Genetic engineering

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  • 1. Genetic engineering 27/04/12  Aims:  To understand the process of genetic engineering.  Success Criteria….. C: Explain how an organism can  Starter: be genetically modified  To order the stages of cloning B: Explain why we would want to from last lesson. genetically modify an organism A/A*: Make connections between the genetic modification of crop plants and the human populations demand for food 27/04/12
  • 2. Definitions:Genetic engineering: Putting DNA from one organism into a different organism  e.g. Putting the human insulin gene into a bacteriumPlasmid: A small, circular piece of DNA found in bacteria27/04/12
  • 3. A case study Insulin is an important hormone that controls blood sugar Diabetes is a disease where you can’t make insulin It can be treated by injecting insulin27/04/12
  • 4. Diabetes  Diabetes used to be  Now we use insulin treated with pig made by a genetically insulin. modified (GM)  But there were bacteria problems:  You need to know  Had to kill lots of pigs how we do this…  Not perfecthttp://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/genetic-engineering-and-insulin-production/4200.h 27/04/12
  • 5. Animals and plants can also begenetically modified: Why might you want to genetically modify a crop plant? Herbicide resistant Resistant to insect attack Increased yield Indicators of insect attack (jellyfish gene that glows when plant is attacked) Alter the vitamin content of food Drought resistant27/04/12
  • 6. Human DNA Bacterial plasmid (circular DNA) Insulin gene Cut out insulin gene Cut plasmid with enzyme Insulin gene insertedPlasmid inserted into plasmidinto bacteria Bacteria produce insulin Bacteria reproduce which is extracted
  • 7. Make your own genetically modifiedbacterium1. Outline the E. coli bacterium in green then colour the plasmid in yellow.2. Cut out the plasmid from the bacterium.3. Make a cut in the plasmid using an enzyme (your scissors!).4. Outline the human chromosome in blue then colour the insulin gene in red.5. Cut out the DNA from the human cell.6. Cut out the insulin gene using an enzyme (your scissors!)7. Stick your insulin gene into your bacterial plasmid using a different enzyme (glue!).8. Insert your plasmid into an E. coli cell. (stick it in!)9. Now let your genetically modified bacteria divide and reproduce – it will make human insulin for you!27/04/12
  • 8. Genetic engineering review Complete the gaps on the flow chart to summarise the process of genetic engineering.27/04/12