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  1. 1.  Nanotechnology is the use of very small particles of material. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter.  Nanotechnology is not a new science and it is not a new technology. It is rather an extension of the sciences and technologies .
  2. 2.  Nanotechnology will make most exiting products quite a bit more powerful and flexible.  The nanotechnology promises a rapid improvement of technology at low cost and high convenience.  Computers will compute faster, materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases
  3. 3.  The nanotechnology has potential of developing and fabricating dangerous weapons, drugs in large quantity.  At this moment the main limitation is the high costs of nanotechnology. Also concerns with the environmental effects.
  4. 4.  Nano particle: It is defined as a particle with at least one dimension less than 200nm.  Nano composite : It is produced by adding Nano particle to a bulk material in order to improve the bulk material’s properties. Fig.Nanotube on a small cement grain
  5. 5. Carbon Nano Tubes(CNT)  They are cylindrical with nanometer diameter.  They have 5 times the Young’s modulus and 8 times (theoretically 100 times) the strength of steel. Contd.,
  6. 6. Titanium oxide(TiO2) • Titanium dioxide is a widely used white pigment. • When incorporated into outdoor building materials can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants. • Additionally, as TiO2 is exposed to UV light, it becomes increasingly hydrophilic ,thus it can be used for selfcleaning windows.
  7. 7.  Concrete is stronger, more durable and more easily placed.   Steel is made tougher .   Glass is self-cleaning.   Paints are made more insulating and water repelling.
  8. 8.  As we know, Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand(fine aggregate), coarse aggregate and water.  As concrete is most usable material in construction industry it’s been require to improve its quality.  Concrete is, after all, a macro-material strongly influenced by its nano-properties. Fig.Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) used to repair a bridge deck
  9. 9. CNTs in concrete  The addition of small amounts (1% wt) of CNT’s can improve the mechanical properties of samples consisting of the main Portland cement phase and water.  Oxidized multi-walled Nano tubes (MWNT’s) show the best improvements both in compressive strength (+ 25 N/mm2) and flexural strength (+ 8 N/mm2) compared to the samples without the reinforcement.
  10. 10.  These have found increasing application in civil structures .  Due to super-elastics properties, the elastic deformation of SMAs is followed by a large increase of strain under an almost constant stress. After unloading, only elastic strain recovers and the residual stain can be removed through heating.
  11. 11. Fig(a) Tendon buckles during loading Fig(b)Tendon recovers after heating
  12. 12. Fig(a) Concrete cracks upon loading Fig(b) Crack is closed up after heating
  13. 13. Fig. 7mm thick concrete wall • The barely visible blue-green area at the top of this X-ray shows that very few chloride ions (in green) penetrate into the concrete. Infiltrating chloride and sulphate ions cause internal structural damage over time that leads to cracks and weakens the concrete. • This can be removed rather than change the size and density of the pores in concrete, it would be better to change the viscosity of the solution in the concrete at the microscale to reduce the speed at which chlorides and sulphates enter the concrete.
  14. 14. Nanotechnology Human Hair 75 µm FeatureSize 10nm 100nm 1µm 10µm 1nm 0.1nm 100µm Nanotechnology: Size and Scale Plant and Animal Cells Most Bacteria Transistor 0.18µm Virus Proteins Lysozyme Carbon Nano-tubes Atoms Cooper, 2001
  15. 15. In 1959 Richrad Feynman presented ideas for creating Nano scale machines Norio Taniguchi introduced the term ‘nanotechnology’ 1980s, development in this field was greatly enhanced with advances in electron microscopy
  16. 16. Top-down Approach Bottom-up Approach Creating Nano-scale materials by physically or chemically breaking down larger materials Assembling Nano materials atom-by-atom or molecule-by molecule (self assembling)
  17. 17. Three distinct aspects Direct Application of novel, Nano engineered artifacts Ex : Electronic & photonic circuits Indirect Progressive miniaturization of existing technologies Ex : Nano bots, cosmetics Conceptual All materials & processes are considered from a molecular viewpoint Ex : Universal manufacturing model
  18. 18. Nano powders - building blocks of nano materials (particles less than 100 nm in size) Porous metallic ‘nanocubes’ store large amounts of H2 Nanoparticles of gold for new catalysts The scale of nanopowders
  19. 19. Carbon nanotubes (sensors, fuel cells, computers and televisions) Nano membrane filtration systems (safe, clean, affordable water)
  20. 20. Molecular electronic „cross bar latches‟ (tiny Nano devices) Quantum dots and artificial atoms (small devices that contain a tiny droplet of free electrons)
  21. 21. Medicine Ex. Nano biotechnology Energy ex. Renewable energy Electronics and information technologies
  22. 22. Chemistry and Environment Consumer goods Military and security application s
  23. 23. 2001 2005 2010 2020 Systems of Nanosystems Robotics 3D networks Guided assemblers Molecular Nanosystems Molecules by design Evolutionary systems Passive Nanostructures Coatings, polymers,ceramic s Active Nanostructures Transistors Targeted drugs Adaptive structures Agrifood applicatinos currently in passive to early “active” stage
  24. 24. Plant production Ex: Delivery of DNA to plants Animal Production Ex: Nano tube sensors to detect hormone level changes Animal or Plant Health Ex: Detect pathogens
  25. 25. Agrochemic al Ex: Nanoparticles in pesticides In food industry Convergence Nano-Geo-(Bio)- Info technology Sensing Ex: Detect chemicals or food borne pathogen Safety Packaging Ex: Prevent or respond to spoilage
  26. 26. 2006 - Sri Lanka‟s National Nanotechnology Initiative (SLNNI) 2008  Establishment of NANCO (Pvt) Ltd Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology (Pvt) Ltd. (SLINTEC)  Merger of NANCO (Pvt) Ltd. and SLINTEC (Pvt) Ltd. Establishment of  A world class Nanotechnology Laboratory  Establishment of a Nanoscience Park
  27. 27. Health risks Medical application of nanoparticles  ex: enhance drug delivery Some nanoparticles —freely mobile  Negative health and environmental impacts
  28. 28. THANKSSSS
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