After Pakistans independence by the partitioning of the British India, Pakistanfollowed a pro-western policy. The Indian government followed adifferent, non-aligned policy stance, which leaned closer to the Soviet Unionrather than the United States of America. Pakistan was seeking strong alliancesto counter its neighbour, India. At this time, India was neutral and went on to bea part of Non Aligned Movement.
Pakistan joined the US-led military alliances SEATO and CENTO. In 1954the United States signed a Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement withPakistan. Under Ayub Khan, Pakistan enjoyed a strong and healthyrelationship with the United States. Pakistan had aligned itself with theUnited States during the Cold War, rather than with the Soviet Union.Khans government also provided a secret military base to United States. In1961, Khan paid a state visit to the United States, accompanied by hisdaughter Begum Nasir Akhtar Aurangzeb. Highlights of the trip included astate dinner at Mount Vernon, a visit to the Islamic Center ofWashington, and a ticker tape parade in New York City.
• President Richard Nixon used Pakistans relationship with China to start secret contacts with China, which resulted with Henry Kissinger’s secret visit to China in July 1971 while visiting Pakistan. America supported Pakistan throughout the war and supplied weapons to West Pakistan although Congress had passed a bill suspending exporting weapons to the nation. Near the end of the war and fearing Pakistans defeat by the joint forces of Mukti Bahini and Indian forces, Nixon ordered the USS Enterprise into the Indian Ocean, although it was never used for actual combat fearing Russian response. Pakistan also felt the US arms embargo affected Pakistan more than it affected India.
• As a result of 1970s election, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a charismatic democratic socialist, became President (1971-1974) and later Prime minister in 1974. This period is seen as a "quiet cold war" with the Pakistan who was administer under democratic socialists led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. His socialist ideas favored the communist ideas but never actually allied with communism. Under Bhutto, Pakistan would focused on Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, building closer ties with Soviet bloc and the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, Bhutto tried to maintain a balance with the United States, but such attempts were rebuffed by United States. However, the ties were severed after Zulfikar Ali Bhutto assumed the control of Pakistan. In 1974, with India carried out the test of nuclear weapons near the Pakistans eastern border, codename Smiling Buddha, Bhutto sought United States to impose economic sanctions in India. Though it was unsuccessful approach, in a meeting of Pakistans Ambassador to United States with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Kissinger told Pakistan’s ambassador to Washington that the test is “a fait accompli and that Pakistan would have to learn to live with it,” although he was aware this is a “little rough” on the Pakistanis.
• . In 1970s, the ties were further severed with Bhutto as Bhutto had continued to administer the research on weapons, and in 1976, in a meeting with Bhutto and Kissinger, Kissinger had told Bhutto, "that if you [Bhutto] do not cancel, modify or postpone the Reprocessing Plant Agreement, we will make a horrible example from you". The meeting was ended by Bhutto as he had replied: "For my country’s sake, for the sake of people of Pakistan, I did not succumb to that black-mailing and threats". After the meeting, Bhutto intensified his nationalization and industrialization policies, as well as aggressively taking steps to spurred the scientific research on atomic weapons and the atomic bomb project. Bhutto authorized the construction of Chagai weapon-testing laboratories, whilst United States opposed the action and predicted that it will lead to a massive and destructive war between India and Pakistan in the future. The atomic bomb project became fully mature in 1978; and a first cold test was conducted in 1983. Bhutto called upon Organization of Islamic Conference in order to bring Muslim world together but after months, the pro-United States Muslim nations and United States itself took the promised step and Bhutto was declared as the corrupted one, as a result the Bhutto was hanged in 1979.
Zia era (1977–1988)• In 1979, a group of Pakistani students burned the American embassy in Islamabad to the ground killing two Americans. After the removal and death of Bhutto, the Pakistans ties with United States were better and improved. Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, ISI and CIA ran multi-billion dollar worth Operation Cyclone to thwart the communist regime as well as defeating Soviets in Afghanistan. Throughout the military regime of General Zia-ul-Haq, the ties and relations were promoted at its maximum point, and United States had given billion dollars of economical and military aid to Pakistan.• In the 1980s, Pakistan agreed to pay $658 million for 28 F-16 fighter jets from the United States; however the American congress froze the deal citing objections to Pakistani nuclear ambitions. Under the terms of the American cancellation, they kept both the money and the planes, leading to angry claims of theft by Pakistanis.
Democratic governments (1988–1998)• The 1990s was an era of intense upheaval in Pakistan. During this time Pakistani leaders also asked the United States to take steps to stop the Indian nuclear programme, Pakistan felt the US was not doing enough to address what Pakistan saw as an existential threat. Pakistan found itself in a state of extremely high insecurity as tensions mounted with India and Afghanistan’s infighting continued. Pakistan’s alliance with the U.S. was strained due to factors such as its support for the Taliban and public distancing of the Pakistani government from the U.S.• In 1992 US Ambassador Nicholas Platt advised Pakistani leaders that if Pakistan continued to support terrorists in India or Indian-administered territory, "the Secretary of State may find himself required by law to place Pakistan on the state sponsors of terrorism list." When the US decided to respond to the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Africa by firing missiles at an al-Qaeda camp in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, five Pakistani intelligence agents present at the camp were killed.