HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE

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High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete: According to some researchers, more than 30% fly ash by mass (equivalent as 50% by volume) of the cementitious material may be considered enough to classify the mixtures as High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concrete. It is possible to produce sustainable, high performance concrete mixtures with 50% or more cement replacement by fly ash.

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HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE

  1. 1. Some Properties of HIGH-VOLUME FLY ASH CONCRETE By PROF. ARUN KUMAR CHAKRABORTY Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering Bengal Engineering and Science University Shibpur; Howrah – 711 103; West Bengal
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Fly ash, a principal byproduct of coal burning power plants,Fly ash, a principal byproduct of coal burning power plants, is an industrial waste product containing large amounts of silica,is an industrial waste product containing large amounts of silica, alumina and small amount of unburned carbon, which pollutesalumina and small amount of unburned carbon, which pollutes environment. This fly ash has real disposal problems, and shouldenvironment. This fly ash has real disposal problems, and should hence be utilized effectively for various purposes.hence be utilized effectively for various purposes. Fly ash, being primarily pozzolanic, can actually replace aFly ash, being primarily pozzolanic, can actually replace a percentage of the Portland cement, to produce a stronger, morepercentage of the Portland cement, to produce a stronger, more durable and more environment friendly concrete.durable and more environment friendly concrete. The cement production process releases a lot of carbon-di-The cement production process releases a lot of carbon-di- oxide in atmosphere, which is the primary green house gas thatoxide in atmosphere, which is the primary green house gas that causes global warming. Hence replacement of a considerablecauses global warming. Hence replacement of a considerable portion of cement by fly ash, can make a major contributionportion of cement by fly ash, can make a major contribution toward solving the global warming problem.toward solving the global warming problem.
  3. 3. Fly Ash Concrete:Fly Ash Concrete: In commercial practice, the dosage of fly ash is limited toIn commercial practice, the dosage of fly ash is limited to 15%-30% by mass of the total cementitious material, which has15%-30% by mass of the total cementitious material, which has a beneficial effect on the workability and cost economy ofa beneficial effect on the workability and cost economy of concrete but for improved durability against sulfate attack,concrete but for improved durability against sulfate attack, alkali-silica expansion, and thermal cracking, larger amounts ofalkali-silica expansion, and thermal cracking, larger amounts of fly ash, are necessary.fly ash, are necessary. High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete:High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete: According to some researchers, more than 30% fly ash byAccording to some researchers, more than 30% fly ash by mass (equivalent as 50% by volume) of the cementitiousmass (equivalent as 50% by volume) of the cementitious material may be considered enough to classify the mixtures asmaterial may be considered enough to classify the mixtures as High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concrete.High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concrete. It is possible to produce sustainable, high performanceIt is possible to produce sustainable, high performance concrete mixtures with 50% or more cement replacement by flyconcrete mixtures with 50% or more cement replacement by fly ash.ash.
  4. 4. Behaviour of High Volume Fly Ash in Concrete:Behaviour of High Volume Fly Ash in Concrete: It is generally observed that a higher substitution ofIt is generally observed that a higher substitution of Portland cement by fly ash reduces the water requirement forPortland cement by fly ash reduces the water requirement for obtaining a given workability, mainly due to three mechanisms:obtaining a given workability, mainly due to three mechanisms: Fly ash gets absorbed on the surface of oppositely chargedFly ash gets absorbed on the surface of oppositely charged cement particles and prevent them from flocculation, releasingcement particles and prevent them from flocculation, releasing large amounts of water, thereby reducing the water-demand forlarge amounts of water, thereby reducing the water-demand for a given workability.a given workability. The spherical shape and the smooth surface of fly ashThe spherical shape and the smooth surface of fly ash particles help to reduce the interparticle friction and thusparticles help to reduce the interparticle friction and thus facilitate mobility.facilitate mobility. Due to its lower density and higher volume per unit mass,Due to its lower density and higher volume per unit mass, fly ash is a more efficient void-filler than Portland cement.fly ash is a more efficient void-filler than Portland cement.
  5. 5. Applications of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete:Applications of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete: HVFA system has proven to be an economical constructionHVFA system has proven to be an economical construction material. Several applications of HVFA concrete in structures,material. Several applications of HVFA concrete in structures, and pavements have been reported all over the world.and pavements have been reported all over the world. Few information are available on long term properties andFew information are available on long term properties and durability aspects of HVFA concrete, particularly, in India,durability aspects of HVFA concrete, particularly, in India, where there is a lot of variation in quality and properties of flywhere there is a lot of variation in quality and properties of fly ash.ash. A detailed study is hence necessary to reveal theseA detailed study is hence necessary to reveal these aspects before prescribing the High Volume Fly Ashaspects before prescribing the High Volume Fly Ash Technology in practical application considering the availabilityTechnology in practical application considering the availability of local materials and climatic condition in our country.of local materials and climatic condition in our country.
  6. 6. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMEXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM MATERIALS USED:MATERIALS USED: Detailed properties of cement and fly ash is given inDetailed properties of cement and fly ash is given in Table 1Table 1.. Detailed properties of Coarse and Fine aggregates are shownDetailed properties of Coarse and Fine aggregates are shown inin Table 2Table 2.. Conplast SP430 manufactured by M/S Fosroc India Ltd.Conplast SP430 manufactured by M/S Fosroc India Ltd. Bangalore, has been used as a superplasticizer (conforming toBangalore, has been used as a superplasticizer (conforming to ASTM C 494 type F) and Pidicrete CF-21 manufactured by PidiliteASTM C 494 type F) and Pidicrete CF-21 manufactured by Pidilite Industries has been used as normal plasticizer (ASTM Type A).Industries has been used as normal plasticizer (ASTM Type A). TYPES OF CONCRETE MIXES:TYPES OF CONCRETE MIXES: Detailed mix proportions are given in tablesDetailed mix proportions are given in tables T3.1, T3.2, T3.3, T3.4, T3.5 and T3.6.T3.1, T3.2, T3.3, T3.4, T3.5 and T3.6.
  7. 7. Table1: Physical Properties and Chemical Analysis of the Materials usedTable1: Physical Properties and Chemical Analysis of the Materials used Physical Tests Cement OPC (Ambuja) Cement PPC (Ambuja) Fly ash Garden Reach •Specific gravity Experimental Value 3.17 3.12 2.03 IS Code Requirement 3.15 - - •Fineness Experimental Value - passing 45 micron 84 92 88 -specific surface, Blaine, cm2 /g 3294 3402 4892 IS Code Requirement 2250 3000 - •Compressive strength of 70.7 mm cubes, Mpa 3 - day 30.12 27.91 - 7 - day 37.22 37.49 - 28 - day 42.83 47.44 - IS Code Requirement 3 - day 27 16 - 7 - day 37 22 - 28 - day 53 33 - Chemical Analysis (%) •Silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) 18.67 - 57.1 •Aluminium oxide (AI2 O3 ) 6.07 - 27.1 •Ferric oxide (Fe2 O3 ) 4.96 - 7.4 •Calcium oxide (CaO) 60.12 - 2.1 •Magnesium oxide (MgO) 2.13 2.93 1.2 •Alkalis equivalent - - 2.42 •Titanium oxide (TiO2 ) - - 1.2 •Sulphur trioxide (SO3 ) 2.57 2.68 0.1
  8. 8. Table2: Grading of Coarse and Fine AggregateTable2: Grading of Coarse and Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Indian Standard Requirements for Coarse Aggregate As per IS 383 Fine Aggregate Indian Standard Requirements for Fine Aggregate As per IS 383 Sieve Size mm Type I Passing % Type II Passing % Type I (20mm graded) Type II (16mm graded) Sieve Size mm Passing % Passing % ( For Grading Zone II ) 20.00 100.00 100.00 95-100 100 4.75 100.0 90-100 16.00 90.00 100.00 - 90-100 2.36 95.7 75-100 12.50 - - - - 1.18 82.2 55-90 10.00 50.00 51.54 25-55 30-70 0.60 55.1 35-59 4.75 2.12 0.00 0-10 0-10 0.30 12.6 0-30 2.36 - - - - 0.15 0.9 0-10
  9. 9. Table T3.1: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties ofTable T3.1: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties of different M20 concrete mixes having cementitiousdifferent M20 concrete mixes having cementitious material content 350 Kg/mmaterial content 350 Kg/m33 made with O.P.Cmade with O.P.C Mix No. Fly Ash % Cement % Aggregate W/CM WRA L/m3 C.F. Slump mmCoarse kg/m3 Fine kg/m3 OL-0 0 100 1217 745 0.50 3.0 0.94 75 OL-30 30 70 0.48 1.8 0.94 105 OL-40 40 60 0.46 3.1 0.95 105 OL-50 50 50 0.43 3.8 0.92 95
  10. 10. Table T3.2: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties ofTable T3.2: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties of different M40 concrete mixes having cementitiousdifferent M40 concrete mixes having cementitious material content 400 Kg/mmaterial content 400 Kg/m33 made with O.P.Cmade with O.P.C Mix No. Fly Ash % Cement % Aggregate W/CM S.P. L/m3 C.F. Slump mmCoarse kg/m3 Fine kg/m3 OM-0 0 100 1183 800 0.40 5.5 0.94 120 OM-30 30 70 0.36 4.9 0.92 110 OM-40 40 60 0.34 4.6 0.95 105 OM-50 50 50 0.32 4.6 0.91 120
  11. 11. Table T3.3: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties ofTable T3.3: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties of different M60 concrete mixes having cementitiousdifferent M60 concrete mixes having cementitious material content 450 Kg/mmaterial content 450 Kg/m33 made with O.P.Cmade with O.P.C Mix No. Fly Ash % Cement % Aggregate W/CM S.P. L/m3 C.F. Slump mmCoarse kg/m3 Fine kg/m3 OH-0 0 100 1125 675 0.32 9.6 0.92 105 OH-30 30 70 0.29 5.8 0.95 95 OH-40 40 60 0.29 7.8 0.95 100 OH-50 50 50 0.28 6.2 0.93 115
  12. 12. Table T3.4: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties ofTable T3.4: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties of different M20 concrete mixes having cementitious materialdifferent M20 concrete mixes having cementitious material content 350 Kg/mcontent 350 Kg/m33 made with P.P.Cmade with P.P.C Mix No. Fly Ash % Cement % Aggregate W/CM WRA L/m3 C.F. Slump mmCoarse kg/m3 Fine kg/m3 PL-0 30 70 1217 745 0.52 3.6 0.95 80 PL-40 40 60 0.48 2.7 0.91 95 PL-50 50 50 0.46 3.7 0.93 110
  13. 13. Table T3.5: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties ofTable T3.5: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties of different M40 concrete mixes having cementitious materialdifferent M40 concrete mixes having cementitious material content 400 Kg/mcontent 400 Kg/m33 made with P.P.Cmade with P.P.C Mix No. Fly Ash % Cement % Aggregate W/CM S.P. L/m3 C.F. Slump mmCoarse kg/m3 Fine kg/m3 PM-0 30 70 1183 800 0.42 5.5 0.92 90 PM-40 40 60 0.38 5.6 0.92 125 PM-50 50 50 0.36 5.4 0.95 115
  14. 14. Table T3.6: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties ofTable T3.6: Mix Proportion and Fresh Properties of different M60 concrete mixes having cementitious materialdifferent M60 concrete mixes having cementitious material content 450 Kg/mcontent 450 Kg/m33 made with P.P.Cmade with P.P.C Mix No. Fly Ash % Cement % Aggregate W/CM S.P. L/m3 C.F. Slump mmCoarse kg/m3 Fine kg/m3 PH-0 30 70 1125 675 0.34 9.6 0.94 85 PH-40 40 60 0.32 5.8 0.93 110 PH-50 50 50 0.30 6.4 0.93 110
  15. 15. TYPES OF TESTS ON CONCRETE SAMPLES:TYPES OF TESTS ON CONCRETE SAMPLES: Compressive strength at 28days, 91days, 180 days and 365Compressive strength at 28days, 91days, 180 days and 365 days as per IS 516:1959.days as per IS 516:1959. Flexural strengths at 28, 91 and 365 days as per IS516: 1959.Flexural strengths at 28, 91 and 365 days as per IS516: 1959. Splitting tensile strengths at 28, 91 and 365 days as per ISSplitting tensile strengths at 28, 91 and 365 days as per IS 5816: 1999.5816: 1999. Abrasion test at 56 and 365 days as per IS 1237: 1980.Abrasion test at 56 and 365 days as per IS 1237: 1980. Water Permeability at 56 and 365 days as per DIN1048 part V.Water Permeability at 56 and 365 days as per DIN1048 part V. Rebound Hammer Test and Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity Test asRebound Hammer Test and Ultra Sonic Pulse Velocity Test as per IS 13311: 1992 Part I & II.per IS 13311: 1992 Part I & II.
  16. 16. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH VS % FLYASH FOR M20 CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 350 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % flyash(as replacement of cement) CompressiveStrength(MPa) 91 days 180 days 365 days 28 days 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 30 35 40 45 50 55 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) 28 days 365 days 180 days 91 days O.P.C.O.P.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  17. 17. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH vs % FLYASH FOR M40 CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 400 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % flyash (as replacement of cement) commpressivestrength(MPa) 91 days 180 days 365 days 28 days 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 30 35 40 45 50 55 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(Mpa) 28 days 91 days 365 days 180 days O.P.C.O.P.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  18. 18. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH vs % FLYASH FOR M60 CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 450 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) 28 days 91 days 180 days 365 days 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 30 35 40 45 50 55 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) 28 days 91 days 365 days 180 days O.P.C.O.P.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  19. 19. Comparison of Compressive Strength of M20 Concrete having cementitious material content 350 Kg/m3 using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash 46 44 40 40 41 38 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 % flyash (as replacement of cement ) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C 54 55 41 45 51 49 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 % flyash (as replacement of cement ) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C 28 Days28 Days28 Days28 Days 91 Days91 Days91 Days91 Days
  20. 20. Comparison of Compressive Strength of Concrete having cementitious material content 350 Kg/m3 using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 57 67 53 47 49 62 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 % flyash (as replacement of cement ) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C P.P.C. 61 71 67 48 52 66 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C. 180180 DaysDays 180180 DaysDays 365 Days365 Days365 Days365 Days
  21. 21. Comparison of Compressive Strength of M40 Concrete having cementitious material content 400 Kg/m3 using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 55 59 50 46 52 51 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 %flyash(as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C 66 72 5857 59 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 %flyash(as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C 28 Days28 Days28 Days28 Days 91 Days91 Days91 Days91 Days
  22. 22. Comparison of Compressive Strength of Concrete having cementitious material content 400 Kg/m3 using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 68 67 58 55 57 61 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 %flyash(as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C 70 72 60 55 64 55 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C. 180180 DaysDays 180180 DaysDays 365 Days365 Days365 Days365 Days
  23. 23. Comparison of Compressive Strength of M60 Concrete having cementitious material content 450 Kg/m3 using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 68 60 70 66 62 52 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C 77 72 72 68 69 65 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C 28 Days28 Days28 Days28 Days 91 Days91 Days91 Days91 Days
  24. 24. Comparison of Compressive Strength of Concrete having cementitious material content 450 Kg/m3 using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 64 75 76 70 72 67 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 %flyash(as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C 81 78 78 72 73 68 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 30 40 50 % flyash (as replacement of cement) compressivestrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C. 180180 DaysDays 180180 DaysDays 365 Days365 Days365 Days365 Days
  25. 25. SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH VS % FLYASH FOR M20 CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 350 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 flyash (%) SplitTensileStrength(Mpa) 28 days 91 days 365 days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 flyash (%) SplitTensileStrength(Mpa) 28 days 91 days 365 days O.P.C.O.P.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  26. 26. SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH VS % FLYASH FOR M40 CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 400 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 flyash (%) SplitTensileStrength(Mpa) 28 days 91 days 365 days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 flyash (%) SplitTensileStrength(Mpa) 28 days 91 days 365 days O.P.C.O.P.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  27. 27. SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH VS % FLYASH FOR M60 CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 450 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 flyash (%) SplitTensileStrength(Mpa) 28 days 91 days 365 days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 flyash (%) SplitTensileStrength(Mpa) 28 days 91 days 365 days O.P.O.P. C.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  28. 28. Comparison of 28 Days Split Tensile Strength of Concrete having different cementitious material content using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 4.43 4.35 3.72 4.86 5.21 3.98 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30 40 50 FLYASH % 28DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 3.4 3.46 2.55 3.55 3.5 2.55 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30 40 50 FLYASH % 28DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 3.67 3.94 4.28 4.29 3.65 4.6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30 40 50 FLYASH % 28DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 450 Kg/m450 Kg/m33 350 Kg/m350 Kg/m33 400 Kg/m400 Kg/m33
  29. 29. Comparison of 91 Days Split Tensile Strength of Concrete having different cementitious material content using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 3.94 4.28 3.9 4.51 4.43 3.56 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 40 50 FLYASH % 91DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 3.76 5.084.87 3.67 4.24 3.41 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 40 50 FLYASH % 91DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 4.52 3.5 4.02 5.92 5.12 5.57 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 40 50 FLYASH % 91DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 450 Kg/m450 Kg/m33 350 Kg/m350 Kg/m33 400 Kg/m400 Kg/m33
  30. 30. Comparison of 365 Days Split Tensile Strength of Concrete having different cementitious material content using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 4.69 5.67 4.59 5.05 5.88 5.06 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 40 50 FLYASH % 365DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 4.83 5.59 6.23 4.004.25 4.53 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 40 50 FLYASH % 365DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 4.64 5.34 4.88 5.28 5.38 6.17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 40 50 FLYASH % 365DaysSplitTensileStrength(Mpa) O.P.C P.P.C 450 Kg/m450 Kg/m33 350 Kg/m350 Kg/m33 400 Kg/m400 Kg/m33
  31. 31. FLEXURAL STRENGTH VS % FLY ASH FOR CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 350 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) Flexuralstrength(MPa) 28 days 91 days 365 days 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) Flexuralstrength(MPa) 28 days 91 days 365 days O.P.C.O.P.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  32. 32. FLEXURAL STRENGTH VS % FLY ASH FOR CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 400 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) Flexuralstrength(MPa) 28 days 91 days 365 days 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) Flexuralstrength(MPa) 28 days 91 days 365 days O.P.C.O.P.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  33. 33. FLEXURAL STRENGTH VS % FLY ASH FOR CONCRETE HAVING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL CONTENT 450 KG/M3 MADE WITH O.P.C. & P.P.C. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) Flexuralstrength(MPa) 28 days 91 days 365 days 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) Flexuralstrength(MPa) 28 days 91 days 365 days O.P.C.O.P.C. P.P.C.P.P.C.
  34. 34. Comparison of 28 Days Flexural Strength of Concrete having different cementitious material content using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 5.47 5.56 4.5 4.94 5.66 5.77 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C. 450 Kg/m450 Kg/m33 350 Kg/m350 Kg/m33 400 Kg/m400 Kg/m33 5.53 6.54 5.89 5.27 6.52 5.61 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) OPC PPC 8.84 6.72 6.99 7.34 7.18 7.77 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C.
  35. 35. Comparison of 91 Days Flexural Strength of Concrete having different cementitious material content using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 5.61 7.87 6.02 6.54 6.58 6.97 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C. 450 Kg/m450 Kg/m33 350 Kg/m350 Kg/m33 400 Kg/m400 Kg/m33 7.39 7.5 6.536.45 8.89 8.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) OPC PPC 9.38 7.83 7.06 7.67 7.25 7.03 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C.
  36. 36. Comparison of 365 Days Flexural Strength of Concrete having different cementitious material content using O.P.C & P.P.C. for different % of Fly Ash. 6.83 9.83 8.157.98 5.93 9.27 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C. 450 Kg/m450 Kg/m33 350 Kg/m350 Kg/m33 400 Kg/m400 Kg/m33 8.08 8.05 6.48 8.15 8.04 8.94 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) OPC PPC 9.55 8.55 8.75 9.96 10.59 9.52 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 30 40 50 % of flyash (as replacement of cement) flexuralstrength(MPa) O.P.C. P.P.C.
  37. 37. Change in Compressive Strength (with respect to 28 days) of Concrete made with O.P.C. and P.P.C having cementitious material content 350 Kg/m3 for different % of Fly Ash due to various exposures. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) CHANGEINCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH W.R.T.28DAYS(%) Air MgCl2 MgSO4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) CHANGEINCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH W.R.T.28DAYS(%) Air MgCl2 MgSO4 O.P.O.P. C.C. P.P.P.P. C.C.
  38. 38. Change in Compressive Strength (with respect to 28 days) of Concrete made with O.P.C. and P.P.C having cementitious material content 400 Kg/m3 for different % of Fly Ash due to various exposures. O.P.O.P. C.C. P.P.P.P. C.C. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) CHANGEINCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH W.R.T.28DAYS(%) Air MgCl2 MgSO4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) CHANGEINCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH W.R.T.28DAYS(%) Air MgCl2 MgSO4
  39. 39. Change in Compressive Strength (with respect to 28 days) of Concrete made with O.P.C. and P.P.C having cementitious material content 450 Kg/m3 for different % of Fly Ash due to various exposures. O.P.O.P. C.C. P.P.P.P. C.C. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) CHANGEINCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH W.R.T.28DAYS(%) Air MgCl2 MgSO4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) CHANGEINCOMPRESSIVESTRENGTH W.R.T.28DAYS(%) Air MgCl2 MgSO4
  40. 40. Depth of Carbonation for Concrete made with O.P.C. and P.P.C. having different cementitious material content for different percentages of Fly Ash after 365 days exposure in air. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) CARBONATIONDEPTH(mm) OPC PPC 350350 Kg/mKg/m33 ProcedurProcedur ee 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 30 50 FLYASH (%) CARBONATIONDEPTH(mm) OPC PPC 400400 Kg/mKg/m33 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) CARBONATIONDEPTH(mm) OPC PPC 450450 Kg/mKg/m33
  41. 41. Abrasion Thickness of Concrete made with O.P.C. and P.P.C. having cementitious material content 350 kg/m3 for different percentages of Fly Ash at early and later ages O.P.CO.P.C .. P.P.CP.P.C .. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 30 50 FLYASH(% ) ABRASIONTHICKNESS (mm) 56 Days 365 Days 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 30 50 FLYASH(% ) ABRASIONTHICKNESS (mm) 56 Days 365 Days
  42. 42. Abrasion Thickness of Concrete made with O.P.C. and P.P.C. having cementitious material content 400 kg/m3 for different percentages of Fly Ash at early and later ages O.P.CO.P.C .. P.P.CP.P.C .. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 30 50 FLYASH(% ) ABRASIONTHICKNESS (mm) 56 Days 365 Days 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 30 50 FLYASH(% ) ABRASIONTHICKNESS (mm) 56 Days 365 Days
  43. 43. Abrasion Thickness of Concrete made with O.P.C. and P.P.C. having cementitious material content 450 kg/m3 for different percentages of Fly Ash at early and later ages O.P.CO.P.C .. P.P.CP.P.C .. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) ABRASIONTHICKNESS (mm) 56 Days 365 Days 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 30 50 FLY ASH (%) ABRASIONTHICKNESS (mm) 56 Days 365 Days
  44. 44. WATER PERMEABILITY OF CONCRETE FOR DIFFERENT PERCENTAGES OF FLY ASH AT 365 DAYS. 350350 Kg/mKg/m33 400400 Kg/mKg/m33 400400 Kg/mKg/m33 350350 Kg/mKg/m33 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 30 50 FLYASH (%) WATERPERMEABILITY (mm) 365 Days 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 30 50 FLYASH (%) WATERPERMEABILITY (mm) 365 Days 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 30 50 FLYASH (%) WATERPERMEABILITY (mm) 365 Days 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 30 50 FLYASH (%) WATERPERMEABILITY (mm) 365 Days O.P.O.P. CC P.P.P.P. CC
  45. 45. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION For similar cementitious material content and similar range ofFor similar cementitious material content and similar range of slump, the use of fly ash (0 to 50 %) decreased the water-to-slump, the use of fly ash (0 to 50 %) decreased the water-to- cementitious-material ratio in general.cementitious-material ratio in general. The long term strength of the concrete containing fly ash isThe long term strength of the concrete containing fly ash is higher than that of control concrete without fly ash.higher than that of control concrete without fly ash. Abrasion resistance of fly ash concrete is less thanAbrasion resistance of fly ash concrete is less than corresponding samples without fly ash both at early and longercorresponding samples without fly ash both at early and longer ages, in general. The loss of thickness due to abrasion increasesages, in general. The loss of thickness due to abrasion increases with percentage of fly ash in concrete.with percentage of fly ash in concrete. The fly ash concrete shows lower water permeability comparedThe fly ash concrete shows lower water permeability compared to that of control concrete.to that of control concrete. The depth of carbonation is increased with the increase inThe depth of carbonation is increased with the increase in percentage replacement of fly ash in concrete.percentage replacement of fly ash in concrete.

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