Reinforced earth structures

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Reinforced earth is a combination of earth and linear reinforcing strips that are capable of bearing large tensile stresses. …

Reinforced earth is a combination of earth and linear reinforcing strips that are capable of bearing large tensile stresses.
The reinforcement provided by these strips enable the mass to resist the tension in a way which the earth alone could not. The source of this resistance to tension is the internal friction of soil, because the stresses that are created within the mass are transferred from soil to the reinforcement strips by friction.

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  • 1. Presentation on Reinforced earth & Reinforced earth structures By Umer Farooq Roll no. 01-CE-2008
  • 2. Reinforced earth is a combination of earth and linear reinforcing strips that are capable of bearing large tensile stresses. The reinforcement provided by these strips enable the mass to resist the tension in a way which the earth alone could not. The source of this resistance to tension is the internal friction of soil, because the stresses that are created within the mass are transferred from soil to the reinforcement strips by friction.
  • 3. How the idea of Reinforced Earth came? IT ALL BEGAN LIKE A GAME, when Henri Vidal, a highway engineer and architect, was trying to built a sandcastle on the beach. But the sand kept on falling off and this led to the idea of reinforcing the construction with pine needles. That is how the general principle of Reinforced Earth came about.
  • 4. Why Consider Reinforced Soil Structures?  Wire mesh/geotextile fabric construction materials are light, easy to transport, and quick to construct.  The only machinery required is a backhoe/excavator and a compactor.  Differential settlement is eliminated & Bearing Capacity increased.  Rapid construction is reported.  This technique can result in saving the area of land.
  • 5. Components of Reinforced Earth 1. Soil 2. Skin 3. Reinforcement
  • 6. Arrangement of the Components in Reinforced Earth Structure
  • 7. Soil for Reinforced Earth  It should be granular, cohesion less material, not too much silt or clay having particle size not more than 125 mm.  Not more than 10 percent of the particles shall pass 75 micron sieve & the earth reinforcement coefficient of friction to be either higher than or equal to 0.4 & Plasticity Index < 6.  The soil must have a moisture content suitable for compaction.
  • 8. Skin  Skin is the facing element of the reinforced soil wall.  These elements keeps the reinforcement at a desired elevation in the reinforced soil wall and also protect the granular at the edge falling off.  Made of either metal units or precast concrete panels.
  • 9. Reinforcing Material:  A variety of materials can be used as reinforcing materials e.g,  Steel  Concrete  Glass fibre  Wood  Rubber  Aluminium  Reinforcement may take the form of strips, grids, anchors & sheet material, chains, planks, rope, vegetation and combinations of these or other material forms.
  • 10. Fasteners are used to make a connection between the facing and reinforcing elements usually of the form of hexagon headed screws and nuts and bolts
  • 11. Reinforced Earth abutment in flyover
  • 12. Where a bank is eroding and sliding onto a road, near a building, etc, a reinforced soil structure can be a cost effective solution. A Reinforced Soil Retaining Wall
  • 13. Bridge abutments can be effectively constructed as a reinforced soil structure. A Reinforced Soil Bridge Abutment
  • 14. A Reinforced Soil Box Culvert or Small Bridge Structure
  • 15. Reinforced earth structure in Railways
  • 16. Design of Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall In the reinforced earth wall two type of stability checked: External stability : It consider the reinforced structure as whole and check the stability for sliding, overturning, bearing/tilt and slip by considering the effects of dead loads, other loads (live load, dynamic load etc.) and forces acting on the structure. Internal stability: It cover internal mechanism ( tension and pull out failure) such as shear within the structure , arrangement and behavior of the reinforcement and backfill. It checks the stability for each reinforcement layers and stability of wedges within the reinforced fill
  • 17. Seismic Stability High performance during the 1995 Kobe Earthquake of a GRS RW of this type that had been constructed at Tanata validated its high seismic stability