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  Farm to School <ul><li>by, </li></ul><ul><li>Fawn Miller </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives:  </li></ul><ul><li>To provide inf...
  Ecological Literacy:  Rethinking School Lunch <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Establish healthy eating habits at a...
Ecological Education in Action:  Stories from Our Common Roots <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce childhood hung...
What are the objectives of Farm to School programs? <ul><li>Support small family farms </li></ul><ul><li>Promote healthier...
Why the Need for Farm to School Programs <ul><li>Childhood obesity between 2000-2004 rose from 13.8% to 16.0% </li></ul><u...
What is causing childhood obesity? <ul><li>High fat, fast food options </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility to fast foo...
Do farm to school programs work? <ul><li>8/8 schools studied found that a farm to school salad bar reduced the daily amoun...
Do farm to school programs work cont? <ul><li>Students in experimental groups were more likely to choose healthier options...
Pennsylvania Standards Addressed by Farm to School Programs (Environmental) <ul><ul><li>PA.ENV.4.4.4.B.1 Identify common a...
Pennsylvania Standards Addressed by Farm to School Programs (Family and Consumer Science) <ul><li>PA.FACS.11.3.12.C Evalua...
How to purchase locally grown products <ul><li>Buy directly from local farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li><...
How to purchase locally grown products cont.   <ul><li>Buy from a farmer’s market </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </l...
Financial Obstacles <ul><li>Cost is often the most difficult obstacle for school districts to overcome </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Sources of Funding <ul><li>Advocacy groups </li></ul><ul><li>State and local government </li></ul><ul><li>Universities </l...
Philosophical Differences <ul><li>Adversity to “Liberally Minded” programs </li></ul><ul><li>Test centric curriculum </li>...
Farm to Cafeteria Projects Act of 2003 <ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced by Senator Patrick Leahy of Vermont and Senator Arlen Sp...
No Child Left Inside Act <ul><li>Increase environmental literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce childhood obesity </li></ul><ul>...
Do we need educational reform to support EE and programs like farm to school? <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase ...
Conclusion <ul><li>I believe that farm to school programs are </li></ul><ul><li>very important to environmental education ...
Citations <ul><li>(2005, December). Eat smart farm fresh: A guide to buying and locally- grown produce in school. Retrieve...
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Farm To School

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Transcript of "Farm To School"

  1. 1. Farm to School <ul><li>by, </li></ul><ul><li>Fawn Miller </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To provide information about how farm to school </li></ul><ul><li>programs are impacting education </li></ul><ul><li>To provide educators with information about how to </li></ul><ul><li>start farm to school programs in their own district </li></ul><ul><li>To help educators foresee potential obstacles and </li></ul><ul><li>resistance to programs </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ecological Literacy: Rethinking School Lunch <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Establish healthy eating habits at an early age </li></ul><ul><li>Buying local, fresh food </li></ul><ul><li>Building an understanding of food preparation and food production </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate nutrition education into all subjects </li></ul> Marilyn Briggs
  3. 3. Ecological Education in Action: Stories from Our Common Roots <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce childhood hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and teach sustainable agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Connect curriculum between subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Build healthier communities </li></ul>
  4. 4. What are the objectives of Farm to School programs? <ul><li>Support small family farms </li></ul><ul><li>Promote healthier food options in school </li></ul><ul><li>Educate students about food production and preparation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why the Need for Farm to School Programs <ul><li>Childhood obesity between 2000-2004 rose from 13.8% to 16.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in type two diabetes among children, a disease that was once considered only an adult disease </li></ul><ul><li>2002 U.S. Census of Agriculture reporting a 4% decrease in small to medium sized family farms </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of over 300,000 farms since 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that students who are well nourished and active are more likely to attend and succeed at school </li></ul><ul><li>Reconnect students with the communities in which they live </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is causing childhood obesity? <ul><li>High fat, fast food options </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility to fast food restaurants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum nutritional value snacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School lunch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes school lunch choices are based more heavily on the surplus of crops available oppose to student nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of choices of fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TV, video games, internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer outdoor areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parental fears about children playing outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of thorough nutrition education </li></ul>
  7. 7. Do farm to school programs work? <ul><li>8/8 schools studied found that a farm to school salad bar reduced the daily amount of calories, cholesterol, and fat students consumed </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently found students consumed more fruits and vegetables per day </li></ul><ul><li>5/11 schools studied showed increases in participation in school lunches ranging from 1.3% to 16.0%, the others showed no significant change </li></ul>
  8. 8. Do farm to school programs work cont? <ul><li>Students in experimental groups were more likely to choose healthier options in real world situations, like in the supermarket </li></ul><ul><li>88% of students in experimental groups, compared to 72% of students in control groups, were able to identify foods with high sugar content </li></ul><ul><li>After students participated in field trips to local farms and participated in activities sequencing food production, the number of students who properly sequenced the order of food production improved from 12% to 52% from the pretest to post test </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pennsylvania Standards Addressed by Farm to School Programs (Environmental) <ul><ul><li>PA.ENV.4.4.4.B.1 Identify common animals found on Pennsylvania farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PA.ENV.4.4.4.B.2 Identify common plants found on Pennsylvania farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PA.ENV.4.4.4.D.1 Identify the various tools and machinery necessary for farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PA.ENV.4.4.10.B Assess the influence of agricultural science on farming practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PA.ENV.4.4.10.B.1 Compare the practices of no-till farming to traditional soil preparation (e.g., plow, disc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PA.ENV.4.4.10.B.3 Analyze and explain how farm efficiencies have changed human nutrition </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Pennsylvania Standards Addressed by Farm to School Programs (Family and Consumer Science) <ul><li>PA.FACS.11.3.12.C Evaluate sources of food and nutrition information </li></ul><ul><li>PA.FACS.11.3.12.D Critique diet modifications for their ability to improve nutritionally-related health conditions (e.g., diabetes, lactose-intolerance, iron deficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>PA.FACS.11.3.12.F Evaluate the application of nutrition and meal planning principles in the selection, planning, preparation and serving of meals that meet the specific nutritional needs of individuals across their lifespan </li></ul>
  11. 11. How to purchase locally grown products <ul><li>Buy directly from local farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No middle man </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can request specific items </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must with work with multiple farmers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paperwork can be overwhelming and time consuming for food service staff </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Buy from a farmer cooperative </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces ordering time and paperwork for food service staff </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can often provide a wider variety of produce on a more consistent basis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coops do not exist everywhere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the amount of interaction with the farmer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. How to purchase locally grown products cont. <ul><li>Buy from a farmer’s market </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The freshest produce </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction/Communication with farmers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not work well outside of the growing season </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labor intensive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Buy from a traditional distributor </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Billing and ordering to one vendor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributors can provide additional items, paper goods, cleaning supplies, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No interaction with the farmers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to know if the vendor is always searching for locally grown food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Financial Obstacles <ul><li>Cost is often the most difficult obstacle for school districts to overcome </li></ul><ul><li>Schools districts are often required to put out bids for food service and except the lowest bid </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions (Think Small, Be Creative) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One day a week organic or local salad bar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use locally grown produce for home economics classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage students to plant a community garden for a graduation project </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fundraising with local produce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting out desserts and other snack foods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sources of Funding <ul><li>Advocacy groups </li></ul><ul><li>State and local government </li></ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Grants for the U.S. Department of Agriculture </li></ul>
  15. 15. Philosophical Differences <ul><li>Adversity to “Liberally Minded” programs </li></ul><ul><li>Test centric curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>The wrong objectives </li></ul><ul><li>What are the basics? </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to change traditional instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compartmentalizing curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching abstract curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Farm to Cafeteria Projects Act of 2003 <ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced by Senator Patrick Leahy of Vermont and Senator Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide grants up to $100,000 for schools and nonprofits to buy local food, equipment for storage and preparation, and training for food service staff </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to reduce childhood obesity, by providing healthier food options and nutrition education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. No Child Left Inside Act <ul><li>Increase environmental literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce childhood obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of nature deficient disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Provide professional development for educators in environmental content and field based instruction </li></ul>
  18. 18. Do we need educational reform to support EE and programs like farm to school? <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase government funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EE and nutrition education are given credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counteracts other policies like No Child Left Behind that narrows curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to evaluate student achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting curriculum in EE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rushing through curriculum to get through standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test centric curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusion <ul><li>I believe that farm to school programs are </li></ul><ul><li>very important to environmental education </li></ul><ul><li>and environmental literacy. It is </li></ul><ul><li>fundamental that our children understand </li></ul><ul><li>the energy and resources that are required </li></ul><ul><li>to produce our most essential need, food. In </li></ul><ul><li>addition we must provide students with more </li></ul><ul><li>sustainable agricultural practices and instill in </li></ul><ul><li>them lessons about nutrition so they may lead </li></ul><ul><li>healthier lives. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Citations <ul><li>(2005, December). Eat smart farm fresh: A guide to buying and locally- grown produce in school. Retrieved April 2, 2009, from United States Department of Agriculture Web site: http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Guidance/Farm-to-School-Guidance_12-19-2005.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Imas, K. (2004, May 1). A healthy partnership: Innovative farm to school programs address childhood nutrition. State News , Retrieved April 2, 2009, from http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-595984/A-healthy-partnership-innovative-farm.html </li></ul><ul><li>Joshi, A., Azuma, A.M, & Feenstra, G. Do farm-to school programs make a difference? Findings and future research needs. Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition , 3 , Retrieved March 27, 2009, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19320240802244025. </li></ul><ul><li>Orr, D.W. (1994). Earth in mind: On education, environment, and the human prospect . Washington, DC: Island Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, G.A., & Williams, D.R. (1999). Ecological education in action: On weaving education, culture, and the environment . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Stone, M.K., & Barlow, Z. (2005). Ecological literacy: Educating our children for a sustainable world . San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books. </li></ul>
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