Pdf Tesol Mediation Handout 3 23 10


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TESOL Handout: Investigating the Classroom Discourse of Mediation-in-Action

Bailey & Pranksy

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Pdf Tesol Mediation Handout 3 23 10

  1. 1. Investigating the Classroom Discourse of Mediation-in-Action Authors: Francis Bailey, Ed. D. Ken Pransky Language, Literacy & Culture Program Hampshire Educational Collaborative University of Massachusetts Northampton, MA Amherst, MA USA USA I. Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment (FIE) Program  Cognitive education program created by Dr. Reuven Feuerstein, an Israeli psychologist  used in over 80 countries worldwide • many short- and long-term studies attesting to its efficacy when done correctly • standard program for children from age 8/9 to adult • a series of 14 carefully sequenced “instruments” • mainly content-less pencil-and-paper tasks targeting a particular set of thinking skills (such as organization, comparison, understanding temporal relationships, etc) • designed to be used for two-to-three years • strengthens the essential cognitive skills which underlie learning II. Mediated Learning  a quality-oriented learning interaction focused primarily on the development of the learner as a more competent thinker.  must have the following three characteristics: Mediation of intentionality/reciprocity * molded to learner * intentional * learner focus sharpened * goal: learner is more competent thinker Mediation of meaning *ensures learning has personal/cultural meaning Mediation of transcendence * builds the linguistic, cognitive and cultural competence of learners for use beyond the current moment, connecting to past experience or future problem solving
  2. 2. III. Research Project:  Elementary School ESL Program  Pull out for 40 minutes per day  Three 4th/5th grade students with “disrupted” backgrounds  Hypothesis: Verbal data can be used to document and investigate the co- construction of the three characteristics of FIE mediation  Theoretical Frame: Feuerstein‟s characteristics of mediation (Ben-Hur, 1994) used as educational theory for research design and data analysis  Data Analysis: Data were analyzed using research tools from conversation analysis (Markee and Kasper 2004) and classroom discourse (Bloome et al. 2005; Cazden 1988; Mehan 1979) IV. Data Collection  Class sessions recorded and transcribed  Field notes & material collection  Teacher interviews V. Data Analysis: Two Instructional Events Transcript Two: FIE Instructions Transcript Discourse Analysis 208: A: they all have [different shapes? Response to K‟s initiation #203-207 209: K: [are they all exactly the Initiation of meaning negotiation 210: same? K begins to re-initiate the task 211: they all have different (.) shapes. Echoes A‟s response in #208 212: What do you mean? Re-Initiation of meaning negotiation in #212 213: C: They have a different number Response to K‟s question in #212 214: D: Most of them Response 215: have like squares: 216: K: well say so Negative Evaluation 217: label it carefully though K‟s direction to C to use language 218: they: (.) have (.) carefully is a negative evaluation 219: a different number K restates C‟s comment in #213 (uses 220: they all have a different number? the same sentence pattern, but adds in “all”)1. Re-initiation in #220
  3. 3. Transcript Six: Modeling Thinking Transcript Discourse Analysis 470: A: Paint is not a liquid Statement [A. begins at the bottom of the work sheet] 471: K: I want you to start at the (.) Command 472: why would you start at the bottom? (2) Initiation 473: Where’s a good place to start? Re-initiation 474: [A points to top of page] Response 475: K: Good Evaluation Research Findings 1) Transcript analysis enables us to evaluate learning interactions as being grounded in the essential characteristics of Mediated Learning Experiences (mediation of transcendence, meaning and intentionality/reciprocity). In these lessons, our analysis of the linguistic data uncovered clear evidence that the teacher was providing Mediated Learning Experiences for his students. 2) The use of more than one discourse pattern played a central role in the enactment of the FIE program in this setting. The skillful use of I-R-E sequences, while alone not sufficient to create a fully Mediated Learning Experience, helped ground these particular students in the thinking needed to successfully do the FIE page. Then the teacher moved to open-ended questioning and probing of students‟ reasoning, which enabled them to take ownership of their new learning. 3) The lesson analyzed in this research shows how competence is co-constructed through moment-to-moment interaction grounded in the characteristics of Mediated Learning Experiences. Meaning is constructed within communicative events (Hymes 1974), and the establishment of routines—normative ways of interacting—is essential. The FIE program as enacted in the New School provided a consistent set of vocabulary, interactional norms, goals and materials that facilitated this process of making meaning. 4) We believe that this research contributes to the FIE literature by documenting and analyzing the fluid and dynamic discursive processes involved in mediating learning in a classroom setting. The transcripts provide a rich source of information on the situated complexities of co-constructing the three universal components of an MLE.
  4. 4. References Bailey, Francis, and Ken Pransky. 2005. “Are „other people‟s children‟ constructivist learners too? Theory into Practice 44, 19-26. Ben-Hur, Meir. 1994. On Feuerstein’s instrumental enrichment. Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing. Bloome, David, Stephanie Power Carter, Beth Christina, Sheila Otto, and Nora Shuart-Faris. 2005. Discourse analysis and the study of classroom language and literacy events. Mahwah, New Jersey: Erlbaum Publishers. Cazden, Courtney. 1988. Classroom discourse. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Feuerstein, Reuven. 1980. Instrumental enrichment: A program for cognitive modifiability. In collaboration with Y. Rand, M.B. Hoffman, & R. Miller. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press. Hymes, Dell. 1974. Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Klein, Pnina. 1987. Promoting flexibility in young children‟s mind within the family—A cross-cultural view. International Journal of Early Childhood 19, no.2: 51-61. Klein, Pnina. 1997. A mediational approach to early intervention. The Journal of Development and Learning 1, 61-85. Kozulin, Alex. 1998. Psychological tools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kozulin, Alex, and Barbara Presseisen. 1995. Mediated learning experience and psychological tools: Vygotsky‟s and Feuerstein‟s perspectives in a study of student learning. Educational Psychologist 30, no.2: 67-75. Kozulin, Alex. 2002. Sociocultural theory and mediated learning experience. School Psychology International 23, 1: 7-35. Lantolf, James. 2000. Introducing sociocultural theory. In Lantolf (ed.) Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Markee, Numa, and Gabriele Kasper. 2004. Classroom talks: An introduction. Modern Language Journal 88, 491-497. Martin, David. 2007. Instrumental enrichment effects on special needs learners. www.ictaweb.org. Mehan, Hugh. 1979. Learning lessons; Social organization in the classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Pransky, Ken. 2008. Beneath the surface: The hidden realities of teaching culturally and linguistically diverse young learners K-6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Presseisen, Barbara, and Alex Kozulin. 1994. Mediated learning: The contributions of Vygotsky and Feuerstein in theory and practice. In Ben-Hur (ed.), On Feuerstein’s Instrumental Enrichment. Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Publishing.