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Administering the DRA 2:  Diagnostic Reading Assessment
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Administering the DRA 2: Diagnostic Reading Assessment


This is a teacher's workshop to show how to use the DRA 2: Diagnostic Reading Assessment. Teacher will have the opportunity to learn how to use the program during this workshop.

This is a teacher's workshop to show how to use the DRA 2: Diagnostic Reading Assessment. Teacher will have the opportunity to learn how to use the program during this workshop.

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  • AcronymDRA 2 means: Diagnostic Reading Assessment. 2= Second Edition
  • *Hold up Items while showing teachers what is in the box....
  • A DRA is:A way for us to find and document each child’s instructional reading level and progress through carefully selected assessment texts.Useful in determining instructional strategies to help move each child forwardProvides a standardized method for assessing student’s reading development while providing us with data to track individual student growth, whole-class or grade-level trends, and to evaluate our reading program school wide Is conducted during a one-on one conference
  • Diagnostic Assessment-(This is what the DRA is) These assessments are used to gain information and pre-assess students’ strengths and needs. They may be used at the beginning of the school year or the beginning of a unit of study to guide teaching. We want to know what students already know and how they apply that knowledge. We also want information on where a student is having particular difficulty. Diagnostic Assessments help us gain insight into student’s interests and attitudes about reading so we can increase motivation and student engagement.Formative assessment: These assessments are frequently and primarily used to provide in-process information for learners and information about our teaching decisions. Formative assessment tools might include rubrics or checklists that serve as checkpoints and offer feedback about work in progress. This kind of assessment provides continuous guidance to students and teachers.Summative Assessment: Are end of learning assessments. They give students opportunities to demonstrate what they have learned over time-by the end of a unit study or a set period of time. The more our assessments and assessment practices mirror a view of the kind of readers we are trying to raise, the more useful they will be. As we gather and interpret data gained from all three types of assessments, we glean valuable information and create an increasingly comprehensive picture of the learner and the learning.The Assessment Cycle takes place 3 times a year so we can have a good look at where a student is specific times.
  • Give outStickies! Word RecognitionIdentifying words by analogyIdentifying words by the use of context cluesIdentifying words through recognition of root words, prefixes or inflectional endingsSounding our words using phonicsIdentifying syllabic boundaries within multi-syllabic words and sounding out separate syllablesComprehend while they are readingAre able to explain informationConnect information to previous knowledgeUse informationAcquire information in order to develop insightAre fluent readers (using phrasing and intonation)Have appropriate pacing and speed
  • Determine a reader’s instructional level: Knowing each student’s instructional reading level helps teachers make more effective teaching decisions and provide a variety of materials at the appropriate level of challenge.Determine a reader’s strengths and weaknesses: The DRA observation guide gives teachers a record of what a child does while reading. Teachers can observe how students work out an unfamiliar word and look for other behaviors (re-reading, self-correcting etc) that indicate the child is engaged in reading for meaning. The comprehension rubrics can also help teacher decide how well a student has understood the story.Group students effectively for reading experiences and instruction: Students may be grouped flexibly based on the needs tha surfaced during the assessment. Groups may be formed to work on fluency, predicting, retelling, comparing and contrasting stories and so on.Identify students who may be working below proficiency and need accelerated instruction: When students are reading below grade level it is critical that they receive small group reading instruction every day. Many times they also benefit from an additional period of reading time with the classroom teacher or an intervention specialist.
  • Students learn to read and develop at different rates. Using the DRA2 periodically enables you to monitor changes over time in students’ reading performances and confirms ongoing observations and impressions of student reading achievement
  • An observation guide has been designed for each assessment text.
  • At an independent level of oral reading,readers generally make 5 errors or less per 100 words. This means that more of their cognitive energy can be devoted to comprehension. Fluency and Comprehension must be at least within the Independent range on the Continuum.At an instructional level readers generally make no more than 10 errors in 100 words. This number of errors provides many teaching opportunities. Working with a teacher at this level will support students as they try and make sense of what they have read.Frustration: Students should never engage in materials that are frustrating. When students are required, over long periods of time, to read materials at the frustration level they come away with an incorrect idea of the purpose of reading. They may think that reading is “getting all the words right” and never get to the point that reading is supposed to make sense.
  • Each Benchmark Assessment Book has its own Teacher Observation Guide. The guides include teacher directions, questions, and prompts for the assessment texts. Teachers will record observations of a student’s reading behaviours as well as their responses in the designated spaces.
  • This chart is an overview of what the teacher analyzes after completing the DRA2 conference.
  • 1. Use the information recorded and/or checked on the TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDE.2. Circle the number of descriptor that best describes the reader’s behaviors and responses in each row on the Continuum.
  • The Student Book Graph reflects the increase in level of text difficulty read independently by students across their primary years. The shaded area represents below-grade-level performance. This graph also appears on the back cover of the Student Assessment Folder.
  • Use this form to record for school administrators students’ DRA2, K–3, text levels and scores for Reading Engagement, Oral Reading Fluency, and Comprehension. If the assessment is used on a semi-annual basis, this form will also enable administrators and teachers to identify students who remain at risk in their development as readers.**Teachers will also need the Class


  • 1. Administering the dra2
    First Nation Student Success Program Grades K-3
  • 2. What’s ahead?
    What is DRA2?
    DRA Assessment Texts
    Conducting the Assessment Conference
    After the DRA2 Conference
    The Student Folder
    The Teacher Clip Board
    What do I do when I am done administrating DRA2?
  • 3. What’s in the box?
    Teacher Guide
    Blackline Masters
    Blackline Masters CD
    45 Benchmark Assessment Books
    30 Student Assessment Folders
    Assessment Procedures Overview Card
    Training DVD
    DRA Word Analysis Teacher Guide
    DRA Word Analysis Student Book
    DRA Word Analysis Training CD
    46 Hanging File Folders
  • 4. What is a dra?
    A way for us to find each child’s instructional reading level
    Useful in determining instructional strategies to help move each child forward
    Able to provide us with data to track individual student growth, whole-class or grade-level trends, and to evaluate our reading program school wide
  • 5. Types of Assessments
    Diagnostic : Pre-assessment
    Formative – During learning
    Summative – End of learning assessment
    Assessment Cycle
  • 6. Inappropriate Uses of DRA2
    DRA2 is Not:
    For Labelling
    For Grading
    For Retention Decisions
    Independent of guided reading
  • 7. Foundation of dra
    With your elbow buddy:
    What do good readers do?
  • 8. How do teacher use information from DRA Assessments?
    Determine a reader’s instructional level
    Determine a reader’s strengths or weaknesses
    Group students efficiently for reading experiences and instruction
    Identify student who may be working below proficiency and need further accelerated instruction
  • 9. Moving Forward: REcommendations
    DRA will be administered 3x a year
    DRA Testing Windows : 2 Weeks
    All classes must be assessed within 2 weeks.
  • 10. Administration Suggestions
    • Remain organized.
    • 11. Get help with photocopying.
    • 12. Make a schedule and stick to it.
    • 13. Conduct 1-2 assessments per day.
    • 14. Ask your SERT or Literacy Specialist to model a DRA.
    • 15. Determine which students you wish to assess first.
    • 16. Have more than one student working on DRA at a time.
    • 17. Score the assessment (especially ORF) as soon as possible.
    • 18. Complete the Focus For Instruction form.
  • DRA Assessment Texts
    Characteristics and Reading Stages
  • 19. DRA2 Assessment text
    DRA2 Text Titles
    Group DRA books into these categories:
  • 20. What do DRA Text look like?
    Levels A-2:
    Repeated word or sentence patterned text with simple illustrations
    One line of text on left hand page
    Words are large and well spaced so children can point as they read
    Number of words ranged from 20-42
  • 21. DRA Text Characteristics
    Levels 3-6
    Simple stories with repetitive words, phrases and actions
    Predictable language structures
    Familiar characters and experiences, including pictures to support
    Number of words: 53-76
  • 22. DRA Text Characteristics
    Levels 8-14
    Stories include problems with which children can relate
    Repetition of events
    More complex book, oral language structures, and high frequency words
    Supportive illustrations
  • 23. DRA Text Characteristics
    Levels 16-28
    Imaginary or animal characters with human characteristics
    Familiar topics and vocabulary
    Nonfiction text features such as photographs, labels, charts, flowcharts, diagrams
    Some literary language structures
    Some description of characters and setting
    Moderate to minimum picture support
  • 24. DRA Text Characteristics – 16 to 28
  • 25. DRA Text Characteristics
    Levels 30-44
    More complex stories
    Characters, setting, problems, and resolutions described in greater detail
    Different genres
    Minimum of picture support
    More specialized vocabulary
    Nonfiction text features such as headings, maps, time lines, graphs, photographs
  • 26. DRA Text Characteristics -30 to 44
  • 27. What are the DRA Reading Stages?
    Emergent Stage Levels A Kindergarten
    Early Stage Levels 4-12 Grade 1
    Transitional Stage Levels 14-24 Grade 2
    Extending Stage Levels 28-38 Grade 3
  • 28. How does DRA determine Proficiency?
  • 29. Conducting the Assessment Conference
    All Observation Guides go into the Student Folder
  • 30. DRA observation Guides
    The teacher records observations of the student’s reading behavior and student responses in the designated spaces.
    Designated spaces include :
    Introduction to the text: Previewing/Predicting
    Oral Reading and Strategies Used
    Comprehension and Retelling (Levels 3-44)
    Reading Preferences
  • 31. Oral Reading Accuracy levels
  • 32. DRA Observation guide
    Scoring-add up the errors and circle the accuracy rate
    Independent 95-100%
    Instructional 90-94%
    Frustration 89% and less
    If students accuracy rate is less than 89% choose a lower level. There is no need to continue on to the comprehension/retelling portion.
    If students make 5 errors, stop assessment and go to lower level text.
  • 33. Observation guide - Reading Engagement
    Record scores for each section at the end of the Assessment.
    2. Student responses
  • 34. Observation guide – Oral fluency
    Level A-40
    Record student’s recording behaviours.
    Miscues, substitutions, rereading, sounding out, self-corrections
    * REFER to Laminate
    Levels 14-40
    Time the student’s oral reading.
    *Record student’s reading on cassette or digital camera
  • 35. observation guide - percent of Accuracy
    Record Student’s time
    When student finishes reading ORALLY quickly count up miscues. Circle appropriate box on the Oral Reading Percent of Accuracy Chart.
    Use the Words Per Minutes chart to identify the WPM range.
    Stop assessment if student’s score falls below the Independent level. REASSES the student with a lower level text immediately or another time
  • 36. Observation guide - Comprehension
    Level 40:
    Do not give students the book to complete the Prediction page.
    When the student has completed the assignment, teachers can read over their points aloud. Do not give extra prompts.
  • 37. Observation guide: Oral REtelling
    1. Underline and record information that student retells in the story.
    *Tally the number of prompts
    2. Prompting should not continue after you believe the student has shared all he/she can remember about the story. Do not ask anymore prompts.
  • 38. Observation guide - Oral REsponses
    3. Record student responses to the Reflection and Making Connection Prompts.
  • 39. After the DRA2 Conference
    Teacher analysis of data
  • 40. Analyzing student performances
  • 41. After conference: Step 1 Teacher Analysis
    1. Use the information on the Record of Oral Reading to check response Analysis of Oral Reading Chart.
    2. Use this formula to calculate student’s exact WPM.
  • 42. Step 2: Complete Continuum page
    Select the student’s best descriptors that describes the student.
    * Daily classroom observations
    4. Use the student’s responses on the Student Reading Survey to select the best descriptor that describes his/her level of reading engagement.
  • 43. Use information from the student’s oral retelling noted on the Story Overview to select the best descriptor.
    Use the Student Booklet to select the student’s best performance.
  • 44. 7. Add the circled numbers to obtain the total score for each section.
    8. Record the Comprehension scores at the top of the Continuum page uses the level-colon format.
  • 45. Step 3: Complete the DRA2 Focus for instruction page
    Refer back to continuum
    *Draw a red line down between developing and independent.
    *Check the learning/teaching strategies on the sheet needed for student growth.
    NOTE: All learning /teaching strategies are scaffolded.
  • 46. ThE Student Folder
  • 47. Page 1: Developmental Reading ASsessment
    Teacher will fill out information
    TIP: F or NF
    Fiction or Non-fiction
    Is student reading at grade level?
    Check below, on or above
  • 48. Page 2: Student Book Graph
    Student Book Graph is part of the student folder
    Plot student’s progress
    Use the directions to determine if the text is on the student’s Independent or Instructional level.
  • 49. Page 3: Fiction and Nonfiction records
    Teacher records:
    Assessment Date
    Current Grade
    DRA2 Text Level
    F or NF
    CHECKMARK DRA2 Grade-Level Performance
  • 50. The Teacher Clip Board
    Keep these sheets on your clip board
  • 51. DRA2 Class Reporting Form
    Contains DRA2 text levels and scores for Reading Engagement, Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension
    You will need this form to input scores into the TRILLIUM DATABASE.
  • 52. Focus on Instruction: Groups
    These students could be grouped by text levels or based on their needs.
    Need 5 minute mini lessons?
    *Refer to Word Analysis Book
  • 53. What do I do when I am done administrating DRA2
  • 54. What do I do when I am finished administering the DRA2 with my class?
    Store all DRA assessments and attempts in each student’s folder. These folders will be passed on to a student’s future teachers.
    Remember to fill in each of the columns.
    Input your Class’s DRA2 scores into the Trillium database.
    Send home: Parent DRA2 Reading Assessment Information Form
  • 55. Parent DRA2 Information form
  • 56. THE END
    DRA2 Teacher Guide: Developmental Reading Assessment
    Beaver, Joette M., www. pearsonschool.com