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  • 1. “AWARENESS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION: COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND SCHOOL MANAGEMENT” Organized by: Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) Venue: Khanewal/Vehari
  • 2. INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT Goal:  Improving access, and quality of education in Pakistan by promoting transparent and participatory school governance in Khanewal and Vehari Districts Geographic Coverage:  6 union councils (3 each) in both districts Duration:  February 2013-July 2014
  • 3. INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT Areas of intervention: Low level of enrollment, high level of dropouts  Low quality of education  Gender gaps in education  Rural-urban gaps in education  Approach: Participatory school governance  Social Accountability 
  • 4. PROJECT OBJECTIVES:  To find out reasons behind low level of school admissions and high rates of dropout at primary and middle level public schools and to address these reasons through participatory school governance.  To measure gender and rural-urban gaps in access and quality of education in both districts’ through Citizen Report Card (CRC) Survey.
  • 5. PROJECT OBJECTIVES  Design social accountability interventions for communities, parents and teachers for demanding better service delivery in Education.  To run an advocacy campaign on the findings of the CRC survey to sensitize stakeholders to bridge policy and resource gaps.  To measure improvement in access and quality of education after social accountability interventions.
  • 6. LONG TERM OUTCOMES Long term improvement in retention rates and control of dropout in public sector schools in Vehari and Khanewal districts  Controlled teachers absenteeism at local level public sector schools  Increased ability of local communities and parents in demanding continuous improvement in education.  Increased ability of teachers in demanding improved coordination between various vertical tiers of administration 
  • 7. CITIZEN REPORT CARD (CRC) OBJECTIVES  Citizen Report Card (CRC)        A social accountability tool Asses feedback of the users of a service regarding its access, availability and quality in a geographic area Similar to the school report card – highlights the areas where service providers are doing good and the areas where they need to improve A performance reflection mechanism Lately, it has emerged as an efficient governance tool, helping people measure and benchmark performance of their (local) government representatives In present case, it was employed to asses satisfaction of children and parents from the public education system in Vehari and Khanewal districts The report will reflect upon existing situation of public education in the area, and will provide specific recommendations to the local political representatives for improvement.
  • 8. CURRENT STATE OF EDUCATION IN KHANEWAL AND VEHARI  Prevailing trends of boys/girls education: What is the prevailing trend of boys/girls enrolment in your school? Name of District Vehari Decreasing 8% No Change 15% Total 100% Female Khanewal Increasing 77% 64% 36% 0% 100% Male 83% 17% 0% 100% Female 33% 17% 50% 100% Male
  • 9. (RECURRING) REASONS BEHIND ALARMING TRENDS District Khanewal Vehari Reasons UPE Survey Parental interest Awareness Poverty Quality of Education School environment Qualified Staff Parental interest Awareness Free Books Poverty Quality of Education School environment Teacher Interest Urban/Rural Urban 11% 11% 6% 14% 14% 9% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Gender Rural 14% 6% 8% 3% 14% 8% 11% 22% 17% 11% 8% 6% Male 13% 3% 6% 6% 3% 5% 13% 11% 13% 17% 28% 14% 6% 3% Female 12% 15% 15% 12% 15% 6% 3% 28% 6% 8% 11% 8% 8% 11%
  • 10. REASONS BEHIND DROPOUTS Gender Reasons behind Drop-out Khanewal Vehari English Medium Poverty Migration Parental Interest School Distance Parents’ Ignorance/ Low awareness Parents are uneducated Poverty Lack of Awareness Parental Interest Children Interest Parents are uneducated Male 8% 28% 3% 5% 18% Female 3% 27% 15% 9% 12% 9% 13% 9% 28% 28% 22% 6% 11% 31% 17% 6% 17% 8%
  • 11. CLASSES WITH INCIDENCE OF HIGH DROPOUT Khanewal Vehari 80% 75% 70% 60% 54% 50% 40% 30% 29% 25% 20% 10% 4% 4% 4% 4% 0% Zero One Two Three Four Five
  • 12. INCIDENCE OF NEVER ENROLLMENT  Incidence of Never Enrollment shows that at least one child has never been to school despite being a school-going-aged child Name of District Never Enrollment Yes 17% Vehari 96% No 83% 4% 44% 100% 100% 100% Khanewal Total 56%
  • 13. SATISFACTION FROM QUALITY OF EDUCATION Gender Quality of Education Yes Khanewal Male Female 83.3% 66.7% Total 75.0% No Vehari 16.7% 33.3% 25.0% Yes 33.3% 33.3% 33.3% No 66.7% 66.7% 66.7%
  • 14. CRITERION OF ASSESSING QUALITY OF EDUCATION IN YOUR SCHOOL? Gender Name of District Yes Khanewal Female Total 84.6% 63.6% 75.0% No Vehari Male 15.4% 36.4% 25.0% Yes 41.7% 50.0% 45.8% No 58.3% 50.0% 54.2%
  • 15. GENDER GAPS       Dropout trends in female schools are starker (in Khanewal, the ratio is higher up to 400 per cent) Lack of parental interest (about 28% responses) prevailed as the biggest reason behind higher drop out and ever enrollment of girls Poverty is more likely to cause girls’ dropout as compared to the boys Girls are more likely to receive poor quality education, and their schools are more likely to have poor infrastructure with absent facilities In Khanewal, girls’ schools with inadequate number of teachers are higher than those of the boys’ Girls are more likely to have a poor school environment from which their dissatisfaction is higher
  • 16. URBAN RURAL GAPS  According to the respondents (both teachers and parents) following are the most recurring urbanrural gaps in public schools of the given districts:      Student/Teacher ratio is higher in the rural schools, especially in the girls schools. The quality of education is not up to the mark in most of the rural schools The schools’ infrastructure and facilities are far worse in the public schools of rural areas The SMCs are either non-existing or non-functioning in the rural areas Community and parental monitoring system is also rather weak in the rural areas
  • 17. INTRA-ADMINISTRATIVE CONCERNS       Teachers are burdened with extra-educational duties (which include various surveys, campaigns, and random duties) Amid random assignments, their working hours are almost doubled They are not a stakeholder in the public school policy making process – policies change overnight without consideration of their feedback Obtaining a leave is something next to impossible for teachers, even though they have a yearly leave quota Amid higher dissatisfaction from the service, their commitment towards delivery of education is eroding. District education system is over-centralized
  • 18. TEACHERS SATISFACTION FROM SERVICE STRUCTURE  Satisfaction from current leave seeking system? Gender Satisfaction with leave seeking system Yes Khanewal Female 8% 27% Total 17% No Vehari Male 92% 73% 83% Yes 8% No 92% 4% 100% 96%
  • 19. TEACHERS SATISFACTION FROM SERVICE STRUCTURE  Provision of medical allowance/ Insurance? Gender medical allowance/ Insurance Yes Khanewal No Vehari Yes No Total 46.2 100.0 70.8 % % % Male 53.8 % 91.7 % 8.3% Female 25.0 % 75.0 % 29.2 % 58.3 % 41.7 %
  • 20. AVAILABILITY OF SCHOOL FACILITIES Male/Female Facilities in Schools Total Male 24.5% Female 19.1% 22% 24.5% 23.4% 24% Facility of Fans 22.6% 23.4% 23% Facility of Nursery class furniture Boundary Wall 7.5% 10.6% 9% 20.8% 23.4% 22% Facility of Clean Drinking Water Facility of Electricity 20.3% 21.2% 21% 20.3% 23.1% 22% Facility of Fans 20.3% 23.1% 22% Facility of Nursery class furniture Boundary Wall 20.3% 9.6% 15% 18.6% 23.1% 21% Facility of Clean Drinking Water Facility of Electricity Khanewal Vehari
  • 21. ANY POLICY FOR FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO NEEDY STUDENT OR NEVER ENROLLED CHILDREN OR POOR FAMILIES Gender policy for financial support to needy student Yes Khanewal No Vehari Yes No Total 53.8% 45.5% 50.0% Male Female 46.2% 54.5% 50.0% 8.3% 8.3% 8.3% 91.7% 91.7% 91.7%
  • 22. ADEQUACY OF SCHOOL/ SMC FUNDS TO MEET THE DAY-TO-DAY NEEDS OF THE SCHOOLS/CHILDREN  Gender Name of District Yes Khanewal Male Female Total 23.1% 27.3% 25.0% No Vehari 76.9% 72.7% 75.0% Yes 8.3% 41.7% 25.0% No 91.7% 58.3% 75.0%
  • 23. SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY CONCEPT AND INTENDED RESULTS Social Accountability is one of the fundamental rights of the communities  They can hold service providers accountable on absence or poor quality of services  Example of Chief minister of Delhi – implementation of CRC every year and its results  Similar to the public officials, communities can hold local government representatives accountable for absence or poor quality of services. 
  • 24. POLICY SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING EXISTING STATE OF EDUCATION Policy suggestions Improve Coordination B/w Khanewal Teachers & Parents Improve Educational Awareness Improve Qualified Staff Improve School Environment Vehari Gender Femal Male e 18.2% 53.8% 15.4% Increase Furniture 23.1% Promote Urdu Medium School 7.7% System Free Educational System 25.0% Improve Coordination B/w 50.0% Teachers & Parents Improve Qualified Staff Improve School Environment 25% Total 8.3% 29.2% 18.2% 18.2% 8.3% 16.7% 9.1% 27.3% 16.7% 16.7% 36.4% 18.2% 30.4% 34.8% 18.2% 9.1% 8.7% 13.0%
  • 25. POLICY SUGGESTIONS      Unless local government representatives are involved, state of public education at local level is not going to change The local government representatives need to have a long term agenda, clearly marked benchmarks and detailed work plan for improvement of the situation The focus should be availability of quality education – many students leave school without learning The local government representatives should give priority to infrastructural needs of public schools For greater development of their areas, the local government representatives should give priority to the female education
  • 26. POLICY SUGGESTIONS Female education should be incentivized  Better and safe learning environment should be provided at all the public schools, especially girls schools  Greater budgetary allocation in district budgets  Teachers should be freed form extra educational duties  Teachers should be taken as stakeholder in public school policy reforms  Measures should be taken for enhancing job satisfaction of the teachers 
  • 27. Thank You!