Effective feedback enhancing learning
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Effective feedback enhancing learning Effective feedback enhancing learning Presentation Transcript

  • Effective feedback for enhanced learning Professional Learning 26 March 2009
  • Diocesan Strategic Intent
    • The High Yield Strategies have been proven by a combination of empirical research & ‘best practice’ evidence to contribute to improving student learning:
    • Using data to improve learning
    • Feedback
    • - from teachers to students
    • - from students to teachers
    • - from students to students
  • Outline of today
    • Session 1 focus on feedback
    • Session 2 teacher-led discussions
    • MX, PB “feedback for students with special learning needs” (C4)
    • OH, RR, CH “feedback in competency based assessment” (C3)
    • AS “using feedback slips in Stage 6” (library)
    • BP “feedback using sample answers” (wide reading)
    • SA “feedback and the gifted learner” (library research room)
    • MN, KR “using video feedback” (Info Lab 2)
    • AH, JK, MV “place of feedback in the development of a major work” (teacher resource room)
    • SB, MC “focus on process and product and evidence to enhance feedback” (library)
    • Session 3 KLA-led professional learning
  • The annual development plan
    • Continue to provide opportunities to model examples of teacher best practice & collegial sharing of ideas
    • Provide opportunities for continual professional learning through KLA meetings
    • Provide additional opportunities for continual professional learning & sharing through staff meeting & in services
    • Seek out opportunities for staff professional learning around interdependent & reflective practices
    • Promote reflective learning through encouraging peer and self assessment
  • Building a professional learning community.
    • “ Enhancing learning also needs school leaders and teachers who can create school, staffroom and classroom environments where teachers can talk about their teaching, where errors or difficulties are seen as critical learning opportunities, where discarding incorrect knowledge and understandings is welcomed, and where teachers can feel safe to learn, re-learn, and explore their own teaching knowledge and understanding.”
    • Hattie, J A (2009) Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievements.
  • Professional Learning Communities
    • Conversations grounded in evidence & focused on student have the potential to influence learning
    • Follow a process of deep collaboration with evidence and inquiry (social construction)
    • Solutions drawn from evidence and from explicit knowledge combined with tacit knowledge in response to authentic problems
    • Three qualities of PLCs are “inquiry habit of mind”, “relevant data” & engagement in “learning conversations”
    • Earl, L & Timperley (eds) (2008) Professional Learning Conversations: Challenges in using evidence for improvement. Springer Science & Business Media
  • A model for Professional Learning H. Timperley, A. Wilson, H. Barrar & I. Fung (2007) Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education
  • Continuing the conversation
  • Capturing the conversation
  • Why focus on feedback?
    • Feedback after the Half Yearly and Trials were good but there was insufficient feedback from other assessment tasks.
    • Teachers need to provide better marking comments
    • I was never really given an explanation of why I lost marks.
    • Some exams came back without any comments.
    • How are we supposed to know what we have done wrong if you wont tell us?
    • Year 12 Exit Survey 2008
  • What does the research suggest?
    • Teachers claim that they give ample feedback, but students don’t always receive and interpret the information as feedback.
    • Most feedback that students obtained was from other students, and most of this was incorrect
    • At best, students receive moments of feedback in a single day
    • Most feedback was ‘controlling’ (eg ‘you should have done it like this!’) & either social or behavioural
  • Why is feedback critical?
    • Two of the essential ingredients of learning are feedback and challenge. The greater the challenge, the higher the probability that one seeks and needs feedback, and the more important it is that there is a teacher to ensure that the learner is on the right path to successfully meet the challenge.
    • Hattie, J A (2009) Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievements.
  • What matters in learning? Hattie, J (2005). “ What is the nature of evidence that makes a difference to learning?” ACER Conference paper.
  • Effect sizes
  • Why focus on feedback? Hattie, J (2003) Teachers Make a Difference. Teacher .41 Questioning Teacher .42 Teacher style Teacher .43 Homework Home .46 Parent involvement Teacher .50 Mastery learning Teacher .50 Peer tutoring Teacher .52 Challenge of goals Teacher .56 Class environment Student .61 Students’ disposition to learn Teacher .65 Remediation/feedback Teacher .82 Direct instruction Teacher 1.00 Instructional quality Student 1.04 Students prior cognitive ability Teacher 1.13 Feedback Source of influence Effect size Influence
  • What is feedback
    • According to Hattie (2009) feedback is information provided by a teacher, peer, parent, book, one’s own experience, etc about aspects of one’s performance or understanding.
    • Feedback is a consequence of performance.
    • “ The mistake … was seeing feedback as something teachers provided to students … most of the feedback [teachers] did provide was social and behavioural … Feedback was most powerful when it was from the student to the teacher … When teachers seek, or are at least open to, feedback from students as to what students know, what they understand, where they make errors, when they have misconceptions, when they are not engaged – then teaching and learning can be synchronised and powerful” (pg 173)
  • Critical questions
    • Where are they going?
    • How are they going?
    • Where to next?
    • The ‘they’ refers to both teacher and the student.
    • Hattie JA (2009) Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement (pg 177)
  • Effectiveness of feedback
    • The most effective forms of feedback provide cues or reinforcement to the learner, are in the form of video, audio or computer-assisted instruction feedback or relate feedback to learning goals
    • Feedback is more effective when it provides more information on correct rather than incorrect responses and when it builds on changes from previous trials
    • Feedback is more effective when there are perceived low rather than high levels of threat to self-esteem, presumably because low threat conditions allow attention to be paid to feedback
    • Feedback needs to be clear, purposeful, meaningful and compatible with students’ prior knowledge.
  • Four levels of feedback
    • Hattie & Timperley (2007) distinguish four levels of feedback:
    • Feedback about the task (identifies errors, depth of quality, explicit criteria); most powerful when it corrects misconceptions; does not always translate to other tasks
    • Feedback about processing of the task (how they approached the task) relationship between how they approached the task and the quality of their performance; knowledge of results drives cognitive feedback (links task, process and results)
    • Feedback about self regulation (the process to monitor and control their learning) effective students create internal routines; less effective learners depend on external factors
    • Feedback about the self is generally not a good idea!
  • Types of feedback
    • Feedback about task or product (doing) Low threat
    • Feedback on process used to complete the product (being) High threat when drawing attention to self
    • Feedback aimed at self-regulation, what you have done/task, skill in self-evaluation (doing) Low threat
    • Feedback about self, knowing and shaping who/what you are (being) High threat
    • Girls need to be ‘doing’ to improve their academic self-concept. When focus of feedback is on doing, the perceived threat is lower and attention to the feedback increases.
  • The effects of ‘threat’ on learning
    • When feedback draws attention to the self, students try to avoid the risks involved in tackling a challenging assignment, they minimise effort, and they have a high risk of failure in order to minimise risk to self (Black & William, 1998)
    • Ideally, learning should move from the task to the processes necessary to learn the task and then continuing beyond to more challenging tasks and goals. This results in higher confidence and greater investment of effort.