IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY Courtesy: Class X, 2007
PROJECT LAYOUTRAW MATERIALSPROCESSESOUTPUT[PRODUCTS]USES OF PRODUCTSLOCATIONIMPORTANCE OF LOCATIONPROBLEMS Faced by Industry Faced by people,environment and economy.QUESTION BANK [2000-2007]
WHAT IS STEEL AND IRON?• Steel is a metal composed of iron plus varying amounts of carbon as well as other elements such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, zirconium, vanadium, tungsten.• Different types of steel are produced by adjusting the chemical composition and adapting any of the different stages of the steelmaking process, such as rolling, finishing and heat treatment.
•Iron is a lustrous, silvery soft metal. It isextracted from iron ore, and is almost neverfound in the free elemental state. In order toobtain elemental iron, the impurities must beremoved by chemical reduction. • Iron is the main component of steel, and it is used in the production of alloys or solid solutions of various metals, as well as some non-metals, particularly carbon.
RAW MATERIALS1. IRON OREIron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. Iron ore is the raw material usedTo make pig iron, which isone of the main raw materials to make steel. 98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel.
2. MANGANESEIt is found as the free element in nature(often in combination with iron), and inmany minerals. The free element is ametal with important industrial metalalloy uses. Manganese is essential to ironand steel production by virtue of itssulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and alloyingproperties.
3. COKING COALCoke is a solid carbonaceous material derived fromdestructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminouscoal.The volatile constituents of the coal—including water,coal-gas, and coal-tar—are driven off by baking in anairless oven at temperatures as high as 2,000 degreesCelsius. This fuses together thefixed carbon and residual ash.Most coke in modern facilitiesis produced in "by-product"coke ovens, and the resultantcoke is used as the main fuelin iron-making blast furnaces.
4) LIMESTONELimestone is a sedimentary rockcomposed largely of the mineralcalcite (calcium carbonate:CaCO3).5) WATERLarge quantities of water arerequired in the steel makingprocess.
STEEL MAKINGHeating in coke ovens = Ore, coke and stoneVolatile components of introduced regularly in thebituminous coal removed. blast furnace. These areCoke remains as partially heated by rising hot gases.graphitized solid residue. Carbon monoxide react with iron oxides = Form metallic iron and carbon dioxide. The iron melts and dissolves carbon as it percolates through the coke column. By the time it reaches the hearth, itLiquid slag, composed of gangue minerals is saturated with carbon andand oxide components of stone, floats on the contains silicon, phosphorusliquid iron and is separated from the molten manganese and sulphur. The stonemetal during furnace tapping. The coke does and ore form a low-melting, free-not melt; it burns on contact with the running liquid slag, which absorbspressured, preheated air ("blast") entering most of the sulphur entering thethrough the tuyères located just above the furnace (coke is the main sulphurhearth. source).
OUTPUTS and USES1) Steel billetsManufacturing plain, deformed,twisted and ribbed bars. Steelsections: rails, angles, joints,channels, squares, flat bars,rods, wire rods, bailing hoops,tees and chains etc. seamlesspipes. machine components.Forging and stamping. springsteel flat bars.Billets are used to make different bars…which are used inmaking railways, machine parts and chains etc.
2) Hot Rolled ProductsSeam Welded Pipes for Gas/Water/Oil.Storage Tanks, Vessels, Containers.Ships/Barges, Launches & Floating Structures.Fabricated Sections/Structures.General Purpose Sheets/Plates.Wheel Rims. Formed Sections, Steel Flooring andCold Rolled Products.Hot rolled carbon steel coils areused for welded pipes,wheel rims and ships etc.
4) Galvanized ProductsAutomobiles, Roofing, Shuttering,Panelling, Manufacture of buckets,utensils, cans, containers Desertcoolers, Air conditioners, Water coolers,Fresh water tanks, etc, Domestic appliances.Galvanized steel is used for automobiles, air-conditioners, water tanks etc.
5) Coke•Widely used as a fuel by foundriesin cupolas for melting iron scrapand pig iron.•In sugar mills employing thecarbonizing process.•For making chemicals/calciumcarbide.•Used in the pharmaceuticalindustries.•Coke breeze is used for steamgeneration in boiler houses.•Used in Steel making for carbonadjustment.•Coke fuel is used in sugar mills,pharmaceutical companies and ingenerators.
PAKISTAN STEEL MILLS…PAKISTAN STEEL is located at a distance of 40 kmSouth East of Karachi at Bin Qasim in close vicinity ofPort Muhammad Bin Qasim at Pipri.It is spread over an area of 18,660 acres (about 29square miles) including 10,390 acres for the main plant,8070 acres for township and 200 acres for 110 MGwater reservoir. In addition it has leasehold rights overan area of 7520 acres for the quarries of limestone anddolomite in Makli and Jhimpir areas of district Thatta.
FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATIONSITE: Flat, cheap and unused land available.NATURAL ROUTES: Port Qasim facilitates exports andimports.CAPITAL:USSR provided economic assistance (technologyand capital)RAW MATERIALS: Iron ore and manganese imported throughPort Qasim. Limestone from Makli Hills nearThatta. Water from Lake Haleji nearby.
ENERGY: Port Qasim and Karachi have the highestelectricity generating capacity in Pakistan.LABOUR: Available locally from Karachi.MARKETS: Most industries are located in Karachi. Overhalf of the steel produced is used in Punjab.TRANSPORT: Pipri is connected to main Karachi-Kotrirailway. Metalled road also connect this area to themain road network.
IMPORTANCE OF THE I & S INDUSTRY• ATTRACTIVE MARKET DYNAMICS DID YOU• Captive Market KNOW?• Growing Market PSMC with a installed capacity of 1.1 million tonnes per annum• COMPETITIVE POSITIONING (“mtpa”), is the country’s only• LONG TERM RAW MATERIAL integrated steel manufacturer, CONTRACTS accounting for approximately• IDEAL LOCATION 23% of the country’s total• IMPROVED FINANCIALS demand for steel in 2004.• EXPANSION POSSIBILITY• ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY CERTIFICATION• EXPERIENCED MANAGEMENT AND WORKFORCE
EFFECTS ON THE ENVORIMENT• Pollution is caused by the ships coming to supply raw materials.• Natural reserves of coal, gas are being exploited for the raw material and power supply.• Fresh water is used in the industry.
PROBLEMS OF THE I & S INDUSTRY Environmental problems A lot of pollution is caused by the iron and steel industries. When the iron ore is burned at high temperatures to be melted a lot of smoke is released which in turn goes out into the environment causing a lot of harm to it. This also causes ozone depletion which in turn leads to global warming.
Economic Problems:Since Pakistan is not very abundant in iron ore ithas to import a lot of iron ore in order tomanufacture steel here. This causes the spendingof foreign exchange. Also a lot of iron and steel isneeded in day to day life since most of the thingsare made with this raw material which could leadto the exhaustion of resources.
Social ProblemsWorkers live and work under very poor conditions. Wesee the basic violation of human rights when theworkers are made to work in extremely hightemperatures from day to night. Also theyaccommodation facilities are not that good. People donot lead quality lives. The wages are also quite lowconsidering the amount of work they workers do.
QUESTION BANK Adapted from: O LEVEL 2059/2 PAST PAPERS 2000-2007 JUNE 2006/PAPER II/QS.4a) Study Fig. 5, a diagram showing some inputs to Pakistan Steel. COKING COALFROM OTHER W XCOUNTRIES PAKISTAN STEEL Fig. 5 YFROM Z COKINGPAKISTAN COAL i) Name the two raw materials W and X.  ii) Name two other inputs Y and Z.  iii) Why is coal imported in addition to that produced in Pakistan? 
b) Describe how two human inputs contribute to production at Pakistan Steel? c) Why is over 50% of the output of Pakistan Steel sent north from Karachi to Punjab?d) What features of Pakistan Steel show that it is an industry in the formalsector? e) How does the government attract local and foreign investors to developindustries in Pakistan?  November 2005/Paper II/Qs. 4c)i) Give a location in Pakistan for A the iron and steel industry B the cement industry ii) Choose one of these industries, and state two inputs and two outputs  of that industry. ***THE END***
PAST PAPER QUESTION FROM 2000-07QUESTION 4:(a) Study the diagram below showing some inputs to Pakistan Steel.
i.i. Name the two raw materials w and x. Name the two raw materials w and x.ii. Name two inputs yy and z. ii. Name two inputs and z.iii. Why isiscoal imported in addition to that isis iii. Why coal imported in addition to that produced in Pakistan? produced in Pakistan?(b) Describe how two human inputs contribute to (b) Describe how two human inputs contribute to production at Pakistan steel? production at Pakistan steel?(c) Why isisover 50% of the output of Pakistan steel (c) Why over 50% of the output of Pakistan steel sent to north from Karachi to Punjab? sent to north from Karachi to Punjab?(d) What features of Pakistan steel show that itit is an (d) What features of Pakistan steel show that is an industry in the formal sector? industry in the formal sector?(e) How does the government attract the local and (e) How does the government attract the local and foreign investors to develop industries in foreign investors to develop industries in Pakistan? (June 2006) Pakistan? (June 2006)