TESTActivity in which a system or any of its componentsare running with previously specified circumstances,results are observed, recorded and performed anassessment of some aspectTest provides guidance on evaluating thequality of the product.
The purposes of the Test discipline are asfollows:•To find and document defects in software quality•To generally advise on perceived software quality•To prove the validity of the assumptions made in the designand requirement specification through concretedemonstration•To validate that software product functions as designed•To validate that the requirements have been implementedappropriately
Basic Definitions• ErrorAn error is a mistake, misconception, or misunderstanding onthe part of a software developer.• Defects (Faults)A defect (fault) is introduced into the software as the result ofan error. It is an anomaly in the software that may cause it tobehave incorrectly, and not according to its specification.•FailuresA failure is the inability of a software system or component toperform its required functions within specified requirementsor specification.
When the analyst or the developer makes an error (or mistake) He/She will produce a fault. Faults are also called defects or bugs.A defect is a flaw in a component or system that can cause it to fail. Many defects hide in the code, but are never discovered. The moment they are discovered we speak of a failure, indicating that the systems does not react as we expect.Findings indicate an observed difference between expected and implemented system behavior that can jeopardize the anticipated goal. This definition includes both the experience of the tester and the anticipated business goal. A finding can originate from a test fault, a fault in the test base, or a bug in the code.
Realities• The extensive testing of the software are impractical (you cant test all possibilities of operating even in simple programs). This is impossible from all points of view: human, economic and even math.• The goal of the tests is to detect defects in the software ... Discover an error is a successful test
The LifeCycle of Testing
Testing levels Source: Advanced Software Testing—Vol. 3 - Guide to the ISTQB Advanced Certification as an Advanced Technical Test Analyst . http://www.istqb.org/
Testing levels Source: Advanced Software Testing—Vol. 3 - Guide to the ISTQB Advanced Certification as an Advanced Technical Test Analyst. http://www.istqb.org/
Approach of Testing
Black Box approach (Functional)• There is no knowledge of its inner structure (i.e., how it works).• The tester only has knowledge of what it does.• The size of the software-under-test using this approach can vary from a simple module, member function, or object cluster to a subsystem or a complete software system.
Black Box approach (Functional)• The description of behavior or functionality for the software-under-test may come from a formal specification, an Input/Process/ Output Diagram (IPO), or a well-defined set of pre and post conditions.• Another source for information is a requirements specification document that usually describes the functionality of the software-under-test and its inputs and expected outputs
Black Box approach (Functional)The tester provides the specified inputs to the software-under-test, runs the test and then determines if the outputs produced are equivalent to those in the specification
White Box approach• Focuses on the inner structure of the software to be tested.• To design test cases using this strategy the tester must have a knowledge of that structure. The code, or a suitable pseudo code like representation must be available.• The tester selects test cases to exercise specific internal structural elements to determine if they are working properly
White Box approach• Since designing, executing, and analyzing the results of white box testing is very time consuming, this strategy is usually applied to smaller-sized pieces of software such as a module or member function.• White box testing methods are especially useful for revealing design and code-based control, logic and sequence defects, initialization defects, and data flow defects.
Types of Test Quality Dimension/ Quality Risk Type of Test Function test Functionality Security test Volume test Usability Usability test Benchmark test Integrity test Reliability Structure test Stress test Contention test Performance Load test Performance profile Configuration test Supportability Installation test
Regression TestTests to be run on a modified program to ensure that changes are correct and dont affect other parts of software that have not changed.Each time we receive a new version of software should run our regression tests.
Test Ideas – Test Case• Test Idea: expression that identifies a test that can be helpful. The ideas are derived from Models, Specifications and Storm’s Idea• Test Case: Set of entries, performance conditions and expected results developed for a particular purpose.An idea of testing is different of a test case: the Test idea does not contain the specification of test as such, only the essence of the test. Test ideas produce test cases.
Test Case• Test cases must be written with sufficient detail to enable that a new team member can begin working quickly to run tests and find defects.• Each test case should determine the result of the expected output, which is compared with the result obtained.• The programmer must try to avoid test their own programs as they want (consciously or unconsciously) to prove that it works fine. In addition, its normal that the situations that he/she forgot to consider when creating the program are again forgotten to create test cases• Clearly identify the functionality that you want to test.• Using test ideas as a basis for generating interesting scenarios to test
Test Plan• Defines the goals and objectives of testing within the scope of the iteration (or project), the items being targeted, the approach to be taken, the resources required and the deliverables to be produced (RUP).• A test plan describes the strategies, resources and planning of the test
Defects ReportsDefects (faults) could be ignored or postponed, according to the way they are written. This can be:- Difficult to understand- Too complicated to solveKeys to develop good reports of defects• First, describe the problem.• Then, describe the steps necessary to reproduce the problem: neither more nor less.• Describe the wrong behavior and if necessary, enter what should have happened.
Defects ReportsKeys to develop good reports of defects: (Continued)• Describe the environment variables and other details about the configuration of the machine where the problem is happening.• If you encounter two problems, report two defects• Don’t use expressions such as "failure" or "not working". We should be more explicit.
Defects ReportsA typical report includes defects: (Continued)• Priority• Report type (Error, suggestion, documentation error, design problem)• Impact on the customer• Keywords• Description of the problem (steps to reproduce).
Ten principles of Tester
Testing principles• Tests help prevent deficiencies• Tests are based on risks• Testing should be planned• Testing is a creative and hard work• Its impossible to test all entries• You cant test all the roads• Its impossible to test the correction of an error using logic only.• The purpose of finding problems to fix it!
There is inevitably an adversarial relationship between testers and developers. This is no bad thing: developers are trying to get something working and the testers are trying to show it doesn’t. The keys to success are patience, a sense of humor, clear definitions of responsibilities, a plan, and good staff. So what else is new?These roles depend on two distinctions being drawn:1. Between the quality assurance and quality control roles of the QA department, and the testers2. Between the testing and development roles