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Lecture Case Studies

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This presentation includes some of the basics on case study research design.

This presentation includes some of the basics on case study research design.

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  • We talked about the different purposes for doing a qualitative study. I will now continue discussing a specific type of research design; the case study design.
  • So, in the next minutes I will briefly talk about the case study research design. There will be more readings posted on the BB so this lecture is not meant as a comprehensive overview of all you need to know, but as a useful leg up to the readings.
    Before we continue to the specifics, can anyone tell me what ‘research design’ means?

    It the way you setup your research. It is the way you plan to answer your RQ
  • So, in the next minutes I will briefly talk about the case study research design. There will be more readings posted on the BB so this lecture is not meant as a comprehensive overview of all you need to know, but as a useful leg up to the readings.
    Before we continue to the specifics, can anyone tell me what ‘research design’ means?

    It the way you setup your research. It is the way you plan to answer your RQ
  • So we now know what a research design is. I will continue to explain a specific type of research design” case study.
  • Let’s do a simliar excerise. Let’s step out of the specific research. How do you use the work case in normal everyday language.

    Yeah, I made up a little list here too. As we already noticed, the word case has many many meaning. Also in research this has been leading to some confusion.
    BRIDGE:
    Therefore, it is important to have a proper definition of the word:
  • Let’s do a simliar excerise. Let’s step out of the specific research. How do you use the work case in normal everyday language.

    Yeah, I made up a little list here too. As we already noticed, the word case has many many meaning. Also in research this has been leading to some confusion.
    BRIDGE:
    Therefore, it is important to have a proper definition of the word:
  • Let’s do a simliar excerise. Let’s step out of the specific research. How do you use the work case in normal everyday language.

    Yeah, I made up a little list here too. As we already noticed, the word case has many many meaning. Also in research this has been leading to some confusion.
    BRIDGE:
    Therefore, it is important to have a proper definition of the word:
  • Let’s do a simliar excerise. Let’s step out of the specific research. How do you use the work case in normal everyday language.

    Yeah, I made up a little list here too. As we already noticed, the word case has many many meaning. Also in research this has been leading to some confusion.
    BRIDGE:
    Therefore, it is important to have a proper definition of the word:
  • Let’s do a simliar excerise. Let’s step out of the specific research. How do you use the work case in normal everyday language.

    Yeah, I made up a little list here too. As we already noticed, the word case has many many meaning. Also in research this has been leading to some confusion.
    BRIDGE:
    Therefore, it is important to have a proper definition of the word:
  • so based on this definition, in setting up your research you would want to ask yourselves a number of questions to get a clear idea regarding the cases in your study
  • So, what is exactly my case? What are they and what aren’t they?
  • So, what is exactly my case? What are they and what aren’t they?
  • So, what is exactly my case? What are they and what aren’t they?
  • So, what is exactly my case? What are they and what aren’t they?
  • So, what is exactly my case? What are they and what aren’t they?
  • So, what is exactly my case? What are they and what aren’t they?
  • So, what is exactly my case? What are they and what aren’t they?
  • So, what is exactly my case? What are they and what aren’t they?
  • So then you could ask yourself what THEN, is a case STUDY?
    Eisenhardt, who is a well-known author in product development and management studies in general said that a case study

    So two point are of importance here: a case study focuses on understanding a phenomenon and it aims to look at the details of dynamics INSIDE the case or cases of your interest.
  • Another main concept in case study research besides the case itself is the sample. The sample is made up of the cases that you analyze. So the sample size is the number of cases you studied.
  • Within each case you will collect data points. You can collect data points over time ‘ so longitudinally’ or by looking at multiple aspects of a case at the same time. A combination of both is possible of course too.
  • So a little overview on all these different concepts
  • NOw let’s turn to two different examples. I drew this
  • When asking this question, we should ask ourselves, “compared to what?” So what are the unique and beneficial characteristics of the case study design compared to,.....

    A good comparison can be made with cross-case studies so large N studies, studies in which many cases are observed. So a large survey study of a big experiment.
  • So the strengths is not in testing hypothesis. Case studies are all about creating ‘insights’ into mechanisms, how things work, what elements play a role, etc.

    Both Hypothesis generating and hypothesis testing deserve a place in research: you could see these two phases as the light bulb moment and the skeptical moment.
  • secondly in validity terms, what kristina toughed upon before:
  • How similar is the case to the populution of cases or in other words: how different are the

    (it is difficult to identify how ‘similar’ or ‘different’ your cases are from the population of unstudied cases! (as you have not studied them!!!!)
    As Kristina already mentioned, the external validity question is one of representativeness—how representative are the cases studied by you to the entire population of cases.


    However, through your deep investigations on multiple levels of analysis you can acquire a consistent picture of the case studied, thereby achieving high internal validity
  • YOu can try to investigate a causal effect (how X affects Y) or investigate the pathway from X to Y. So here you are not so interested in the magnitude of the relation between X & Y or the level of certainty of the the relations of X & Y but how X is related to Y (through which mechanism). Through a case study you are often able to peer into the black box between X & Y and identify intermediate factors on the path between X & Y
  • Case studies ask for in-depth analysis, leading to deep insights.

    Rather than trying to generalize as much as possible, in a case study you try to explain a less general situation really well.

    There is a trade-off between breadth and depths of the investigation; in case study research you choose depth over breadth.
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • And: like in design: often the phases overlap, you can iterate between phases etc. So it’s is not such a lineair process that is may look like from this list. However, these steps are all necessary for doing a good case study research projec.t
  • evidence from multiple sources is more convincing
    you must know what your are looking for otherwise you won’t find anything. SO you must have some concepts in mind that may be of interested.
  • evidence from multiple sources is more convincing
    you must know what your are looking for otherwise you won’t find anything. SO you must have some concepts in mind that may be of interested.
  • You can bounce off ideas together. You can brainstorm and take different perspectives. Remember, we are looking for insights

    Also, when more people have a critical look at the data and find similar things, this improves the confidence that your findings are actually the case in the real world

    A final pieve of advices that should work well for your research teams: take on different roles during the interviews, for istan
  • that is, to react rather than to sift out what may seem important, because it is often difficult to know what will and what will not be useful in the future
  • you should be
  • Transcript

    • 1. Case Study Research Design —Fleur Deken—
    • 2. Research Design
    • 3. Research Design • The setup of your research
    • 4. Research Design • The setup of your research • Your way to answer you research questions
    • 5. —Case Study—
    • 6. What is a case?
    • 7. What is a case? ‣ Argument for (“the case for action is strong” “the prosecution's case is strong”)
    • 8. What is a case? ‣ Argument for (“the case for action is strong” “the prosecution's case is strong”) ‣ Circumstances or situation (“in any case”, “in all cases”
    • 9. What is a case? ‣ Argument for (“the case for action is strong” “the prosecution's case is strong”) ‣ Circumstances or situation (“in any case”, “in all cases” ‣ Example (“a case of the flu”)
    • 10. What is a case? ‣ Argument for (“the case for action is strong” “the prosecution's case is strong”) ‣ Circumstances or situation (“in any case”, “in all cases” ‣ Example (“a case of the flu”) ‣ Observation or instance (“every case points to the same conclusion”)
    • 11. What is a case? ‣ Argument for (“the case for action is strong” “the prosecution's case is strong”) ‣ Circumstances or situation (“in any case”, “in all cases” ‣ Example (“a case of the flu”) ‣ Observation or instance (“every case points to the same conclusion”) ‣ Gerring, 2007
    • 12. Case Definition A case connotes a spatially delimited phenomenon (a unit). It comprises the phenomenon that an inference attempts to explain (Gerring, 2007)
    • 13. Qs about your cases
    • 14. Qs about your cases #1: What are the boundaries of my Definition case(s)? What is the case/what are the cases?
    • 15. Qs about your cases #1: What are the boundaries of my Definition case(s)? What is the case/what are the cases? #2: What is my case a case of (what is Population the category of phenomena I am interested in)?
    • 16. Qs about your cases #1: What are the boundaries of my Definition case(s)? What is the case/what are the cases? #2: What is my case a case of (what is Population the category of phenomena I am interested in)? #3: How does my case relate to that Representativenes larger category (is it a typical, an extreme example, ...)?
    • 17. Qs about your cases #1: What are the boundaries of my Definition case(s)? What is the case/what are the cases? #2: What is my case a case of (what is Population the category of phenomena I am interested in)? #3: How does my case relate to that Representativenes larger category (is it a typical, an extreme example, ...)? Research #4: What do I want to know from my Question case?
    • 18. What is a case study?
    • 19. What is a case study? The case study is a research strategy which focuses on understanding the dynamics present within a case. (Eisenhardt, 1989, p. 534)
    • 20. Sample • A sample consists of cases that are analyzed • The sample size consists of the number of cases studied (e.g. N=1)
    • 21. Data points • The most basic element of any empirical endeavor • The case under study always provides more than one data point. These may be constructed longitudinally (over time) or by observing within-case variation at a single point in time)
    • 22. Population Sample Case Case Case I II III Cases ‘data points’
    • 23. (Burgelman (1983) Examples Research problem: Management of new ventures Case: international corporate ventures (N=6) Data: Archives, interviews, observations Output: Process model on how the management changes over time, analyzed multiple levels (organizational, actor)
    • 24. (Gersick, 1988) Examples Research problem: Group development in project teams Case: project groups with deadlines (N=8) Data: Interviews, observations Output: Punctuated equilibrium model of group development
    • 25. So why do case study research?
    • 26. Large N studies Strengths of case study design Gerring, 2007
    • 27. ‣ Developing propositions and hypotheses “creating insights”
    • 28. Large N studies Strengths of case study design Gerring, 2007
    • 29. ‣ Maximum internal validity; achieving an in-depth understanding of the cases studied
    • 30. Large N studies Strengths of case study design Gerring, 2007
    • 31. ‣ Causal mechanisms; investigation the pathway from X to Y
    • 32. Dedicated NPD R&D success resources
    • 33. Dedicated NPD R&D success resources Executive support
    • 34. Dedicated NPD R&D success resources Executive Empowered support designers
    • 35. Large N studies Strengths of case study design Gerring, 2007
    • 36. ‣ Scope: deep insights detail, richness, completeness, wholeness
    • 37. Process
    • 38. (1) Define RQ Process
    • 39. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling)
    • 40. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling) (3) Craft instruments & protocols
    • 41. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling) (3) Craft instruments & protocols (4) Enter the field (data collection)
    • 42. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling) (3) Craft instruments & protocols (4) Enter the field (data collection) (5) Analyze data
    • 43. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling) (3) Craft instruments & protocols (4) Enter the field (data collection) (5) Analyze data (6) Shaping hypotheses
    • 44. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling) (3) Craft instruments & protocols (4) Enter the field (data collection) (5) Analyze data (6) Shaping hypotheses (7) Compare to literature
    • 45. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling) (3) Craft instruments & protocols (4) Enter the field (data collection) (5) Analyze data (6) Shaping hypotheses (7) Compare to literature (8) Reaching closure
    • 46. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling) (3) Craft instruments & protocols (4) Enter the field (data collection) (5) Analyze data (6) Shaping hypotheses (7) Compare to literature (8) Reaching closure (Eisenhardt, 1989)
    • 47. (1) Define RQ Process (2) Selecting cases (sampling) (3) Craft instruments & protocols (4) Enter the field (data collection) (5) Analyze data (6) Shaping hypotheses (7) Compare to literature (8) Reaching closure (Eisenhardt, 1989)
    • 48. Advice
    • 49. Some advice by Eisenhardt I
    • 50. Some advice by Eisenhardt I • Combine data collection methods, e.g. archives, interviews, questionnaires, and observations triangulation.
    • 51. Some advice by Eisenhardt I • Combine data collection methods, e.g. archives, interviews, questionnaires, and observations triangulation. • You need an initial definition of the research question (Otherwise you become overwhelmed by the volume of data)
    • 52. Some advice by Eisenhardt II • Use multiple investigators: • to enhance the creative potential of the study • multiple investigators enhances confidence in the findings • Give investigators different roles, e.g. during interviews one making notes, the other doing the interview.
    • 53. Some advice by Eisenhardt III • Capture your thoughts: • Make extensive notes of impressions—don’t only direct your attention to what may seem important • push your thinking in writing notes; ask yourself “What am I learning?” and “How does this case differ from the last?”
    • 54. Some advice by Eisenhardt IV • Use the flexible design of case study research: “A key feature of theory- building case research is the freedom to make adjustments during the data collection process. These adjustments can be the addition of cases to probe particular themes which emerge. p. 539 • NOTE: this flexibility is NOT a license for being
    • 55. Good Luck!