Raw MaterialsSugar is mainly made from sugar cane.The main areas of sugar-caneproduction from Sindh to Punjab arewidely spread. As sugar cane is atropical crop, it can’t tolerate frost.General outputof sugar caneis 37.5 tonnesper hectare. Sugarcane crop
Sugar mills have to be located near thesugarcane fields because:•sugarcane starts losing its sugarcontent as soon as it is harvested. Itneeds to be crushed immediately.•sugarcane is bulky and heavy.Therefore, its transportation cost ishigh.
Products and By-products• Sugarcane is used primarily in the making of sugar, ghur and other sweet products.• By-products are: 1. Bagasses: Used to make paper, chipboard, animal feed and also used as a fuel to produce electricity to run machinery in sugar mills. 1. Molasses: Are used to produce various types of acid and ethylene, which can be turned to packaging plastics.
A sugar product Jaggery (GurMaking Ghur (Jaggery)
Uses of processed sugar Sugar has many uses:•As a sweetener: Sugar is added to foods or drinks tomake them taste more pleasant. For example, itbalances the bitterness of coffee and reduces thetartness of sour fruit.•As a preservative: Sugar is a natural preservativethat binds water to prevent the growth of micro-organisms, thereby reducing food spoilage, as in jamsand preservatives.•As a bulking agent: Sugars gives texture to a varietyof foods, from jams to frozen products.
June 2001/Paper 2/Qs 4(b)(i) Describe the distribution of sugar mills in Pakistan (ii) Explain why sugar mills must be close to area of sugarcultivation. (iii) State the inputs required by a processing factory such as asugar mill. (iv) Select a sugar mill at one of the following locations; Faisalabad Mardan Thatta Explain how its input needs are satisfied. (v) At sugar mills the milling season lasts only 160 days. Whatproblems does this cause and how might they be overcome? 
November 2002/Paper 2/Qs 3(a) For sugar cane,(i) Name an area which is important for growing it. (ii) State the natural inputs that enable it to be grown in the areyou have namedin (a) (i). (iii) Explain why human inputs are very important for itssuccessful cultivation in Pakistan. (iv) State three processes necessary for the cultivation ofsugarcane (v) State the form in which it is taken to the sugar mill. (b) Explain why sugar mills need to be close to farms growing .Sugarcane. 
M/J/06Q3.b(i)Name the areas of high sugarcane production.  (ii)Why are these areas suitable for the cultivation ofsugarcane?  (iii)What happens to sugarcane from the time it is fully grownto when sugar juice is extracted?  (iv)Explain why baggases is an important by product ofsugarcane industry. 
Question Bank(2000-2007)Q1:Describe the main processes in the sugarcane industry?Q2:Name the main locations of sugarcaneproduction?Q3:Why are the sugarcane industries near thefields?Q4:Describe the problems faced by sugarcanegrowing farmers?