QUTUB MINAR Presented by: FAYAZ ALI B.Arch 3rd Yr
INTRODUCTION MINARManar or manara, the Arabic words meaning either"place of fire" (nar or “place of light“ nur. Minaret is oneof the popular symbols of Islam both politically andspiritually.Although the minaret is one of the most distinctivearchitectural features of a mosque, philologists noted thatmany mosques, including many in North Africa, were builtwithout minarets at all; furthermore, in contrast to themihrab or minbar, the minaret is rarely mentioned inArabic literature.It is the oldest form in Islamic architecture according toMuslim tradition, the call to prayer was invented, inreaction to the Jewish use of the HORN and the Christianuse of the WOODEN CLACKER to summon worshippers.
PLAN OF QUTUB COMPLEX ILTUTMISH TOMB SCREEN IRON PILLAR QUTUB MOSQUE MINAR ALAI MINARALAIDARWAZA
HISTORYThe Qutub complex was built by QutubUd-Din Aybak (reg. 1206 - 1211) whoestablished the first Islamic sultanate inthe Indian subcontinent in Delhi in 1192.It is located within the citadel of Qala-e-Rai Pithora (Qila Rai Pithora) where QutbUd-Din also set up his administrativequarters and residence. Also known asQuwwat ul Islam, meaning the might ofIslam, the Qutub complex was createdwith the dismantling and reassembling ofthe 27 existing Hindu and Jain templeson the site.
THE COMPLEXQutub complex consists of a mosque and two minaretsenclosed within a series of cloistered precincts. Thisrectangular complex measures about 235 m (north-south) by155 m (east-west) along the exterior. It was entered via fourmonumental gates along the north, east and south walls, ofwhich only the southern gate (Alai Darwaza) remains. Themosque, known as the Qutb or Quwwat ul Islam Mosque,occupies the southwest corner of the complex. It consists ofrectangular enclosures, all the later work of Aybakssuccessors. The Qutb Minar (minaret) stands in thesoutheastern part of this enclosure. The unfinished Alai Minar(minaret) stands in the northeastern part of the complex. Atall screen wall with pointed archways runs along the westernedge of the precinct, creating a qibla wall for the prayerspaces. In addition to these elements, the complex alsocontains several smaller buildings: the Tomb of Iltutmish, Alaal-Din Khaljis madras a, and the Imam Zamin Mosque.
LOCATIONQutub minar is situated in southern part of Delhi, in Mehrauli. QUTUB MINAR
Qutub Minar (Architecture)FEATURES:At the base, the diameter of the minaret is a little over fourteen meters and it tapers towards the top, where it is only slightly under 3 meters wide. It has a circular stairway made of three- hundred-seventy-nine steps to reach the top for a spectacular view. The Minar comprises of several superimposed flanged and cylindrical shafts separated by balconies. All the storeys have a balcony that circles the Minar with stone brackets for support. The Minar is decorated throughout with floral motifs and arabesque. Also it bears inscriptions that are verses from the Koran and messages from the Sultans.
QUWWAT-UL-ISLAM MASJIDTo mark his victory over RaiPithora, Qutub-ud-Din Aibakbuilt the Quwwat-ul-IslamMasjid (Might of Islam) in 1192which was completed in 1198. Itis the earliest extant mosque inIndia, having a rectangularcourt. The court is enclosed bycloisters which were erectedwith carved columns and otherarchitectural members from the27 Hindu and Jaintemples, which were laterdemolished
BRAHMANICAL MOTIFS LIKE THEKALASA AND LOTUS ON PILLARS
The walls and pillars are havingintrinsic Hindu architectural motifs.
Pillars of the mosque: “as a whole, a confused and somewhat incongruous improvisation”. (Percy Brown)
IRON PILLAR The Iron Pillar dates back to the 4th century BC. It bears inscriptions that dedicate it as a flagstaff to honor the Hindu god Vishnu and in memory of Gupta king Chandragupta II (375-413 AD). The pillar is a symbol of the progress of metallurgy in ancient India. It is made of 98 percent wrought iron andIt is said to have been brought to has survived 1,600 yearsDelhi by the Tomar king without rusting.Anangpal, somewhere in the 11thcentury from Udaygiri. There areno other relics from the sameperiod in this site.
The pillar was cast in itspresent form not forged.Length 7.2m of which 93cm is underground.Diameter - 0.41 m.Garuda idol at top missing.
ILTUTMISH TOMBIt is located in the complex Tomb,northwest to the Iron Pillar. Iltutmish diedin 1236, but had his tomb built a yearearlier in 1235. It is made of red sandstone, situated northwest of the minaret.It is a landmark in Indo-Islamicarchitecture. It is believed to have had adome which was later damaged.There are 3 entrances on all 3 sides, butthe west, which was for the mihrabs. It isa simple square chamber, coveredoriginally by a circular dome that wascarried on a form of squinch arch. Domewas constructed using concentric rings,but Hindu artisans couldn’t make it lastlong. Inside is decorated and elaboratedwith Quranic verses. Marble is used inmehrab and cenotaph.
ALAI DARWAZAIt is the southern gateway of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque, and is a gemof Islamic architecture in India. It was built by Alla-ud-din Khilji in 1311. Itis 17.2m square and pierced by ached openings that echo the contours ofthe covering dome. The arch to the north is semicircular while the othersare of pointed horse shoe shape. It has intricate carvings in red sandstone and marble. It has red stone jali screens.
ALAI MINAR Ala-ud-Din wanted to build a second tower of victory twice as high as Qutab Minar but when he died the tower had reached only 24.5 meters and later no one was willing to continue his over ambitious project. It stands to the north of the Qutab Minar and the mosque. It was to have ramps instead of stairs. Windows are at regular quadrant heights, for a gradual ramp to be made.
ALAUDDIN’S MADRASSAIt is located in south west of themosque. It is built around aquadrangular court entered on theNorth through a triple gateway.Alauddin constructed this madrassa,but few historians say that it wasIltutmush who made it. ALAUDDIN’S TOMB It is on the south side of the court. It is a square structure with no dome now. There are only remains of a boldly projecting portico. It was combined to the madrassa, probably a Saljuqian tradition-being its first appearance in India.
IMAM ZAMIN’S TOMB This tomb was made in the memory of Mohammad Ali, imam zamin. Its on the east of alai darwaza. Its 7.3m square. It is surmounted by a sandstone dome rising from an octagonal drum, the lodhi style. It is decorated with double row of kangooras and marble panelling above the chajja.The tomb has no integral connection with the Qutub group. But it still stands there without any damage and that’s worth praise.
HISTORY Built In : 1193 (started) Built By ; Qutub-ud-din AibakSpearing its way proudly into the sky, Qutab Minar with alength of 238 feet, commands a panoramic view of the greenfields extending into a sprawling city of Delhi. Started in 1192by the slave king, Qutab-UD-Din Aibak, the tower was built inthree stages. Qutab-ud-Din completed the first storey whilethe other three were built by Iltutmish in 1230.Projected balconies supported by stone brackets surroundeach of the storeys. The stone brackets are decorated withhoneycomb design, more conspicuously in the first storey. Thetower is further decorated with floral motif and arabesque.Firoz Shah renovated the top floor and added marble to thebuilding
The purpose for building this beautiful monument has beenspeculated upon, apart from the usual role of a minaret - thatof calling people for prayer in a mosque- in this case theQuwwat-ul-Islam mosque. Other reasons ascribed to itsconstruction are as a tower of victory, a monument signifyingthe might of Islam, or a watch tower for defense. Controversyalso surrounds the origins for the name of the tower. Manyhistorians believe that the Qutub Minar was named after thefirst Turkish sultan, Qutub-ud-din Aibak but others contendthat it was named in honour of Khwaja Qutb-ud-din BakhtiarKaki, a saint from Baghdad who came to live in India whowas greatly venerated by Akbar.
A CLOSE STUDY MATERIALS: The first three stories are made of sandstone and the next two of marble and sandstone. Firoz Shah Tughlaq added marble to the top storey. The Minar is in fact believed to have been built to aid the Muezzin of the mosque for prayer calls.
THE ENTRANCE CARVINGS THE WALL FORM OF 1ST PART
Projected balconies supported by stone brackets
BIRTH OF INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Qutab Minar, the first monument of Muslim rule in India, heralded the beginning of a new style of art and architecture that came to be known as the Indo-Islamic style. Indo-Islamic style is neither a local variant of Islamic art, nor a modification of Hindu art; it is an assimilation of both the styles, though not always in an equal degree. This amalgamation of exotic and indigenous architectural styles was possible due to a variety or factors-the Muslim rulers had to use, in most cases, Indian craftsmen and sculptors who were schooled in their own art traditions. Another factor that inadvertently contributed to this fusion of style was that during the early Muslim invasions, mosques were often built out of materials from Hindu and Jain temples and sometimes temples themselves were modified into mosques.
NATURAL HAZARDSQutub Minar has survived a series of lightning bolts andearthquakes till date. The minar is unharmed except for aslight tilt, some two feet off the perpendicular. The 1stlightning struck in 1368 AD and knocked off the top storey.Later in 19th century an earthquake destroyed Toothlesscupola. Major Smith replaced it with a bengal style chhatriwhich was removed by Lord Hardinge as it sat ill with thearchitecture style of Qutub Minar. Its kept on the ground tothe left of the entry path and is known as the Smiths folly.
RESTORATIONOn 1st August 1803, the oldcupola was thown down due toEarthquake. After 2 years, repairingof the structure began and completed in1828 by Major Smith. His work on thedoorway has been criticized because ofbeing gothic and different from the minar.The materials used are proper.TODAY: Restoration work is carried outduring the nights also, when needed.After a series of accidents in the early1980’s, visitors are no longer allowed toclimb the Qutub minar.
NEWS LINE “Surging crowds at Qutub Minar has ASI worried…….” SUNDAY TIMES OF INDIA, NEW DELHI APRIL 20, 2008Archeological Survey of India(ASI) is planning to built separate entry andexit points for the monument.5000 visitors daily. Sanitation is on stake. Conservation complexed.ASI is working on the redevelopement plan of Qutub complex since 2 yrsUnlike other monuments, Qutub minar is visited by all categories ofVisitors.