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Malaria

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malaria

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  • 1. ANUKAM .C. LORDSFAVOUR PREMED 2 1804
  • 2. Malaria is a blood disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted from human-to-human by the Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease. DEFINITION
  • 3. If malaria is diagnosed and treated early on, the duration of the infection can be considerably shortened, which in turn reduces the risk of complications and death. The word malaria comes from 18th century Italian mala meaning "bad" and aria meaning "air". Most likely, the term was first used by Dr. Francisco Torti, Italy, when people thought the disease was caused by foul air in marshy areas. It was not until 1880 that scientists discovered that malaria was a parasitic disease which is transmitted by the anopheles mosquito. The mosquito infects the host with a one-cell parasite called plasmodium. Not long after they, found out that Malaria is transmitted from person-to-person through the bite of the female mosquito, which needs blood for her eggs. HISTORY
  • 4. Approximately 40% of the total global population is at risk of Malaria infection. During the 20th century the disease was effectively eliminated in the majority of non-tropical countries. Today Malaria causes over 350 million human acute illnesses, as well as at least one million deaths annually. The anopheles mosquito exists in most tropical and many sub-tropical countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Oceania, and Asia. According to WHO (World Health Organization), the majority of Malaria deaths occur among children in sub-Saharan Africa, killing an African child every 30 seconds. Not only is Malaria associated with poverty, it is also a cause of poverty and an important obstacle to economic development.
  • 5. Interfering with malaria's genetic cloaking device may provide cure for the disease - researchers from The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel, believe they have come very close to finding a cure for malaria. They have discovered a genetic cloaking device used by the parasite to evade the human immune system so that it can establish infection. If a treatment can be devised which interferes with the cloaking device's DNA, the immune system would then have a chance to eliminate the infection early on.
  • 6. There are five types of Malaria: Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) - milder form of the disease, generally not fatal. However, infected people still need treatment because their untreated progress can also cause a host of health problems. This type has the widest geographic distribution globally. About 60% of infections in India are due to P. vivax. This parasite has a liver stage and can remain in the body for years without causing sickness. If the patient is not treated, the liver stage may re- activate and cause relapses - malaria attacks - after months, or even years without symptoms. Plasmodium malariae (P. malariae) - milder form of the disease, generally not fatal. However, the infected human still needs treatment because no treatment can also lead to a host of health problems. This type of parasite has been known to stay in the blood of some people for several decades.
  • 7. Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale) - milder form of the disease, generally not fatal. However, the infected human still needs to be treated because it may progress and cause a host of health problems. This parasite has a liver stage and can remain in the body for years without causing sickness. If the patient is not treated, the liver stage may re-activate and cause relapses - malaria attacks - after months, or even years without symptoms. Plasmodium falciparum (P. faliparum) - the most serious form of the disease. It is most common in Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Current data indicates that cases are now being reported in areas of the world where this type was thought to have been eradicated. Plasmodium knowlesi (P. knowlesi) - causes malaria in macaques but can also infect humans.
  • 8. MODE OT TRANSMISSION The female Anopheles mosquito transmits the parasite to a human when it takes a blood meal - it bites the human in order to feed on blood. Only the female Anopheles mosquito can transmit malaria, and it must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken from an infected human. When the mosquito bites an infected person a minute quantity of the malaria (plasmodium) parasite in the blood is taken. Approximately one week later that same infected mosquito takes its next blood meal. The plasmodium parasites mix with the mosquito's saliva and are injected into the host (human being).
  • 9. Human-to-human transmission of Malaria As the parasite exists in human red blood cells, malaria can be passed on from one person to the next through organ transplant, shared use of needles/syringes, and blood transfusion. An infected mother may also pass malaria on to her baby during delivery (birth) - this is called 'congenital malaria'. You cannot catch Malaria by just sitting next to an infected person, or breathing in next to them when they cough and sneeze.
  • 10. SYMPTOMS In areas where Malaria is endemic people may have immunity or semi-immunity, and therefore have either no symptoms or few symptoms. The severity of the Malaria depends on three things: 1. The type of parasite. 2. Your immunity. 3. Whether you still have your spleen. Early stage symptoms of Malaria A high temperature (fever) Chills Headache Sweats Tiredness (fatigue) Nausea Vomiting
  • 11. Symptoms may occur in cycles, each time they come they might do so at different levels of severity. How long symptoms last may also vary, depending on each cycle. However, at the beginning of the illness, symptoms may not follow this typical pattern. Other common symptoms may include: Dry cough Back pain Muscle ache Enlarged spleen Very rare symptoms may include: Impairment of brain function Impairment of spinal cord function Seizures (fits) Loss of consciousness
  • 12. People who are infected with the P. falciparum parasite and become ill generally have much more serious symptoms, which may become fatal.
  • 13. What is the incubation period of Malaria? Incubation period refers to how long it takes from initial infection to the appearance of symptoms. This generally depends on the type of parasite: P. falciparum - 9 to 14 days P. vivax - 12 to 18 days P. ovale - 12 to 18 days P. malariae - 18 to 40 days However, incubation periods can vary from as little as 7 days, to several months for P. vivax and P. ovale. If you are taking medication to prevent infection (chemoprophylaxis) the incubation period is usually longer. It is important that a doctor eliminates other possible diseases or conditions which may have similar symptoms to Malaria. These include:
  • 14. Gastroenteritis Hepatitis Typhoid fever Meningitis, and other bacterial infections Non-malarial parasitic infections
  • 15. Preventing malaria The ways of preventing malaria are: Know that it only takes one bite from an infected mosquito to transmit malaria. Be savvy in avoiding exposure to these potentially dangerous, disease-borne insects. 2 Apply insect repellent to your skin. DEET lasts up to 12 hours, so use it sparingly and only on exposed skin. Avoid the use of perfumes and colognes. 3 Use bed-nets when sleeping in areas infested with mosquitoes. Additionally, use insecticides and flying insect sprays to reduce the number of mosquitoes in areas where you will be spending a significant amount of time. 4 When possible, avoid camping or spending prolonged amounts of time in areas where standing water is present. Keep pots and pans empty of water. Open vessels for drinking water should be covered. Mosquitoes use areas of standing water to lay their eggs.
  • 16. •5 Try to plan activities that permit you to be in protected areas between dusk and dawn .The mosquito that transmits malaria attacks at night. •6 Wear long-sleeved clothing and take preventitive medicine. If you know you will be traveling in areas where malaria is prevalent, ask your doctor for antimalarial drugs. Some tablets can be taken once a day, and some once a week. You will need to start taking the medicine before you leave, throughout your trip and continue on your return.
  • 17. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/malaria-topic-overview http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Malaria/Pages/Introduction.aspx