Crane Safety & Rigging


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Crane Safety & Rigging

  1. 1. Crane Safety & Rigging Adolfson & Peterson Presented By:
  2. 2. Causes of Fatalities Electrocution <ul><ul><li>Contact with overhead power lines </li></ul></ul>40%
  3. 3. Who Is At Risk? <ul><li>Operators are normally safe if they stay on the equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ground personnel are over 8 times more likely to be killed. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Maintain Safe Working Clearance <ul><li>Minimum 10 feet clearance - 50 kV or less </li></ul><ul><li>Add .4 inches for every kv over 50 kV or use ANCI Table. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 to 200kV -15 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 to 350kV -20 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>350 to 500 kV -25 ft. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Causes of Fatalities Struck-By the Crane Tipping Boom Failure 12% 8%
  6. 6. Roll-Overs
  7. 7. Causes of Tip-Overs <ul><li>Not accounting for poor ground conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to properly use outriggers or additional support. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to level the crane. </li></ul><ul><li>Exceeding the load chart. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ground Pressure <ul><li>As load leverage increases, track or outrigger pressure increases nearest the load. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Uncompacted Fills <ul><li>Backfilled areas may have lower bearing capacities. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not set up on backfilled areas unless backfill is properly compacted and larger mats or floats are used </li></ul>
  10. 10. Soil Failure Accident <ul><li>50 ton American Crane bucketing concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Crane slid on poorly compacted fill. </li></ul><ul><li>Crane tipped when track settled in soil and got out of level. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mobile Cranes <ul><li>The key to lifting a maximum capacity load is the outriggers. </li></ul><ul><li>They provide a solid platform for the crane's safe operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics show that at least 50% of crane incidents occur because crane or outriggers are not set-up properly. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Causes of Mobile Crane Tip-Overs <ul><li>Failure to get completely &quot;off-rubber&quot; </li></ul>
  13. 13. Causes of Mobile Crane Tip-Overs <ul><li>Failure to fully extend all outriggers. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Proper Outrigger Setup <ul><li>Get the tires off the ground. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Improper Outrigger Set
  16. 16. Poor Outrigger Pads
  17. 17. Outrigger Pads and Floats <ul><li>Outrigger pads are designed for good ground conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor ground conditions reduce the amount of load a crane can safely place on the outrigger pad. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Proper Outrigger Setup <ul><li>Use additional support cribbing or &quot;floats.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Floats must be level to assure the outrigger pad will not slide off causing the crane to tip. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Spread Crane Load <ul><li>In poorer soil conditions, use mats to spread the load to a wider area reducing soil pressures. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Crane Tip Over Accident <ul><li>50 ton truck crane </li></ul><ul><li>Operator swung extended boom around while on rubber with no outriggers out. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Proper Outrigger Setup <ul><li>Fully extend all outriggers. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Leveling <ul><li>Cranes should be within 1 degree of level. </li></ul><ul><li>Past this point, the crane can lose 20% or more of its rated capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Tipping and boom failures are possible. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Crane Tip Over Accident <ul><li>80 ton Kebelco bucketing concrete. </li></ul><ul><li>Crane out of level and in critical pick range. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Causes of Fatalities Rigging Failures <ul><li>Failure of hooks, slings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Loads falling out of rigging </li></ul>15%
  25. 25. Not Acceptable!
  26. 26. Causes of Fatalities Handling Loads <ul><li>Struck by the Load </li></ul><ul><li>Pulled off by continued contact with the load </li></ul>15%
  27. 27. Causes of Fatalities Crushing <ul><li>Caught between crane and carriage </li></ul>Caught under the truss boom during dismantling 7%
  28. 28. Barricade Swing Radius <ul><li>Barricade the swing radius to assure no one gets into an area where they could be caught in between parts of the machine. </li></ul>Hoop
  29. 29. Improper Swing Barricades <ul><li>OSHA does not consider caution tape or flexible rope as an adequate swing radius protection. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Site Conditions <ul><li>Provide proper working area </li></ul><ul><li>Assure adequate ground stability </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain clearance with overhead power lines </li></ul><ul><li>Provide overhead protection for other workers </li></ul>
  31. 31. Supervision Responsibilities <ul><li>Have the right crane to do the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure crane is in safe operating condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Assure operator is adequately trained. </li></ul><ul><li>Assure riggers are competent. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Supervision Responsibilities <ul><li>Know the weights of the loads. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not pressure an operator into an unsafe lift. </li></ul><ul><li>Assure good communication between all involved. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Basic Hand Signals
  34. 34. Examples of Basic Radio Commands <ul><li>Use Load Line </li></ul><ul><li>Use Wipline </li></ul><ul><li>Boom up---Boom down </li></ul><ul><li>Boom up and hold the load </li></ul><ul><li>Boom down hold the load </li></ul><ul><li>Swing right---Swing Left </li></ul><ul><li>Take the load up---Down with the load </li></ul><ul><li>Extend Boom---Retract Boom-----etc. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Basic Rules of Thumb <ul><li>Know the weight of the load </li></ul><ul><li>Know where the center of gravity is </li></ul><ul><li>Know the rated capacities of rigging </li></ul><ul><li>Know how hitches affect sling capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce capacities as sling angles increase </li></ul>
  36. 36. Rules of Thumb (Cont.) <ul><li>Use proper sling sets for the load </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect all slings, chains, hooks, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect slings from sharp surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Test lift uneven loads for balance </li></ul><ul><li>Stay clear of raised loads </li></ul>
  37. 37. Safety Latches <ul><li>The safety latch on this hook is taped open. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety latches should not be disabled except in certain circumstances. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hoisting With Open Hook Wrong Right Sling is pulled toward the open hook. Sling is pulled to the throat of the hook.
  39. 39. Rigging <ul><li>The safety latch is broken on this hook. </li></ul><ul><li>The hook should be repaired or removed from service. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Spreader Bars <ul><li>This hook on this spreader bar has no safety latch. </li></ul><ul><li>The hook is also backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Hooks should be turned so that the sling bears on the throat and cannot slip out. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Rigging a Column <ul><li>This is a good example of using a rope to release a chocker sling from a column. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Inspect Slings <ul><li>Slings must be inspected before each use. </li></ul><ul><li>Slings should have tags that indicate capacities. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Sling Configurations <ul><li>Slings are rated for a vertical hitch. </li></ul><ul><li>Chocker hitches can reduce capacities by half. </li></ul><ul><li>Basket hitches can increase capacity by 2 for straight vertical basket. </li></ul>Chocker Basket
  44. 44. Set Proper Sling Angles <ul><li>If sling angles are too shallow, the slings could slip. </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow angles also can over stress slings. </li></ul>Too Shallow
  45. 45. Sling Angles <ul><li>The sling stress is proportional to the angle of the sling </li></ul>
  46. 46. Sling Angle and Capacity <ul><li>Rated capacities must be reduced as sling angle increases </li></ul>87 % 70 % 50 %
  47. 47. Set Proper Sling Angles <ul><li>Slings should be set at a minimum of a 60 degree angle. </li></ul>RIGHT!
  48. 48. Watch Off Balanced Loads <ul><li>Keep center of gravity under the hook to keep the load level. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Keep Sling Legs Even <ul><li>Be sure all sling legs take an equal load. </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced sling load may overstress slings and tip the load. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Balance Loads in Slings <ul><li>Be sure the load is balanced on the slings. </li></ul>WRONG! Taking full load Slack
  51. 51. Rigging Pre-Cast Planks <ul><li>Assure sling angles are set to properly support the plank. </li></ul><ul><li>All employees must stay clear as planks can break during lifting operations. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Watch Two-blocking <ul><li>Long rigging sets require adequate crane boom height. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch two-blocking when using long rigging sets. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Cranes <ul><li>Thank you for attending </li></ul>
  54. 54. Use of Tag Lines <ul><li>Good use of tag lines to keep workers away from the load. </li></ul>Tag Lines