Oportunidades para os profissionais da Qualidade com a nova ISO 26000 de Responsabilidade Social


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É hora da comunidade da Qualidade acordar e compreender melhor o que representa a nova ISO 26000 de RS, e também como são abordadas nessa norma internacional as questões de Responsabilidade Social e qual a influência que a Qualidade pode ter na gestão da RS.

Leia este interessante artigo, publicado recentemente na revista Quality Progress, da ASQ, e venha discuti-lo no nosso Grupo Sucesso Sustentado, no LinkedIn.

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Oportunidades para os profissionais da Qualidade com a nova ISO 26000 de Responsabilidade Social

  1. 1. Gettingon TrackIn 50 Words by Dorothy P. Bowers and John E. “Jack” WestOr Less• Quality can be part of an organization’s formula to address social re- sponsibility (SR) issues. The SR standard• The SR standard, ISO 26000, outlines a systematic approach allows quality professionals to lead organizations quality professionals can use to help their organizations address in the right direction SR issues and make a difference in the way they do business and affect the outside world.
  2. 2. social responsibilityISo 26000 IS here. Are you ready? Maybe the betterquestion is: Do you care? You should. ISO 26000:2010---Guidance on social responsibility,1 pub-lished last November, has been touted as the new standard thatcan help manage social responsibility (SR) issues at your organi-zation. It’s similar to other familiar standards such as ISO 9001,which helps manage quality, and ISO 14000, which helps handleenvironmental issues. But it also has its differences. ISO 26000 is not a certifiable management system like ISO9001 and ISO 14000. It’s a guidance standard. And it wasn’t writ-ten by experts like you, who were already practicing quality andenvironmental management. It was written by experts drawnfrom society to represent seven core SR subjects: governance,human rights, labor practices, environment, operating practices,consumer rights and community rights. May 2011 • QP 25
  3. 3. The goal of ISO 26000’s authors was to write a organizations to implement one. standard to inform organizations of their social re- There simply has not been time for the practice of sponsibilities and help them formulate an approach to SR to evolve—at least compared to how long it took to address these seven areas of concern that can have a develop practices in quality and environmental man- major impact on how an organization performs and ul- agement. But the new standard may offer quality pro- timately affects the outside world. fessionals a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fold SR ISO 26000 is an unprecedented standard that pres- into their quality practices. ents a unique opportunity for the quality community. Unknowingly, you and your colleagues may already But too few quality professionals realize the opportuni- be grappling with many quality issues that are funda- ties the standard offers them and their organizations. mentally rooted in SR issues. Now, you have the ISO It’s time for the quality community to wake up and 26000 standard to spell out core SR subjects and how take notice of what this standard represents, what SR they relate to quality issues you work with daily. issues it addresses and what influence quality can have Organizational governance: This is defined as the on SR. After all, more and more of the business world system by which an organization makes decisions and is paying attention to SR. Quality should, too. implements change in pursuit of its objectives. Effec- tive organizational governance is particularly critical Sr issues matter because it enables an organization to take action on CEOs already know SR issues aren’t just feel-good, other core SR issues. politically correct topics. They are serious issues that Many quality problems can be traced back to fail- must be addressed. ures of organizational governance, which manifest as A recent survey of 933 CEOs of companies who a lack of a robust quality program or lack of manage- signed the United Nations Global Compact—an inter- ment support for oversight programs. national network of organizations focused on environ- For instance, the Rogers Commission investigating ment, labor and human rights issues—showed 93% be- the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger explosion charged lieved environmental, social and corporate governance “there was a serious flaw in [NASA’s] decision-making issues covered by the compact are important to their process leading up to the launch.” One of the commis- future success. sion’s recommendations was for NASA to develop a In addition, 81% of the surveyed CEOs said they be- robust quality management system (QMS). Published lieved they have fully embedded these issues into the “lessons learned” documents indicate the agency took strategy and operations of their companies. 2 this advice to heart, instituting the kind of QMS recom- In contrast, a recent ASQ/Manpower survey of more mended in ISO 9001.4 than 1,000 quality professionals found that while 70% More recently, the National Commission on the of respondents are familiar with their organization’s 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drill- SR activities, only 28% viewed their organization’s SR ing reported, “The well blew out because a number of efforts as being fully integrated into daily operations separate risk factors, oversights and outright mistakes and decision making. Less than half (43%) responded …most of … [which] can be traced back to a single that quality professionals are included in their organi- overarching failure—a failure of management.”5 zation’s SR efforts. 3 BP has always had an aggressive SR program—in- cluding development of alternative energy systems— Systemic approach lacking and highly sophisticated environmental and safety Organizations that have already embarked on the SR management programs. Yet, the spill resulted from journey have taken different approaches. Some have cascading failures to follow the company’s own poli- installed an SR officer, while others have created cies and programs—a fundamental quality failure and cross-functional SR teams. Many simply address SR is- a failure of its SR program to have functioning organi- sues as they arise. zational governance. But few have the systematic approach outlined in We hope none of you will have to deal with gover- ISO 26000, and few SR officers have experience creat- nance failings of such magnitude, but certainly you will ing such a system or have the networks across their have regular encounters with the failure to have a ro-26 QP • www.qualityprogress.com
  4. 4. social responsibilitybust quality system that derives from shortcomings inan organization’s governance system. This may be why SOcIaL ReSpOnSIbILITyso many quality improvement projects fail to deliveron their promised results: They get lip service but not cOnfeRencegenuine management support. ASQ is hosting a social responsibility confer- Human rights and labor practices: Human rights ence June 16-17 in San Francisco. The keynote includes civil and political rights, as well as economic, speaker is John Elkington, considered by many social and cultural ones. Labor practices encompass to be the dean of the corporate responsibil-all of the policies and practices of work performed in ity movement and the creator of the triple support of an organization, including typical contract bottom-line concept. Instructional education work used by companies such as Nike. tracks and other offerings round out the one- The Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Sloan of-a-kind program. For more about the event, School of Management evaluated the human rights and visit http://asq.org/conferences/social-responsibility, or get there directly labor practices of two comparable Nike suppliers in using your smartphone and a free QR app to scan this code. Mexico that produce T-shirts. Researchers found humanrights concerns—such as forced overtime and discrimi- vent for degreasing, with soap and water. Not only didnatory labor practices—at one plant. The second plant, this change eliminate the waste toxic solvent (the waterhowever, had far less need for overtime (which was ful- was recycled), but it also delivered a cleaner product.7ly voluntary), and labor practices there included more The environment is an SR issue in which it hastraining and greater opportunity for higher income. already been accepted—and expected—that quality Sloan’s analysis determined the underlying mecha- principles and environmental management come to-nisms driving the differences in the plant’s conditions gether to address situations. This reflects the benefitsinvolved quality. The second plant practiced lean manu- of engaging quality professionals in addressing envi-facturing principles and employed multi-skilled, autono- ronmental issues.mous work groups. This yielded greater efficiency and Fair operating practices: This issue has a broadquality, and plant managers were better able to schedule scope that includes anticorruption, responsible politi-workload—avoiding excessive, forced overtime—and cal involvement, fair competition, promotion of SR inoffered wage increases by sharing efficiency gains. the value chain and the respect for property rights. For These practices were the outcome of the second example, integrating SR into supply chain contractsplant’s having more frequent and more collaborative and capacity building in the value chain are two areasinteraction with Nike quality professionals. The first in which organizations have been making progress andplant’s relationships with Nike officials were more dis- deriving benefits.tant.6 One example of fair operating practices is Star- Nike’s motivation in working closely with the first bucks’ establishment of Farmer Support Centers inplant was to improve quality and delivery. As an out- Costa Rica and Rwanda. These centers provide localcome, not only did it improve quality and delivery, but farmers resources and expertise to help lower produc-also the plant’s human rights and labor practices. tion costs, reduce fungal infections, improve coffee Environment: The environment issue includes quality and increase production of premium coffee.waste minimization, sustainable resource use, climate The centers also provide funding for loans that helpchange mitigation, environmental protection, biodiver- farmers invest in their farms and make capital im-sity and habitat restoration. While quality profession- provements, which increase their profits.8, 9als often define waste as activities that add cost but do By helping to sustain local enterprises and strength-not add value, the definition also applies to raw mate- en their communities, companies can ensure a healthyrials and byproducts. Many organizations have found supply of high-quality raw materials and employees.ways to reduce or eliminate waste of materials while Consumers: This core issue includes fair market-adding value, such as improved product quality. ing and contracting, consumer health and safety, sus- In the early days of pollution prevention, for example, tainable consumption, consumer service, data pro-Ford Motor Co. replaced trichloroethylene, a toxic sol- tection and privacy, access to essential services, and May 2011 • QP 27
  5. 5. education and awareness. ing to about 2,800 local people to create workers who Responding to consumer demand for environmen- can deliver high-quality services to the Alcoa mine, the tally sound products, General Electric (GE) created industrial support network that will grow around the a division focused on developing green products and mine and the community services that will be required services. Its Ecomagination Division reached $18 bil- for the substantial city that will result.11 lion in revenues in 2009—the size of a Fortune 150 Organizations such as Alcoa recognize that al- company. GE now predicts revenues of Ecomagination though they have become global, they still are part of products, which provide value to GE and society, will and have obligations to local communities. They also grow at twice the rate of its total company revenues in have realized the shared benefits from their support of the next five years. 10 education, health and economic development in their This core issue on customers addressed in ISO individual communities. 26000 seems to borrow from a fundamental part of This brief look at the core SR subjects described in ISO 9001: determine and review customer needs. This ISO 26000 shows a clear intersection of SR and qual- aspect not only supports an effective QMS, but it also ity. What sometimes is murky is what that intersection delivers the information for improvement of products means to the quality community. and the development of new products to meet chang- ing societal needs. Leveraging the standard Community involvement and development: What does ISO 26000 specifically offer to the quality Community involvement includes education and cul- community? How can quality professionals address ture, employment and skills creation, technology de- social responsibilities? How can they become engaged velopment and access, wealth and income creation, in SR practices? health and social investment. Every organization has social responsibilities that can be recognized and addressed in a variety of ways. This will affect the SR-quality interaction. Already, SOcIaL ReSpOnSIbILITy many high-profile companies have turned to SR to help STandaRd them make critical business decisions. For example, PepsiCo, the consumer products gi- For more information about the social ant, found itself facing a future in which its major prod- responsibility standard, read Michelle S. ucts would be under increasing pressure from health- Bernhart and Francis J. “Sonny” Maher’s conscious consumers who view PepsiCo products ISO 26000 in Practice: A User Guide (ASQ as non-nutritious. PepsiCo’s production capabilities Quality Press, 2011). Cost is $24 member, were being threatened—with challenges in ensuring $40 list. For more information, visit http:// adequate supplies of water, fuel, electricity and labor. asq.org/quality-press/display-item/index. PepsiCo’s response was to integrate the goals of hu- html?item=H1411&xvl=76102528 (case man well-being, talent and environmental sustainabil- sensitive), or use your smartphone and a free QR app to scan this code. ity into its business strategy.12, 13 With its focus on human well-being, PepsiCo is changing its portfolio of products to healthier snacks Alcoa, a leading producer of aluminum, exemplified and drinks that combat the obesity epidemic. Pepsi- this focus while working with local governments to lo- Co’s workforce sustainability efforts include commu- cate a bauxite mine in the Amazon Rainforest, which had nity capacity building through educational programs developed into a contentious issue. Alcoa undertook a for employees and their families. wide variety of programs to protect and improve the With its focus on environmental sustainability, Pep- region’s environment, society and economy. One of the siCo has set rigorous targets for reducing its consump- initiatives is a partnership with the National Industrial tion of water, fuel and electricity. Between 2006 and Apprenticeship Service (known as Senai) to provide the 2009, PepsiCo improved its water-use efficiency by local labor force with employment qualifications. more than 15%, and it plans to increase that to 20% by Alcoa has been offering technical courses and train- 2015. PepsiCo’s commitment was evidenced by CEO28 QP • www.qualityprogress.com
  6. 6. social responsibilityIndra Nooyi’s speech after accepting the 2010 Commit- ISO 26000 to the organization creates new opportuni-tee for Economic Development Business Statesman- ties for them to capitalize on the leverage that can re-ship Award: “Being a good company doesn’t come at sult from the intersection of quality and SR.the expense of being a successful one.” 14, 15 ISO 26000 may mature simply as a useful guide for quality professionals. On the other hand, if full oppor-Different approaches tunities are recognized and seized, the intersection ofAs the ASQ/Manpower survey showed, the level of SR quality and SR could be the lever that expands andintegration varies from organization to organization. strengthens the role of the quality profession. QPThe involvement of individual quality professionals inSR can also vary. RefeRenceS 1. ASQ/ANSI/ISO 26000: 2010—Guidance on social responsibility, asQ Quality Here lies the golden opportunity for the quality pro- press, 2010. 2. peter lacy, tim cooper, rob Hayward and lisa neuberger, A New Era offessional: Regardless of the level of integration, the qual- Sustainability: UN Global Compact-Accenture CEO Study 2010, accenture,ity community already has the skills and networks to be 2010, https://microsite.accenture.com/sustainability/research_and_ insights/pages/a-new-era-of-sustainability.aspx.able to use ISO 26000 and bring together subject matter 3. asQ and Manpower professional, “social responsibility and the Quality professional: the implications of iso 26000,” white paper, Feb. 15, 2011,experts to incorporate and integrate SR concepts into http://asq.org/2011/02/iso-26000/social-responsibility-and-the-quality-everyday operations and decision making. professional-the-implications-of-iso-26000.pdf. 4. the House science and technology committee, “report of the presidential In fact, higher levels of management at many cor- commission on the space shuttle challenger accident,” oct. 8, 1986.porations already expect quality executives to act as 5. the national commission on the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill and offshore Drilling, “Deep Water: the Gulf oil Disaster and the Future ofthe “conscience” of organizations, even when social offshore Drilling,” Jan. 11, 2011, www.oilspillcommission.gov/sites/default/ files/documents/deepwater_reporttothepresident_final.pdf, p. 90.responsibilities are not overtly recognized. 6. richard locke and Monica romis, “beyond corporate codes of conduct: Here are some ways quality professionals can use Work organization and labor standards at two Mexican Garment Facto- ries,” working paper, Massachusetts institute of technology sloan schooltheir abilities to incorporate and integrate SR into op- of Management, august 2006, http://mitsloan.mit.edu/newsroom/pdf/ conduct.pdf.erations and decision making: 7. environmental pollution protection project, “introduction to pollution• For organizations that have established an SR func- prevention training Manual,” July 1995, www.epa.gov/ppic/pubs/ intropollutionprevention.pdf. tion, policies and programs, internal quality profes- 8. starbucks, “supporting Farmers and their communities,” www.starbucks. sionals can ensure there is appropriate collabora- com/responsibility/sourcing/farmer-support. 9. starbucks, “starbucks increases commitment to supporting coffee Farm- tion and integration of quality and SR programs. ers and communities; announces new environmental initiatives,” May 14, 2008, http://news.starbucks.com/article_display.cfm?article_id=46.• For organizations without SR functions, internal 10. General electric ecomagination, www.ecomagination.com. quality professionals can use ISO 26000 as a check- 11. alcoa, “Juriti—sustainable Development in amazônia,” 2011, www.alcoa. com/brazil/en/custom_page/environment_juruti_faq.asp. list to ensure vulnerabilities are addressed. Quality 12. andrea newell, “pepsico improves products, stabilizes communities and Helps the environment,” triplepundit, Feb. 25, 2011, www.triplepundit. professionals should also seek opportunities to ad- com/2011/02/pepsico-sustainable-agriculture-project/comment-page-1. vocate for an organizational SR program. 13. pepsico, sustainability efforts, www.pepsico.com/investors/ sustainability-efforts.html.• For all organizations, it will be critical to acknowledge 14. pepsico chairman and ceo indra nooyi, acceptance speech for 2010 and recognize existing SR performance, highlighting committee for economic Development business statesmanship award, www.pepsico.com/assets/speeches/ced%20statesmanship%20award.pdf. the relationships with quality, safety, environment, 15. Deborah Merrill-sands, “principled leadership: a Model for the ‘reset’ economy,” Dmerrillsands’s blog, aug. 4, 2009, http://dmerrillsands. risk management and other management arenas. wordpress.com/tag/indira-nooyi.• Professionals external to organizations—such as quality consultants—should consider SR issues in DOROTHY P. BOWERS has chaired the U.S. technical their analysis of quality problems and include SR is- advisory group (TAG) to ISO TC 207 and the U.S. TAG to ISO 26000. She has 35 years of experience in sues in quality program development, regardless of corporate environmental management. Bowers holds whether they are specifically identified as SR. Man- bachelor’s degrees in chemistry from the University of Buffalo in New York and in chemical engineering from agement consultants, too, can begin to integrate SR the University of Washington in Seattle. issues into the management system.• Organizations with SR programs already in place can JOHN E. “JACK” WEST is a member of Silver Fox Advisors in Bellaire, TX. He is past chair of the U.S. use ISO 26000 as a confirmation of their programs. TAG to ISO/TC 176 and lead delegate to the com- Regardless of the organization’s degree of SR mittee responsible for the ISO 9000 family of quality management standards. He is an ASQ fellow and hasawareness or implementation, participation by qual- co-authored several ASQ Quality Press books.ity professionals in evaluating the potential benefits of May 2011 • QP 29