Osterman, a culture scholar, says:We may conceptualize individualism as a worldview that centralizes the personal—personal goals, personal uniqueness, and personal control—and peripheralizes the social…The core element of collectivism is the assumption that groups bind and mutually obligate individuals.
Individual:Independent—free, control over one’s lifeGoals—striving for one’s own goals and achievementsCompete—personal competition and successUnique—focus on one’s own unique characteristicsPrivate self-knowledge—keeping one’s thoughts private from othersDirect communication—stating clearly what one wants and needsCollectivism:Related—consider close others as part of the selfBelong—enjoy belonging to groupsDuty—being willing to make sacrifices as a group memberHarmony—concern for group harmonyAdvice—turning to close others for help with decisionsContext—self alters across situations (contrast with individualism, where the “consistent self” is a strong value)Hierarchy—emphasis on status issues.Group—preference for working in groupsNote: one strong individualist-collectivist contrast comes out at U.S. universities in terms of plagiarism. Collectivist cultures see no problem with giving and receiving help, often quite a bit of help, in writing papers or other projects. Our strongly individualistic culture looks at plagiarism as a serious offense because of our focus on competition and self-obtained goals. Foreign students who aren’t aware of this big difference are often caught by surprise when they receive a bad grade on a paper on which they’ve collaborated with someone else, in order to make it the best paper they can, and are accused of cheating. It’s not a clash of ethics, it’s a clash of cultural values.
An interesting factoid about North America is stated by Raymond Carroll, a French anthropologist who is married to a North American. He suggests that North Americans tend to see individual identities as existing outside all networkds. That does not mean that social networks do not exist, or that they are unimportant, but that it is notionally possible to see the self apart from these. In the North American view, there is a sense that the self creates its own identity, as in the expression “a self made person.” This view explains why it is unnecessary for North Americans to hide things about their past, such as humble origins….in fact they are proud of such origins—look at Barack Obama!
1. HOFSTEDE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF JAPAN<br />Team members :ATUL GUPTAAKASH SHARMABHUPENDAR SHARMAMOHIT FAUZDARNITESH AGARWALSUMIT SOMANI<br />
2. Introduction<br /><ul><li>Geert H. Hofstede was born on October 2, 1928 in Haarlem, the Netherlands. He received his M.Sc. from the Delft Institute of Technology in 1953, his Ph.D. (cum laude) from Groningen University in 1967. Hofstede served in the Netherlands Army from 1953 to 1955.
3. conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. From 1967 to 1973, while working at IBM as a psychologist, he collected and analyzed data from over 100,000 individuals from forty countries. From those results, and later additions, Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary dimensions to differentiate cultures. He later added a fifth dimension, Long-term Outlook.</li></li></ul><li>Introduction Of the Country-<br /><ul><li>Japan has a population of approximately 125 million people packed tightly into a rather small geographic area. The official language in Japan is Japanese. Japanese is spoken only in Japan. The literacy rate in Japan is very close to 100 percent and 95 percent of the Japanese population has a high school education.
4. Japan’s form of government is parliamentarian democracy under the rule of a constitutional monarch. The Prime Minister is the chief government officer. The dominant religion is Shinto, which is exclusive to Japan. However, the Japanese have no official religion.
5. Culturally, the Japanese tend to be somewhat introverted in their ways. They generally are not receptive to outsiders. When conducting business in Japan relationships and loyalty to the group is critical for success.</li></li></ul><li>*POWER DISTANCE*<br />
6. Power distance<br /><ul><li>Power distance indicates the extent to which a society accepts the fact that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally among individuals.</li></li></ul><li>Hofstede: Power Distance<br /><ul><li>This dimension focuses on how a society deals with levels of status or social power (and how much they perceive such status as good or bad (right or wrong, just or unjust, fair or unfair)
7. Basic areas of inequality:
8. Physical / mental abilities and characteristics
9. Social status and prestige
12. Law, rights, rules</li></li></ul><li>
13. High Power Distance company:<br /><ul><li>Employees are expected to stay in their place and not make waves.
14. People who can actually make important decisions are inaccessible, protected by layers of middle management.
15. Managers view employees who challenge norms or questioning decisions as disrespecting their authority.
16. Priority is placed never making embarrassing mistakes, making it difficult to take a stand on anything.
17. Managers are looking for immediately demonstrable results, leading to a focus on tactics over strategy.
18. The powerful feel they have so much to lose that they instinctively go on the defense, only approving safe, comfortable, familiar solutions.</li></li></ul><li>Low Power Distance organization:<br /><ul><li>Employees see the results of their actions, and can really feel the difference between what works and what doesn’t.
19. Creative ideas can come from anyone. Employees are encouraged to speak up instead of sitting quietly.
20. Lower-level employees are empowered to make important decisions, allowing them to happen quickly and with more context.
21. The company culture values employees who question decisions and challenge accepted norms.
22. Employees are encouraged to try new ideas and allowed to fail gracefully, helping them feel it’s safe environment for innovation (which leads to the big game-changing ideas).
23. Executives understand the dangers of comfort and monotony(Lack of variety and interest), and they demonstrate their willingness to attempt bold and innovative solution.</li></li></ul><li>Power Distance in Context of Japan<br />
24. Moderate PDI<br />
25. Individualism and Collectivism*<br />
26. INDIVIDUALISM<br /><ul><li>Individualism stands for a society in which the ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediate family only.”</li></li></ul><li>COLLECTIVISM<br />Collectivism “stands for a society in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong cohesive in-groups, which throughout people’s lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty<br />
32. Direct communication</li></ul>Collectivism<br /><ul><li>Related
39. Group</li></li></ul><li>Traits of high individualistic countries<br /><ul><li> A person's identity revolves around the "I“
40. Personal goals and achievement are strived for
41. It is acceptable to pursue individual goals at the expense of others
42. 'Individualism' is encouraged whether it be personality, clothes or music tastes
43. The right of the individual reign supreme; thus laws to protect choices and freedom of speech </li></li></ul><li>Traits of high Collectivism countries<br /><ul><li>"We" is more important that "I“
44. Conformity is expected and perceived positively
45. Individual's desires and aspirations should be curbed if necessary for the good of the group
58. Individualism / Collectivism at org.<br /><ul><li>Employee-employer relationship
59. Hiring and promotion decisions
60. Managerial focus
61. Task vs. relationship priority</li></li></ul><li>JAPAN me-ism and group-ism <br />
63. Individualism V/s Collectivism (40)<br /><ul><li>The degree to which individuals are integrated into groups.
64. Japan’s low score in this dimension makes them a collectivist society.
65. This behavior is inbuilt in them from childhood.
66. Correlated with the moderate power distance & a sense of group belongingness.
67. Success is highly dependent on group efforts in japan.
68. Maintaining the group harmoney is advisable.</li></li></ul><li>MASCULINITY V/S FEMININITY<br />
69. Masculinity<br /><ul><li>Masculinity focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power.
70. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination.
71. A Low Masculinity ranking indicates the country has a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society.</li></li></ul><li>Femininity<br /><ul><li>refers to the distribution of emotional roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found.
72. IBM studies revealed that-</li></ul>(a) women's values differ less among societies than men's values;<br />(b) men's values from one country to another contain a dimension from very assertive and competitive and maximally different from women's values on the one side, to modest and caring and similar to women's values on the other.<br /><ul><li>The assertive pole has been called masculine and the modest, caring pole feminine.</li></li></ul><li>Hofstede’s Masculinity/ Femininity Dimension<br /><ul><li>Gender differentiation strikes anyone who visits Japan or who studies the Japanese language, which decrees that men use different speech patterns and words from women Hofstede has confirmed this observation empirically.
73. Japan ranked highest in the world, with a 95 Masculinity (MAS) score.</li></li></ul><li>JAPAN GRAPH<br />
74. Uncertainty Avoidance<br />
75. Uncertainty avoidance is “deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man's search for truth”<br /><ul><li>risk found in life and the resulting beliefs and institutions that the society has created to try to avoid these.
76. The high positive scores on the uncertainty avoidance index (UAI) indicate low tolerance for ambiguity and unstructured situation.
77. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations”
78. Unstructured situations are novel, unknown, surprising, different from usual.
79. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; 'there can only be one Truth and we have it'.
80. People in uncertainty avoiding countries are also more emotional, and motivated by inner nervous energy.</li></li></ul><li>The opposite type, uncertainty accepting cultures, are more tolerant of opinions different from what they are used to; they try to have as few rules as possible,<br />Weak Uncertainty Avoidance<br />1.Uncertainty is a normal <br /> feature of life<br />2.Comfortable in ambiguous <br />situations and with unfamiliar risks<br />3.What is different is curious<br />4.Students comfortable with <br /> open-ended learning situations<br />5.There should not be more rules than is necessary<br />6.One group’s truth should not be imposed on others<br />Strong Uncertainty Avoidance<br />1.Uncertainty in life is a <br />continuous threat which must be fought<br />2.Fear of ambiguous situations and of unfamiliar risks<br />3.What is different is dangerous<br />4.Students comfortable in structured learning situations<br />5.Emotional need for rules, even if they will never work<br />6.There is only one truth and we have it<br />
81. Japan <br /><ul><li>Japan has a high score of uncertainty in the workplace making them are unable to work in unexpected situation. They prefer to use sets of protocol, rules and regulation to avoid making mistakes.
82. Japanese do not like drastic changes.
83. According to a study, during the 1990’s communication explosion.
84. Japanese prefer to use mobile phones rather than computers
85. As an international manager, instructions given to employees must also be fixed and making changes in between will make subordinates fell unsecure. It must be done in a strict and serious approach. Ex:- environmental change.
86. As a manager it’s always a necessity to follow the specific rules and procedures in consensus manner.
87. Research by NakaiFuki (2002) “Japanese are more reluctant to express their ideas or feelings clearly because they fear they might damage the atmosphere of interpersonal harmony”. This practice will allow a sense of security towards the subordinates. </li></li></ul><li>4. Uncertainty Avoidance - how society and individuals attempt to deal with the inherent uncertainties in life<br />