/Migrants </li></ul><ul><li>Financial aids (t=-1,245 p=0,002) </li></ul><ul><li>Social support (t=-0,711 p=0,011) </li></ul><ul><li>Publics aids (t=-0,339 p=0,018) </li></ul><ul><li>Family allowances (t=0,255 p=0,009) </li></ul>Integrating New Migrants in New Europe

×