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Concepts
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Concepts

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    • 1. 1 BASICCOMPUTERCONCEPTS Updated 8/27/04
    • 2. 2 Hardware vs. SoftwareHardware» The computer equipment» Includes printers, monitors, disk drives, etc.Software» Programs which tell the computer what to do» Examples - word processing, gradebook, tutorials, games, etc.
    • 3. 3
    • 4. 4 History of ComputersCharles Babbage - father of computer» 1800’s planned analytical engineENIAC - developed at end of WW II1951 - 1963 1st and 2nd generation» very large, used unreliable vacuum tubes1963 - present - 3rd and 4th generation» smaller, faster - use transistors and integrated circuits
    • 5. 5 History - MicrocomputersApple» First sold in late 1970’s» Developed by Jobs and WozniakIBM Personal Computers» First sold in 1981» Was quickly accepted by businesses» IBM compatibles soon developed
    • 6. 6 Computer - Social ImpactThreat to privacyReduce personal interactionsDisplace workers and change workplace» Create two tiered societyComputer failures cause great damageArtificial Intelligence» Create a “new life form”» Machines smarter than their creators
    • 7. Types of Computers – 7Personal Computers (PC) Also called Microcomputers Available in desktop size, notebook size and handheld Can be IBM, IBM Compatible or Apple
    • 8. Types of Computers - 8 MinicomputersSize of filing cabinetUsed by small and medium sizecompanies and institutionsOperated by computer specialistTerminals allow many people to use
    • 9. Types of Computers - 9 MainframesVery powerfulVery fastUsed by large corporations andgovernmental agenciesOperated by computer specialist
    • 10. Types of Computers- 10 SupercomputersMost powerfulFastestMost expensive» Several million dollars eachUsed only by» Governmental agencies» Large international corporations
    • 11. 11 Computer OperationsInput Processing Output External Storage
    • 12. 12 Input Devices - KeyboardMost commonly used input deviceErgonomic - fit natural hand placementSpecial keys» Enter, Function, Ctrl, Alt, Num Lock, Esc
    • 13. 13 Input Devices - MouseControls cursor onscreenMay be mechanicalor opticalMost models have a“wheel” for scrolling
    • 14. 14 Input Devices - OtherPointers (replaces mouse on notepads)» Track point, track ball, touch padScannerDigital cameraTouch screenVoice
    • 15. 15 Output DevicesMonitorPrinterDisk Drive» Can also be input deviceModem» Can also be input device
    • 16. 16 MonitorsMade up of tinyelements calledpixelsEach row of pixels iscalled a scan linePicture is displayedby an electronicbeam lighting upcertain pixels
    • 17. 17 Monitors - ResolutionResolution is how sharp and clear thepicture isHow many scan lines on the screen – 640 x 480 is low resolution – 1600 x 1200 is high resolution
    • 18. 18 Monitors - Dot PitchMeasures the distance between pixelsCommonly seen on monitors advertised» .49 (not very good)» .28 (much better)» .26 or lower (excellent)
    • 19. 19 Monitors - SizesScreen measured diagonally» May also measure actual viewing area14” or 15” on bargain systems17” has become the standard19 and 21” available but are moreexpensive.
    • 20. 20 Monitors - LCDLiquid Crystal DisplaySimilar to digital watchUsed for notebook computers» Should be an Active Matrix ScreenAlso used in flat screen monitors» Much thinner than regular CRT monitor» More expensive than regular CRT monitor
    • 21. 21 Monitors - Video CardProcesses info to send to monitorAmount of video memory may speed upgraphic intensive programs» 32 megs –general purpose» 128 or more megs – graphic intensive useAGP port can speed up graphics3D accelerator card improves graphics
    • 22. 22 Monitor - Buying Hints17” or larger.28 dot pitch or better32 or more megs of memory onvideo card
    • 23. 23 PrintersLaserInk JetDot Matrix
    • 24. 24 Printers - LaserWorks similar to a copy machine» Color printers available but more expensiveFast, quite, with excellent qualityMore expensive to buy and operateSome units scan, photocopy, and print
    • 25. 25 Printers - Ink JetSquirts small jet of ink onto paper toform charactersReplaced dot matrixQuietDoes good job on colorGood quality and reliability
    • 26. 26 Printers - Dot MatrixStrikes pins against ribbon to printComes in 9 and 24 pinOnce very popularNow replaced by ink jet and laser
    • 27. 27 Printers - SpeedMeasured in pages per minute (PPM)Laser printers range from 20-45 ppm» Color printing is slower
    • 28. 28 Printers - Quality of PrintOne measure is dots per inch (DPI)» 300 dpi for general purpose uses» 600 dpi for higher quality» 1200 dpi for photo qualityMay have different vertical andhorizontal resolution» 600 x 300Other factors can affect quality
    • 29. 29 Basic Processing CycleCentral Internal DataProcessing Memory BusUnit
    • 30. 30How Information Is StoredMemory consist of switches which canbe either on or off - Off=0 On=1Each on/off switch is called a bitEight bits make up a byteIt takes one byte to store a character» Character can be letter, space, punctuation, etc.» ASCII code used
    • 31. 31 Other Memory TermsByte is eight bitsKilobyte (KB) is approx. 1,000 bytesMegabyte (MB) is approx. 1millionbytes
    • 32. 32 Central Processing UnitAlso called CPU, processor ormicroprocessorIs the “brains” of the computerPerforms all computer operations
    • 33. 33CPU - IBM COMPATIBLESMany made by company called IntelAlso made by AMD
    • 34. 34 Pentium class processorsNeeded to run most current softwareIntel – Celeron or Pentium IVAMD
    • 35. 35 CPU - Clock SpeedNumber of “cycles” per secondcomputer can operateMeasured in megahertz (MHz)One MHz = 1 million cycles per secondOne gigahertz(GHz)=1 billion cyclesCurrent speeds 2-4 GHz
    • 36. 36 CPU - Misc.Performance also affected by speed ofdata bus» 400-800 MHz on most current systemsCache can increase speed» Stores data you will likely need next in an area that has faster access» Both memory cache and disk cache used» Should be 512 K or better
    • 37. 37 CPU - Buying HintsMinimum of Pentium IV or AMD AthlonMinimum of 2 GHz clock speedMinimum of 512K of cache
    • 38. 38 Internal Memory - RAMRAM - Random Access Memory» CPU can access any location as quickly as any otherCan not only read current info but also writenew infoVery important in determining capabilities ofthe computer systemComputer should have at least 256 megs -512 preferred (can add to later)
    • 39. 39 Internal Memory - ROMROM - Read Only Memory» Can read info Stored in ROM» Can not write new info into ROMUsed for “internal workings” of computerBuyer is not very concerned with ROM
    • 40. 40External Memory
    • 41. 41 Floppy DrivesComes in 5 1/4” and 3 1/2”» All systems now only have 3 1/2”HD - High density - comes on all currentsystems» 3 1/2” - 1.44 megs
    • 42. 42 Hard DrivesBuilt into machineMade up of stack of plattersCan store much more than floppydrives» 40 gigabytes should be minimumCan access info much faster thanfloppy drive
    • 43. 43 CD ROMSame as music CDsAre read onlyCan store over 650 megsAll programs now only sold on CDMake multimedia possibleCome in different speeds - 20x, - 50x
    • 44. 44 DVD-ROMDigital Video DiskCan store up to 17 GBCan store full-length moviesCan also read CD-ROM disk
    • 45. 45CD-RW & DVD-RW DRIVESAllows you to write to diskUseful for» Data backup» Storage of large files» Recording music and other multimedia filesDVD-RW» Allows you to write to both CD and DVD disk» Still somewhat expensive
    • 46. 46 Storage Devices - OtherUSB drive» Very popular – 64-512 MBTape drive» Similar to cassette tape» Used for backupZip drive» 100 MB to 2 GB capacity» Everyday use and backup
    • 47. 47 Drives - Buying Advice40 gigabyte hard driveOne 3 1/2” high density floppy driveCD-RW driveDVD not yet essential but useful
    • 48. 48 Expansion SlotsAllows you to add capabilitiesExample of cards you can add» Network card» Modem
    • 49. 49Ports Connects computer to another device Parallel port » Used primarily by printers Serial ports » Modem, mouse, etc. SCSI - chain devices USB –may be needed for » Digital Cameras » Mp3 players » Other devices
    • 50. 50Networks Connects computers LAN - Local Area WAN - Wide Area Wireless Allows sharing of programs, files, printers, etc. Server is “main” computer
    • 51. 51 Modems - GeneralAllows 2computers tocommunicateover phone linesCan be internal orexternalCan also have faxcapabilities
    • 52. 52 ModemsBits per second(bps) indicates speed» Old modems - 9,600, 14,400, 28,800, 33,600» 56,000 (56K) has becoming standardWays of connecting to the Internet» Dial-up modem – used in most homes» Cable modem – uses TV cable lines» DSL – modified phone line» T1 line – used by schools, businesses, etc.
    • 53. Buying Hints Summary - Min 53 Hardware Requirements2 GHz Pentium IV Class Processor256 megabytes of RAM17”, .28 dot pitch monitor with 32 meg card40 gigabyte hard driveCD-RW56k modemInk jet or laser printer
    • 54. Buying Hints - Software 54 BundlesMany systems come with software includedProductivity » Microsoft Works » Microsoft Office, Lotus SmartSuite, etc » Quicken, Money, or other financial softwareReference » Microsoft Encarta or Compton’s encyclopediaGames
    • 55. Buying Hints - Service and 55 WarrantyToll-free 24 hr 7 day support (800 #)1 year warranty on parts and laborOptional extended warranty30 day return policy
    • 56. 56 Buying Hints - Web SitesOn-line computer stores» C-Net Hardware – reviews and prices from many vendors» Dell - http://www.dell.com/» Gateway - http://www.gateway.com/
    • 57. 57
    • 58. 58 ProgramsSet of instructions to the computerProgramming languages» Machine language» Assembly language» Procedural languages – Basic, Fortran, Cobol» Object oriented languages – Visual Basic, C++, C#, Java
    • 59. 59 Systems SoftwareRun fundamental operations» Loading and running programs» Saving and retrieving data» Communicating with printers, modems, etc.Examples of systems software» DOS» Windows 3.1, 95, 98, Me, 2000, and XP» Unix» Linux
    • 60. 60 Applications SoftwareHelps you to accomplish a certain taskExamples» Word processing - memos, reports, etc.» Spreadsheets - budgets, etc.» Database - search, sort, select data» Educational - simulations, practice» Graphics - charts, diagrams» Desktop publishing - pamphlets, etc.
    • 61. 61 Software - Legal IssuesCommercial software» Can only make backup copies for yourself» Can only use on one machine at a time – Site license - use on more that one machineShareware» Can use - make copies and give to anyone» Should pay if you continue to useFreeware – can copy and use indefinitely
    • 62. 62 Software VirusesIllegal code added to a programMay spread to many computers» Copy files from one computer to another» Download files by modem» E-mail attachmentsVirus may be relatively harmless» Writes “You’ve been stoned” on screenVirus may also be very damaging» Erases everything on hard driveVirus may activate on a certain date
    • 63. 63 Virus ProtectionBe careful where you copy files fromDo not open e-mail attachments unlessyou are sure that it is safeUse virus protection program» Detects and removes illegal code» Should be updated often
    • 64. BASIC COMPUTER CONCEPTS End of Slide Show

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