UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR INSTITUTO PEDAGÓGICO DE CARACAS DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS PROGRAMA DE INGLÉS CÁTEDRA DE LINGÜÍSTICA MODELS OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONTeacher: Mirna Quintero Student: Francisco de Barnola
MODELS OF SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Krashen’s Model of SLA"Language acquisition does not require extensive use ofconscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill."Stephen Krashen (cited by Schütz, 2007)Krashens theory of second language acquisition consists offive main hypotheses:the Acquisition-Learning hypothesisthe Monitor hypothesisthe Natural Order hypothesisthe Input hypothesisthe Affective Filter hypothesis.
ACQUISITION-LEARNING HYPOTHESIS According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: the acquired system and the learned system. THE ACQUIRE SYSTEM THE LEARNED SYSTEM It is the product of formalIt is very similar to L1 acquisition. It instruction and it comprises arequires meaningful interaction in conscious process which resultsthe target language. The speakers in conscious knowledge aboutare concentrated not in the form of the language, for exampletheir utterances, but in the knowledge of grammar rules.communicative act.
MONITOR HYPOTHESISConscious learning operates only as a monitor or editorthat checks or repairs the output of what has beenacquired. (Acquire and Learned systems)
NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESISGrammatical structures are acquired in a predictableorder and it does little good to try to learn them in anotherorder. (some grammatical structures tend to be acquiredearly while others late)
INPUT HYPOTHESISAn acquirer can "move" from a stage I to a stage I + 1.
AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESISThe learners emotional state can act as a filter thatimpedes or blocks input necessary to acquisition.(motivation, self-confidence and low anxiety)
CONNECTIONISMConnectionism is a set of approaches in the fields of artificialintelligence, cognitive psychology, cognitive science,neuroscience and philosophy of mind, that models mental orbehavioral phenomena as the emergent processes ofinterconnected networks of simple units.
BASIC PRINCIPLES SPREADING ACTIVATIONThe idea started from the assumption that memory contains concepts.These are associated. Those that are more ‘activated’ are easier to recall.The activation of a given concept depends on two things: the baseactivation of that concept and the sum of the activation of associatedconcepts multiplied by the strength of association.
BASIC PRINCIPLES NEURAL NETWORKThe simplest architecture for a neural network has a feedforwardstructure , in which information flows only in one direction: i.e. fromthe input layer to the output layer, and in general via one or morelayers of intermediate, hidden nodes.
BASIC PRINCIPLES Biological RealismThe focus of Biological Realism is the study of subjectivephenomenal experiences rather than abstract relations betweenthe mind and external objects.
BASIC PRINCIPLES LEARNING Learning is a process of connectingspecialized nodes or informationsources. A learner can exponentially improvetheir own learning by plugging into anexisting network. Learning may reside innon-human appliances. Learning (in the sense thatsomething is known, but not necessarilyactuated) can rest in a community, anetwork, or a database.
HISTORY Connectionism can be traced to ideas more than a century old, which were little more than speculation until the mid-to-late 20th century. It wasnt until the 1980s that connectionism became a popular perspective among scientists. PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSINGThe prevailing connectionist approach today wasoriginally known as parallel distributed processing(PDP). It was an artificial neural network approachthat stressed the parallel nature of neuralprocessing, and the distributed nature of neuralrepresentations. It provided a general mathematicalframework for researchers to operate in.
INFO PROCESSINGInformation processing, uses thecomputer as a model for humanlearning. Like the computer, thehuman mind takes in information,performs operations on it to changeits form and content, stores andlocates it and generates responsesto it.
INFO PROCESSING SENSORY MEMORYSensory memory is the shortest-termelement of memory. It is the ability toretain impressions of sensoryinformation after the original stimulihave ended. It acts as a kind of bufferfor stimuli received through the fivesenses of sight, hearing, smell, tasteand touch, which are retainedaccurately, but very briefly. Forexample, the ability to look atsomething and remember what itlooked like with just a second ofobservation is an example of sensorymemory.
INFO PROCESSING WORKING MEMORYWorking memory has beendefined as the system whichactively holds information inthe mind to do verbal andnonverbal tasks such asreasoning andcomprehension, and to make itavailable for furtherinformation processing.
LONG TERM MEMORYLong-term memory refers to thecontinuing storage of information.In Freudian psychology, long termmemory would be call thepreconscious and unconscious.This information is largely outsideof our awareness, but can becalled into working memory to beused when needed. Some of thisinformation is fairly easy torecall, while other memories aremuch more difficult to access.
CONNECTIVISMConnectivism is a learning theoryfor the digital age. Learning haschanged over the last severaldecades. The theories ofbehaviourism, cognitivism, andconstructivism provide an effectview of learning in manyenvironments. They fall short,however, when learning moves intoinformal, networked, technology-enabled arena.
PRINCIPLES OF CONNECTIVISMLearning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes orinformation sources.Learning may reside in non-human appliances.Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently knownNurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitatecontinual learning.
PRINCIPLES OF CONNECTIVISMAbility to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is acore skill.Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of allconnectivist learning activities.Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learnand the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens ofa shifting reality.While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due toalterations in the information climate affecting the decision.
SOCIOCULTURAL THEORYThe work of sociocultural theory is toexplain how individual mentalfunctioning is related to cultural,institutional, and historical context;hence, the focus of the socioculturalperspective is on the roles thatparticipation in social interactionsand culturally organized activitiesplay in influencing psychologicaldevelopment.
MEDIATIONMediation refers to the part playedby other significant people in thelearners lives, people who enhancetheir learning by selecting andshaping the learning experiencespresented to them. The secret ofeffective learning lies in the nature ofthe social interaction between two ormore people with different levels ofskills and knowledge. This involveshelping the learner to move into andthrough the next layer of knowledgeor understanding.
INTERNALIZATIONInternalization is the process through which members ofcommunities of practice appropriate the symbolic tools used incommunicative activity and convert them into psychologicaltools that mediate their mental activity
IMITATIONVygotsky (1987) cited in Lantolf (2006), proposed that theinternalization of socially constructed forms of mediationoccurs through the mechanism of imitation. It is a method ofabsorbing what is present in others and of making it over informs peculiar to one’s own temper and valuable to one’s owngenius
REFERENCESAbout (2012) . Connectivism. [Document Online] Available :http://www.connectivism.ca/about.html [Consulted : June, 12, 2012]Lantolf, J (2006) . Introducing sociocultural theory. [Document Online]Available :http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/elt/catalogue/0-19-442160-0-a.pdfhttp://www.everythingesl.net/inservices/language_stages.phpSiemens, G (2005) . Connectivism:[Consulted Theory 12, the Digital Age. [Document Online] Available :A Learning : June, for 2012]http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_05/article01.htm [Consulted : June, 12,2012]
REFERENCESChatzopoulos, A (2008) . Biological Realism: A Different Point of View.[Document Online] Available : http://www.qualia.se/archives/225[Consulted : June, 11, 2012]Revised Pages (2006) . WorkingMemory: Chapter 6 [Document Online] Available : http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~ashas/Cognition%20Textbook/chapter6.pdf[Consulted : June, 10, 2012]Vivian C. (2012) . Krashen s Comprehension Hypothesis Model ofL2 learning [Document Online] Availablehttp://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/SLA/Krashen.htm [Consulted :June, 10, 2012]