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Crane Safety & Rigging
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  • 1. Crane Safety & Rigging Adolfson & Peterson Presented By:
  • 2. Causes of Fatalities Electrocution
      • Contact with overhead power lines
  • 3. Who Is At Risk?
    • Operators are normally safe if they stay on the equipment.
    • Ground personnel are over 8 times more likely to be killed.
  • 4. Maintain Safe Working Clearance
    • Minimum 10 feet clearance - 50 kV or less
    • Add .4 inches for every kv over 50 kV or use ANCI Table.
      • 50 to 200kV -15 ft.
      • 200 to 350kV -20 ft.
      • 350 to 500 kV -25 ft.
  • 5. Causes of Fatalities Struck-By the Crane Tipping Boom Failure 12% 8%
  • 6. Roll-Overs
  • 7. Causes of Tip-Overs
    • Not accounting for poor ground conditions.
    • Failure to properly use outriggers or additional support.
    • Failure to level the crane.
    • Exceeding the load chart.
  • 8. Ground Pressure
    • As load leverage increases, track or outrigger pressure increases nearest the load.
  • 9. Uncompacted Fills
    • Backfilled areas may have lower bearing capacities.
    • Do not set up on backfilled areas unless backfill is properly compacted and larger mats or floats are used
  • 10. Soil Failure Accident
    • 50 ton American Crane bucketing concrete
    • Crane slid on poorly compacted fill.
    • Crane tipped when track settled in soil and got out of level.
  • 11. Mobile Cranes
    • The key to lifting a maximum capacity load is the outriggers.
    • They provide a solid platform for the crane's safe operation.
    • Statistics show that at least 50% of crane incidents occur because crane or outriggers are not set-up properly.
  • 12. Causes of Mobile Crane Tip-Overs
    • Failure to get completely "off-rubber"
  • 13. Causes of Mobile Crane Tip-Overs
    • Failure to fully extend all outriggers.
  • 14. Proper Outrigger Setup
    • Get the tires off the ground.
  • 15. Improper Outrigger Set
  • 16. Poor Outrigger Pads
  • 17. Outrigger Pads and Floats
    • Outrigger pads are designed for good ground conditions.
    • Poor ground conditions reduce the amount of load a crane can safely place on the outrigger pad.
  • 18. Proper Outrigger Setup
    • Use additional support cribbing or "floats."
    • Floats must be level to assure the outrigger pad will not slide off causing the crane to tip.
  • 19. Spread Crane Load
    • In poorer soil conditions, use mats to spread the load to a wider area reducing soil pressures.
  • 20. Crane Tip Over Accident
    • 50 ton truck crane
    • Operator swung extended boom around while on rubber with no outriggers out.
  • 21. Proper Outrigger Setup
    • Fully extend all outriggers.
  • 22. Leveling
    • Cranes should be within 1 degree of level.
    • Past this point, the crane can lose 20% or more of its rated capacity.
    • Tipping and boom failures are possible.
  • 23. Crane Tip Over Accident
    • 80 ton Kebelco bucketing concrete.
    • Crane out of level and in critical pick range.
  • 24. Causes of Fatalities Rigging Failures
    • Failure of hooks, slings, etc.
    • Loads falling out of rigging
  • 25. Not Acceptable!
  • 26. Causes of Fatalities Handling Loads
    • Struck by the Load
    • Pulled off by continued contact with the load
  • 27. Causes of Fatalities Crushing
    • Caught between crane and carriage
    Caught under the truss boom during dismantling 7%
  • 28. Barricade Swing Radius
    • Barricade the swing radius to assure no one gets into an area where they could be caught in between parts of the machine.
  • 29. Improper Swing Barricades
    • OSHA does not consider caution tape or flexible rope as an adequate swing radius protection.
  • 30. Site Conditions
    • Provide proper working area
    • Assure adequate ground stability
    • Maintain clearance with overhead power lines
    • Provide overhead protection for other workers
  • 31. Supervision Responsibilities
    • Have the right crane to do the job.
    • Ensure crane is in safe operating condition.
    • Assure operator is adequately trained.
    • Assure riggers are competent.
  • 32. Supervision Responsibilities
    • Know the weights of the loads.
    • Do not pressure an operator into an unsafe lift.
    • Assure good communication between all involved.
  • 33. Basic Hand Signals
  • 34. Examples of Basic Radio Commands
    • Use Load Line
    • Use Wipline
    • Boom up---Boom down
    • Boom up and hold the load
    • Boom down hold the load
    • Swing right---Swing Left
    • Take the load up---Down with the load
    • Extend Boom---Retract Boom-----etc.
  • 35. Basic Rules of Thumb
    • Know the weight of the load
    • Know where the center of gravity is
    • Know the rated capacities of rigging
    • Know how hitches affect sling capacities
    • Reduce capacities as sling angles increase
  • 36. Rules of Thumb (Cont.)
    • Use proper sling sets for the load
    • Inspect all slings, chains, hooks, etc.
    • Protect slings from sharp surfaces
    • Test lift uneven loads for balance
    • Stay clear of raised loads
  • 37. Safety Latches
    • The safety latch on this hook is taped open.
    • Safety latches should not be disabled except in certain circumstances.
  • 38. Hoisting With Open Hook Wrong Right Sling is pulled toward the open hook. Sling is pulled to the throat of the hook.
  • 39. Rigging
    • The safety latch is broken on this hook.
    • The hook should be repaired or removed from service.
  • 40. Spreader Bars
    • This hook on this spreader bar has no safety latch.
    • The hook is also backwards.
    • Hooks should be turned so that the sling bears on the throat and cannot slip out.
  • 41. Rigging a Column
    • This is a good example of using a rope to release a chocker sling from a column.
  • 42. Inspect Slings
    • Slings must be inspected before each use.
    • Slings should have tags that indicate capacities.
  • 43. Sling Configurations
    • Slings are rated for a vertical hitch.
    • Chocker hitches can reduce capacities by half.
    • Basket hitches can increase capacity by 2 for straight vertical basket.
    Chocker Basket
  • 44. Set Proper Sling Angles
    • If sling angles are too shallow, the slings could slip.
    • Shallow angles also can over stress slings.
    Too Shallow
  • 45. Sling Angles
    • The sling stress is proportional to the angle of the sling
  • 46. Sling Angle and Capacity
    • Rated capacities must be reduced as sling angle increases
    87 % 70 % 50 %
  • 47. Set Proper Sling Angles
    • Slings should be set at a minimum of a 60 degree angle.
  • 48. Watch Off Balanced Loads
    • Keep center of gravity under the hook to keep the load level.
  • 49. Keep Sling Legs Even
    • Be sure all sling legs take an equal load.
    • Unbalanced sling load may overstress slings and tip the load.
  • 50. Balance Loads in Slings
    • Be sure the load is balanced on the slings.
    WRONG! Taking full load Slack
  • 51. Rigging Pre-Cast Planks
    • Assure sling angles are set to properly support the plank.
    • All employees must stay clear as planks can break during lifting operations.
  • 52. Watch Two-blocking
    • Long rigging sets require adequate crane boom height.
    • Watch two-blocking when using long rigging sets.
  • 53. Cranes
    • Thank you for attending
  • 54. Use of Tag Lines
    • Good use of tag lines to keep workers away from the load.
    Tag Lines