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Collective Memories in Wikipedia - LiveMemories final review

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  • 1. Collective memories in Wikipedia Michela Ferron Paolo Massa
  • 2. Anti-Islamic hate crimes after 9/11Movies & cultureLegislation &surveillance
  • 3. Collective memories  A set of ideas, images, feelings about the past, built through an active process of sense-making through time 7 July 10th 2005anniversary London of 9/11 bombings memorial 9/11 Ocklaoma memorial City bombings memorial
  • 4. Collective memories Psychology Sociology/PhilosophyCollective as a small group Collective as a nation
  • 5. Outline (English) Wikipedia as a global memory place  Commemoration in Wikipedia Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) Articles:  Traumatic VS Non traumatic events  Human-made and natural traumatic events Talk pages:  Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Conclusions Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 6. Wikipedia “[…] the online encyclopaedia is a global memory place where locally disconnected participants can express and debate divergent points of view and that this leads to the formation and ratification of shared knowledge that constitutes collective memory.” (Pentzold, 2009, p. 263)Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 7. Commemoration during anniversaries Commemorations are opportunities to  Re-interpret the past  Recover from traumatic experiences Can we find signs of commemoration activities in Wikipedia pages related to traumatic events? Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 8. Commemoration during anniversaries  88 articles and talk pages about traumatic events Increased activity during anniversaries  During anniversaries of traumatic events users negotiate their interpretation of the pastCommemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 9. Commemoration during anniversaries I find it extremely upsetting and unfortunate that there were so many unneccessary deaths involved in the September 11 "attacks". […] Emotional bonding My heart goes out to the families, My prayers are with those who are friends and loved ones of anyone who lost related/friends with the dead of Sept their life in the 9/11 attacks. […] 11. […] my sympathy and prayers to those who mourn this day.[…] Spare a thought for those whose lives were torn apart that day. Directive function I believe the only way we can prevent another tragedy like this is by educating ourselves about what went wrong. This article does an outstanding job of doing exactly that. Wikipedia articles […] dont cause people to commit crimes. Encyclopedias educate people. Educated people resist ignorance and hate. Ignorance and hate beget injustice and violence. Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 10. Commemoration during anniversaries Commemoration of traumatic events takes place in Wikipedia Wikipedia can be interpreted as a global memory place and can be studied to investigate collective memory processes Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 11. LIWC applied to Wikipedia Psychological processes Examples Linguistic Inquiry & Affective processes Happy, hate, kiss Word Count Positive emotions Love, party, pleasant Negative emotions Hurt, abuse, scary (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2001) Anxiety Worried, afraid searches for words Anger Kill, aggression, destroy Sadness Sad, cry, depression across: Cognitive processes Cause, acknowledge, admit Insight Think, assume, interpret Causation Because, depend, elicit  Linguistic categories (e.g. Discrepancy Should, could, if pronouns, articles, tenses) Tentative Maybe, apparently, suppose Certainty Always, absolutely, clear  Psychological categories Inhibition Block, abstain, avoid (e.g. social, affective, Inclusive And, add, along cognitive processes) Exclusive But, either, without Social processes Mate, guy, boy Family Daughter, brother, dad Friends Buddy, friend, mate Humans Adult, children, girl Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 12. LIWC applied to Wikipedia 66 articles 40 articlesHP: > negative emotions HP: > positive emotions > cognitive processes > social processesAll differences are statistically significant Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 13. LIWC applied to Wikipedia LIWC is effective in detecting  Differences in content referred to psychological processes related to articles about traumatic and non traumatic events Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 14. Natural and human-made traumatic events 2004 IndianTsunami September 11 attacks How people remember traumatic events:  Understand the consequences on the physical and psychological health of people and communities Differences in the psychological processes:  First step toward the understanding and the prediction of trauma, typical responses to it, and short and long-term effects Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 15. Natural and human-made traumatic events Traumatic events are unique Theoretical reasons to distinguish between natural and human-made traumatic events Literature: human accidents may have longer and more insidious effects on physical and psychological health:  negative emotions; nervousness and anxiety (Cohn et al., 2004; Adler, 1943)  psychological and work-related problems (Leopold and Dillon, 1963; Henderson and Bostock, 1977; Ploeger, 1972)  depression, anxiety, personality changes (Titchener and Kapp, 1976)  sleep disturbances and psychiatric problems (Gleser et al., 1981; Gleser et al., 1978)  war-related dreams and aggravated assaults (Pennebaker and Harber, 1993) Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 16. Natural and human-made traumatic events Natural disasters Human disasters Uncontrollable Loss of control helplessness stress arousal 2004 IndianTsunami September 11 attacks 19 natural disasters 36 human-madeWikipedia’s categories, e.g. “2008 Atlantic Wikipedia’s categories, e.g. “Assassinations”,Hurricane Season”, “1993 natural disasters” “Terrorist incidents” Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 17. Natural and human-made traumatic events Affective processes  Man-made disasters: loss of control (distress)  higher anxiety, anger  Natural disasters: uncontrollable (helplessness)  higher sadness Cognitive processes  Man-made disasters: loss of control  higher cognitive processes Social processes  Man-made disasters: increased orientation toward others  higher social processes Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 18. Natural and human-made traumatic events *  Human-made * traumatic events: *  more anxiety, anger (blame)  Natural disasters:  more sadnessAffective processes Happy, hate, kiss (passive behavior) Positive emotions Love, party, pleasant Negative emotions Hurt, abuse, scary Anxiety Worried, afraid Anger Kill, aggression, destroy Sadness Sad, cry, depression Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 19. Natural and human-made traumatic events  Human-made * traumatic events:  need for explanation is * critical (unexpected * * loss of control)  Natural disasters:Cognitive processes Cause, acknowledge, admit  need for Insight Think, assume, interpret Causation Because, depend, elicit explanation is less Discrepancy Should, could, if pressing (nature is Tentative Maybe, apparently, suppose uncontrollable) Certainty Always, absolutely, clear Inhibition Block, abstain, avoid Inclusive And, add, along Exclusive But, either, without Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 20. Natural and human-made traumatic events *  Human-made traumatic events:  higher social orientation? *  more references to people (e.g., bomber’s family or socialSocial processes Mate, guy, boy relations) Family Daughter, brother, dad Friends Buddy, friend, mate Humans Adult, children, girl Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 21. Natural and human-made traumatic events  Different psychological and sensemaking processes underlying users editing activity  Specific patterns of emotional language stressful Man-made high activationfocused anger disastersheavier effects negative positive passive Natural responses disasters low activation Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 22. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time7 July 2005 London bombings 2011 Egyptian revolution > 1000 edits in 6 days > 2500 edits in 2 weeks Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 23. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Literature: changes in emotional, cognitive and social processes after traumatic events  Increase in the negative mood; anxiety and nervousness; depression, personality changes, hostility (Cohn et al., 2004; Koss & Kilpatrick, 2001; Stroebe et al., 2001; Adler, 1943; Green, 1980; Gleser et al., 1981; Pennebaker & Harber, 1993);  Rationalization and critical thinking processes (Cohn et al., 2004; Davis & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001; Baum et al., 1983)  Seeking of social support, increased social orientation (Cohn et al., 2004; Mehl & Pennebaker, 2003; Pyszczynski et al., 2003; Rimé et al., 1998; Rimé et al., 1992) Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 24. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time7 July 2005 London bombings  HP: higher presence of language related to  Affective: emotional impact  Cognitive: need for explanation  Social processes: social orientation in the immediate aftermath of the bombings Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 25. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time7Jul  Each edit analyzed with LIWC  Data grouped by day12Jul Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 26. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Condolences. I am so * * * sorry to hear about this * * terrible and barbaric act of terrorism. My * thoughts are with the British people. * I am so sorry for the victims, injured and wounded χ²(5)=19.39, p=.002 londoners.Affective processes Happy, hate, kiss Positive emotions Love, party, pleasant Negative emotions Hurt, abuse, scary Anxiety Worried, afraid Anger Kill, aggression, destroy Sadness Sad, cry, depression Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 27. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time … there are bombs everywhere. Im scared, * but Im sure it will all be * okay. Phone the police if youre worried. * * * * * * Please add a "Missing * Persons" section. Over 24 hours people are getting desperate. χ²(5)=12.64, p=.027Affective processes Happy, hate, kiss Positive emotions Love, party, pleasant Negative emotions Hurt, abuse, scary Anxiety Worried, afraid Anger Kill, aggression, destroy Sadness Sad, cry, depression Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 28. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time It is officially being called the worst UK * * * terrorist attack on Please READ MY British soil FUCKING ARGUMENTS. There isn’t any reason * to loose your temper. I tried to compromise, but you are reverting my edits out of pure spite. χ²(5)=14.28, p=.014Affective processes Happy, hate, kiss Positive emotions Love, party, pleasant Negative emotions Hurt, abuse, scary Anxiety Worried, afraid Anger Kill, aggression, destroy Sadness Sad, cry, depression Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 29. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time High emotional load in the immediate aftermath of the bombings Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 30. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Can we please have * a reference for the police conference… * Gladys Wundowa has disappeared from news coverage, so presumably there was a mistake. χ²(5)=20.28, p=.001Cognitive processes Cause, acknowledge, admit  Unexpected: Insight Think, assume, interpret Causation Because, depend, elicit  Insight is higher after a Discrepancy Should, could, if Tentative Maybe, apparently, suppose few days Certainty Always, absolutely, clear Inhibition Block, abstain, avoid Inclusive And, add, along Exclusive But, either, without Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 31. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Contacting friends / families etc. Does anyone know of a coordinated attempt to get word of people who are safe to their friends and relatives - * something similar to what was used during the tsunami etc. ? It kind of helps to have the * * numbers there, as people are trying to find out information about relatives, friends, etc. χ²(5)=15.25, p=.009  Initial preoccupationSocial processes Mate, guy, boy Family Daughter, brother, dad for friends and Friends Buddy, friend, mate relatives Humans Adult, children, girl Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 32. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Hp partially confirmed: Language related to affective and social processes was higher immediately after the bombings Language expressing cognitive processes (insight) was higher after a few days  Contrary to previous research by Cohn et al. (2004) finding an immediate increase in cognitive activity after 9/11 Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 33. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time HP: higher presence of 2011 Egyptian revolution language related to  Affective: emotional impact  Cognitive: need for explanation  Social processes: social orientation in the most heated days of the revolution Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 34. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time ~ 400 edits ~ 250 edits 25 2 11 17 Jan Feb Feb Feb “Battle of “Friday of the Camel” Departure” Two crucial moments in the time span analyzedCommemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 35. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time25Jan2Feb11Feb  Each edit analyzed with LIWC  Data grouped by 2-days17Feb Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 36. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Pro-Mubarak protesters are killing the pro- Democracy protesters. * OMG. 300 dead so far. Its * * sicking Scary scenes of violence on al jazeera :( * My thoughts are with those in Egypt. χ²(11)=20.10, p=.044Affective processes Happy, hate, kiss Positive emotions Love, party, pleasant Negative emotions Hurt, abuse, scary Anxiety Worried, afraid Anger Kill, aggression, destroy Sadness Sad, cry, depression Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 37. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Number of journalists attacked; human rights members attacked. This article from Forbes discusses that 24 reporters were arrested on * * * Thursday and 21 were assaulted. * * * […] STOP CAT- FIGHTING, YOUR NOT A BUNCH OF RIOTERS IN TIRIR SQUAIR!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! χ²(11)=23.74, p=.014Affective processes Happy, hate, kiss Positive emotions Love, party, pleasant Negative emotions Hurt, abuse, scary Anxiety Worried, afraid Anger Kill, aggression, destroy Sadness Sad, cry, depression Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 38. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time […] Khaled Saeed was one of the main catalysts for these protests and his name is a rallying cry for the protesters. […] I actually know Wael * * personally. I hope he is alive, I really do. Its very sad. * * * I think its quite clear with Mubaraks resignation that this should be considered a revolution. χ²(11)=23.74, p=.014Affective processes Happy, hate, kiss Positive emotions Love, party, pleasant Negative emotions Hurt, abuse, scary Anxiety Worried, afraid Anger Kill, aggression, destroy Sadness Sad, cry, depression Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 39. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time High emotional load in the days corresponding to the “Battle of the Camel” Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 40. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time I think putting both of them in the Reception section would mitigate any POV * problems. * Should the takeover of the Egyptian embassy in Venezuela be added to the article? χ²(11)=29.40, p=.002  Discrepancy: linguisticCognitive processes Cause, acknowledge, admit politeness (Sexton & Helmreich, 2003) Insight Think, assume, interpret Causation Discrepancy Because, depend, elicit Should, could, if  Unexpected: Tentative Maybe, apparently, suppose  Discrepancy is higher Certainty Always, absolutely, clear Inhibition Block, abstain, avoid before the “Battle of the Inclusive Exclusive And, add, along But, either, without Camel” Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 41. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time No, we need to integrate it elsewhere, then delete. * and whose WE? because I know Im not * OK. "We" except you. everyone above disagree with (YOU). so again whose WE? And who is "everyone above" that disagree with χ²(11)=24.10, p=.012 "(ME)"? "We" - we, theSocial processes Mate, guy, boy community. Family Daughter, brother, dad Friends Buddy, friend, mate Humans Adult, children, girl Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 42. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time The role of women Women protesters number anywhere * from 20% to 50% participation, * depending on the time of day. * * * Number of journalists attacked; * human rights members attacked This article from Forbes discusses that… χ²(11)=20.06, p=.045Social processes Mate, guy, boy Family Daughter, brother, dad Friends Buddy, friend, mate Humans Adult, children, girl Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 43. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time High social orientations in the days corresponding to the “Battle of the Camel” Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 44. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time Hp partially confirmed: Language related to affective and social processes was higher during the 2-3 February (Battle of the Camel)  No significant results on the 10-11 February Language expressing cognitive processes (discrepancy) was higher during the 29-30 January, when emotional language was low  Contrary to the HP but consistent with previous results Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 45. Linguistic markers of emergent memories over time  Specular temporal evolution of affective and cognitive processes  Wikipedia talk pages: collaborative environment  The social context may influence the co- evolution of emotional sharing, critical thinking and linguistic politenessCommemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 46. Considerations LIWC  Limitations (psychological categories are subjective and context-dependent)  Know your data (noise caused by bots, vandalism, templates) Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 47. Conclusions Commemoration of traumatic events takes place in Wikipedia (global memory place) Different patterns of emotional language in articles about man-made and natural disasters Specular temporal evolution of affective and cognitive processes in talk pages of traumatic events Wikipedia: Quantitative and longitudinal study of collective memories  Empirically validate theoretical findings Commemoration LIWC in Wikipedia Man - Nature Emergent memories Conclusions
  • 48. Conclusions Thank you! Questions…?