UCB i190 Spring 2014 ICTD in Practice_Lect23_final_23apr14

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UCB i190 Spring 2014 ICTD in Practice_Lect23_final_23apr14

  1. 1. i190 Spring 2014: Information and Communications Technology for Development (ICTD) in Practice University of California Berkeley, School of Information LECTURE 23: 23 Apr 2014 Instructor: San Ng (www.sanng.com) Class Website: i190spring2014.sanng.com
  2. 2. Our Core Values  Open, collaborative, inclusive, community  Share class resources (especially) with developing world  Ideas and innovation in learning  AGILE method of teaching/learning  Learning in all directions (not just instructor to students)  failure ok  Tech Curious  Walk the talk- try technology and social networks, see what sticks  FUN and interesting  WHAT ABOUT YOU?
  3. 3. Course Revisit: 190 Framework Conceptual Week1: Introduction to Course W2: What is Development? W3: What is ICTD W4: Who Does What in Practice? Mapping the ICTD Landscape i190 ICTD in Practice: Core Skills Technical (eApplications) W5: Overarching Issues of eApplications W6: Infrastructure, Telecenters, Agriculture, W7: Revisiting Agriculture,, W8 : e-Health, Education W9: eGovernance Microfinance Management W10: Break W11: Intro to Project Management Planning and Assessment W12: Budgeting, Scheduling, Fundraising W13: Implementation W14: Monitoring and Evaluation/ Next Cycle W15: Final Projects & Wrap Up
  4. 4. What Is International Development  Especially watch the second (later in time) TED Talk •http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you _ve_ever_seen.html •http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_reveals_new_insights_on_p overty.html
  5. 5. Theories of International Development Liberalism Modernization Neo-Liberalism Dependency Critics of Liberalism Globalization ???!!!!! Post-Modernization Civil Society Gender Based Sustainable development Rights Based Approaches Development as Freedom Institution
  6. 6. Theories of International Development Liberalism Modernization Neo-Liberalism Dependency Critics of Liberalism Globalization Post-Modernization Civil Society Gender Based Sustainable development Rights Based Approaches Development as Freedom Institutions A Very Simple Framework MARKET STATE/ PEOPLE
  7. 7. Measurement of International Development: See list of broad indicators listed in Wikipedia and read The Guardian, How would yo measure development progress? •http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_reveals_new_insights_on_poverty.html •Some typical index/indicators: •Well Being ? Happiness? Measurement of International Development GDP, GINI, Mortality Rate, Population, Education, Security, etc, etc, etc, etc… Mortality vs Population?
  8. 8. Measurement of International Development In Practice, mainly: • Human Development Index (HDI) http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/hdi • World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI) http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/all
  9. 9. Measurement of International Development
  10. 10. Does International Development Work? Does International Development Work? Review books listed here by visiting links: http://blog.sanng.com/2010/08/does-international- development-aid-work.html
  11. 11. Careers in International Development Development Career and Jobs: Sign up (for free) for www.devex.com, one of the major development and job hubs. Then read ABC of development jobs and Career transitions: How to figure out if an aid job is right for you
  12. 12. Theories of ICT4D (Some Distinctions First: Technology vs ICT) Good Ol’ Development Theory from Development Studies, including new concepts such as Globalization & Knowledge Societies? (Unwin)
  13. 13. Theories of ICT4D State of ICT4D Theories (Articles: Heeks? Unwin? Raita? Wikipedia?) •From what disciplines? •Development Studies? Governance? Knowledge Societies? •Criticisms of current state of literature •Relevance to us?
  14. 14. Theories of ICT4D •From what disciplines?
  15. 15. History and Future ICT4D -Origins? -ICT4D 0.0-1.0-2.0 -ICT4D 2.0 - Priorities? -Innovation Models? -Implementation Changes? -Theories/Worldviews? -What would YOU recommend?
  16. 16. History and Future ICT4D
  17. 17. History and Future ICT4D- Teaching ICTD From Heeks, 2009 From i190, 2014 Conceptual Week1: Introduction to Course W2: What is Development? W3: What is ICTD W4: Who Does What in Practice? Mapping the ICTD Landscape ICTD in Practice: Core SkillsTechnical (Applications) W5: Overarching Issues of Technical Applications W6: Infrastructure, Telecenters, Agriculture, W7: Health, Education, Microfinance W8: Governance and Law Management W9: Intro to Project Management W10: Break W11: Planning and Assessment W12: Budgeting, Scheduling, Fundraising W13: Implementation W14: Monitoring and Evaluation/ Next Cycle
  18. 18. Does ICT4D Work? Courtesy of Inveneo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/inveneo/6252235953/in/photostream/ Heeks, 2002 (http://ictlogy.net/bibliography/reports/projects.php?idp=199)
  19. 19. Does ICT4D Work? http://failfaire.org
  20. 20. Mapping the Stakeholders in ICT4D Multilaterals and Governments: Civil Society: Private Sector: Here is the final mapping from the spreadsheets: https://mapsengine.google .com/map/edit?mid=zaN1 njwon8jM.kzggt23tlaow
  21. 21. i190 Framework Conceptual Week1: Introduction to Course W2: What is Development? W3: What is ICTD W4: Who Does What in Practice? Mapping the ICTD Landscape i190 ICTD in Practice: Core Skills Technical (eApplications) W5: Overarching Issues of eApplications W6: Infrastructure, Telecenters, Agriculture, W7: Revisiting Agriculture,, W8 : e-Health, Education W9: eGovernance Microfinance Management W10: Break W11: Intro to Project Management Planning and Assessment W12: Budgeting, Scheduling, Fundraising W13: Implementation W14: Monitoring and Evaluation/ Next Cycle W15: Final Projects & Wrap Up
  22. 22. Overarching Issues
  23. 23. Trends/Buzzwords in ICTD and e- Application BOP Rights Based Approaches Digital Divide ICTD Policies Innovation Appropriate Technology Open Everything (development, data, etc) Web 3.0 Big Everything Convergence Mobile Mobile Mobile Social enterprise
  24. 24. ICTD Policies •Broad Categories of Policy APC, ICT Policy Handbook •ICTD Policy in Practice Lessons Learnt in ICT4D Policy Making •How is it done ? In content and institutionally? •What are the lessons learned?
  25. 25. BOP •What is the BOP concept? The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) • •How is it like in practice? ICT4D: The Bottom of the Pyramid Model in Practice”. •What is the project? •What worked or didn’t work? •What are recommendations?
  26. 26. Appropriate Technology and Innovation •What are some of your suggestions/predictions for innovation and appropriate technology?: Heeks, The ICT4D 2.0 Manifesto: Where Next for ICTs and International Development?
  27. 27. Openness •What is it?! •What is good about it? •What is not so good about it?
  28. 28. ICT in Agriculture •Skew of disciplinary research (econ, ethnographic, ENR, energy, geog…etc) •Jensen work: - neat econ study: •People:=only 2 •Tech: = 1 function •Welfare= income •Burrell et al. – making a mess: •Other players:/relationships auctioneer, fish waste vendor, gender etc •Tech: lots of other usage •Context: n/s, types of terrain, boards •Welfare= WAY more than income •Can it be generalized then? •What to do in practice? •Be cognizant of debates •Local context •Don’t start with tech •Same old foundational factors in design and implementation •Usually dynamic, changing, needs, messy, ‘it’s complicated’ Heeks, ICTD 2.0
  29. 29. ICT in Infrastructure Inveneo.org Eric Brewer, The Challenges of Technology Research for Developing Regions
  30. 30. Telecenters, Shared Access and Libraries http://gurstein.wordpress.com/2013/11/16/beyond-access- libraries-as-the-new-telecentres/
  31. 31. ICTD and Education: Theories continued Traditional Dev Theories (loosely: market, growth, top down) Alternative Dev Theories (loosely: state, rights, bottom up
  32. 32. Trends in i-, e-, m-, blended-. etc-Education “leap frog e-learning through m-learning”. •Differences within the field: ICT for education, distance learning, elearning, m-learning, blended learning •A new fad? But a new fad that can make a difference?
  33. 33. E-Health •What is it? •eHealth solutions & strategic coordination •What are some trends, in developed, transitioning and developing countries? • Forever-pilot pattern and lessons learned? Introductions, trends and lessons learned: Implementing e-Health in Developing Countries Pg7-14, 22-23, 27-28, 31-39 Get an overview of how an actual e-health project design looks like: e-health portal in Dwesa, pg 7-15
  34. 34. eGovernance- what works and not? •What is eGovernance? •What is the Framework being used to measure? •What are the results of this case study? Success and Failure Factors for e-Government projects implementation in developing countries
  35. 35. eGovernance
  36. 36. Microfinance & Mobile Banking •What is Mobile Banking? •Different trends/pace in different countries- regulations, technologies, leadership, •Issues: Trust, Fraud/attacks, Motivation of savings/accumulation, Behavior change, cultural values about money, •What works, and not? Reasonable Project Time, Building trust, managing expectations, values/behavior changing, needs assessment important
  37. 37. i190 Framework Conceptual Week1: Introduction to Course W2: What is Development? W3: What is ICTD W4: Who Does What in Practice? Mapping the ICTD Landscape i190 ICTD in Practice: Core Skills Technical (eApplications) W5: Overarching Issues of eApplications W6: Infrastructure, Telecenters, Agriculture, W7: Revisiting Agriculture,, W8 : e-Health, Education W9: eGovernance Microfinance Management W10: Break W11: Intro to Project Management Planning and Assessment W12: Budgeting, Scheduling, Fundraising W13: Implementation W14: Monitoring and Evaluation/ Next Cycle W15: Final Projects & Wrap Up
  38. 38. Introduction to Project Management •Review of Course (Conceptual, Technical- see slide pack from last class) What are some themes within the lessons learned? •How is ICTD project management similar and different to traditional development project management? (theories) •Life Cycle and Management Approaches •How can we apply management tools to address the lessons learned?
  39. 39. Introduction to Project Management •How is ICTD project management similar and different to traditional development project management? (theories) •Life Cycle and Management Approaches
  40. 40. Introduction to Project Management Planning Initiation Implementation Monitoring & Evaluation Next Phase? Transformation? •What are some themes within the lessons learned from last parts of course? •How can we apply management tools to address the lessons learned?
  41. 41. Introduction to Project Management: Planning
  42. 42. Introduction to Project Management: Planning (cont’d) Initiation
  43. 43. Introduction to Project Management: Initiating Implementation
  44. 44. Introduction to Project Management: Initiating (cont’d)
  45. 45. Introduction to Project Management: Implementation
  46. 46. Introduction to Project Management: Monitoring & Evaluation
  47. 47. Introduction to Project Management: Transformation
  48. 48. Introduction to Project Management Planning Initiation Implementation Monitoring & Evaluation Next Phase? Transformation?
  49. 49. Planning- Needs Assessment •What are the general steps in Planning? •Planning & Methodology Design •Data Collection • Analysis •Possible Solutions •Recommendations •(then to Initiating Phase: Project Design etc.)
  50. 50. Planning- Needs Assessment Case study: Agri-Supply Chain Project Proposal - help Ruchita plan her upcoming needs assessment (Goal a.). For background information about the issues, Read Pg 6-8 of Indian School of Business, Inefficiencies in agriculture supply chain in Punjab and opportunities for IT interventions and see especially Fig 3.1. Levels Questions Sources of Data Collection Methods Analysis Tools Challenges /Solutions Strategic Tactical Operationa l
  51. 51. Initiating- Proposal Development: Overview
  52. 52. Initiating- Proposal Development: Project Design
  53. 53. Initiating- Proposal Development: Project Design Case Study Case: A needs assessment to identify the reality of two rural school cases in South Africa: Potential for ICT4D or not? Also visit website generally: (http://siyakhulall.org/) Based on this Needs Assessment, we will be developing a mini-proposal for the next phase of this project, specifically for the Educational Resource component. Proposed Logframe and Workplan
  54. 54. Initiating- Proposal Development: Project Design Case Study Proposed Logframe and Workplan
  55. 55. Initiating- Proposal Development: Project Design Case Study In Class Exercise to develop a Log Frame
  56. 56. Initiating- Proposal Development: Budgeting and Human Resource Case Study
  57. 57. Introduction to Project Management Planning Initiation Implementation Monitoring & Evaluation Next Phase? Transformation?
  58. 58. Implementation- Best Practices Case: ITC e-Choupal: What are the needs/problems that this ICTD project is trying to address?
  59. 59. Implementation- Best Practices Case: ITC e-Choupal What made implementation successful? •Trust: choice •Meets Needs: Clear Value •Appropriate Tech: Simplicity of technology, new and old tech •Local structures and systems •Incremental Roll out •Mission-based
  60. 60. Implementation-IT requirements/User Design Case: ITC e-Choupal
  61. 61. Implementation-IT requirements/User Design Case: ITC e-Choupal
  62. 62. Introduction to Project Management Planning Initiation Implementation Monitoring & Evaluation Next Phase? Transformation?
  63. 63. Implementation- Complex Environments Case: Competing for Development (A) Facts:
  64. 64. Implementation- Complex Environments Case: Competing for Development (B1-6) Role play exercise: Make the case within your role for the $65,000 investment
  65. 65. Implementation- Complex Environments Case: Competing for Development (A) •If you were Ghazialam, would you go ahead with the $65,000 investment? What are the key tradeoffs? What would an ‘ideal’ outcome look like? •(See next slide)
  66. 66. Implementation- Complex Environments Case: Competing for Development (A) •If you were Ghazialam, would you go ahead with the $65,000 investment? What are the key tradeoffs? What would an ‘ideal’ outcome look like?
  67. 67. Introduction to Project Management Planning Initiation Implementation Monitoring & Evaluation Next Phase? Transformation?
  68. 68. Different Types of Evaluation and Performance Measurement Program Level Organization Level Community and Societal level Wikipedia Case
  69. 69. Evaluation Purpose Measuring program effectiveness Determining if a program meets its objectives TYPES *baselines Formative *ongoing * feedback * changing the program Summative * look at final outcomes *impacts * cut or keep
  70. 70. OTHER PURPOSES * compliance * legitimacy * certification * lessons learned * check for unintended consequences * benchmarking * more money * white wash and eye wash p * kill a project * political attack * new opportunities * protection and self interest * melt down indicators
  71. 71. EVALUATION CHECK LIST WHEN IS EVALUATION WORTH DOING? * Who Wants This and What Decision Do They Want to Make? (lessons learned) * Are the Impediments Manageable? (resources, objectives, agreement, special issues) * Is there Political Support? (general support) THE REGULAR COMPONENTS OF THE EVALUATION PROCESS * Purpose and Objectives * Indicators * Design * Data and Utilization * Problems
  72. 72. EVALUATION ACTOR MAPPING BOARD OR LEGISLATORS OTHER STAFF OR DEPTS. TOP MGMT PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS PROGRAM STAFF PRESS OR COMMUNITY DONORS MIDDLE MGMT. OUTSIDERS FOR TEACHING PURPOSES
  73. 73. RANGE OF INDICATORS FEELINGS DO YOU TRUST THESE INPUTS PEOPLE/ PROCESS involvement/coordination OUTCOMES (INTERMEDIATE) INCREASED INCOME (FINAL) X LEVEL OF CONTANIMATION EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY lbs. Of fish/$ $/lbs. Of fish SPAN AND SCOPE OF COVERAGE % target population served SATISFACTION customer satisfaction/ commercia IMPACTS (sustainable) measurable change/ broader/ (PROGRAM CAUSED OUTCOME) longer term
  74. 74. * HOW WOULD YOU ASSURE THAT YOUR RESULTS WERE VALID AND RELIABLE? RELIABLITY-- DO YOU GET THE SAME RESULT TIME AFTER TIME. VALIDITY-- UNBIASED COMPARED TO A STANDARD
  75. 75. Using Evaluation Results-- Style Differences Academic Style * Slow * Scientific Method * Clear Objectives * Careful Study * Written Communication * Precision * Academic Reference Group Managerial Style * Pressure to Decide * Many Simultaneous +Fragmented Tasks * Competing Objectives * Action * Verbal Communication * Incomplete Date * Managerial Reference Group P R O B L E M S * TIME * VERY RIGOROUS * IRRELEVANT * FORMAT * NOT RIGOROUS * COMMUNICATION
  76. 76. Some of the More Common Methods * Balanced Score Cards and Other Overall General Assessments * Goals vs. Performance and also Cost and Efficiency * Outcome Assessment * Benchmarking * Best Practice * Rapid Assessment Tools (quicker and dirtier rather than deeper) * More based on sampling than 100% study
  77. 77. DATA COLLECTION METHODS * General Statistical Analysis * Cost Benefit/ Rates of Return * Simulations * Content Analysis * Record Reviews * Unobtrusive Measures * Group Observation * Surveys and Testing * Personal Interviews * Participation Observation * Case Studies LESS INTRUSIVE MORE INTRUSIVE THE ETERNAL TRIANGLE Precision Cost Complexity
  78. 78. Measureable Indicators Types of Data needed Data Collection Methods/Frequency for M&E Overriding Goal Objectives (at least 4) ​Instructions: Everyone was pleasantly shocked by these successful results. However, the founder ​Jimbo Wales intuitively knows that the number of articles per se does not measure Wikipedia's success completely, especially since Wikipedia began with a completely different set of goals/activities and became 'successful' only organically. He wants to hire you to determine a sound methodology to evaluate Wikipedia's success. He wants you to design a Logical Framework for Wikipedia (based on what we already learned in class), with indicators he can measure to determine Wikipedia progress and success. He has given us a sample template that we will discuss and brainstorm in class:
  79. 79. Course Wrap Up: 190 Framework Conceptual Week1: Introduction to Course W2: What is Development? W3: What is ICTD W4: Who Does What in Practice? Mapping the ICTD Landscape i190 ICTD in Practice: Core Skills Technical (eApplications) W5: Overarching Issues of eApplications W6: Infrastructure, Telecenters, Agriculture, W7: Revisiting Agriculture,, W8 : e-Health, Education W9: eGovernance Microfinance Management W10: Break W11: Intro to Project Management Planning and Assessment W12: Budgeting, Scheduling, Fundraising W13: Implementation W14: Monitoring and Evaluation/ Next Cycle W15: Final Projects & Wrap Up

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