Chapter 4Organization andRegulation of BodySystems
Points to Ponder• What is a tissue? Organ? Organ system?• What are the 4 main types of tissue?• What do these tissues look...
4.1 Types of tissues                       What is a tissue?    •     A collection of cells of the same type that         ...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports                  1. Connective tissue        •    Binds and supports parts of ...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports      3 main types of connective tissue       A. Fibrous       B. Supportive   ...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports         A. Fibrous connective tissue    •     There are two types: dense or lo...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports               What does loose fibrous connective                       tissue ...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports        B. Supportive connective tissue:                   Cartilage    •     C...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports        B. Supportive connective tissue:                     Bone    •     Cell...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports       What do bone and cartilage look like?                              Copyr...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports              C. Fluid connective tissue:                         Blood•    Mad...
4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports        C. Fluid connective tissue: Lymph    •     Matrix is a fluid called lym...
4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body                     2. Muscle tissue        •    Allows for movement in the body        •...
4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body           A. Muscle tissue - Skeletal    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Perm...
4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body           B. Muscle tissue - Smooth    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permis...
4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body           C. Muscle tissue – Cardiac  Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permiss...
4.4 Nervous tissue communicates                   3. Nervous tissue    •    Allows for communication between cells        ...
4.4 Nervous tissue communicates         A. Nervous tissue - neurons                                   Copyright © The McGr...
4.4 Nervous tissue communicates        A. Nervous tissue - neuroglia Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permissio...
4.5 Epithelial tissue protects                       4. Epithelial tissue    •      A groups of cells that form a tight, c...
4.5 Epithelial tissue protects      How do we name epithelial tissue?    •        Number of cell layers:         •     Sim...
4.5 Epithelial tissue protects           What does epithelial tissue look like?     Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies,...
4.6 Cell junction types        How are cells connected within a                    tissue?        •     Tight junctions – ...
4.6 Cell junction types                              Cell junctions                             Copyright © The McGraw-Hil...
Please note that due to differingoperating systems, some animationswill not appear until the presentation isviewed in Pres...
4.7 Integumentary system            The integumentary system:    •    Includes the skin and accessory organs such         ...
4.7 Integumentary system              What are the functions of the                integumentary system     1. Protects th...
4.7 Integumentary system        There are two regions of the skin    •    Epidermis    •    Dermis                     Cop...
4.7 Integumentary system                           The epidermis:     •     The thin, outermost layer of the skin     •   ...
4.7 Integumentary system        What you need to know about skin                   cancer?    •        2 of the 3 types th...
4.7 Integumentary system      What might skin cancer look like?                      Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies...
4.7 Integumentary system                           The dermis:   •     The thick, inner layer of the skin   •     Made of ...
4.7 Integumentary system    What are the accessory organs of the     skin and why are they important?    •    Includes nai...
4.8 Organ systems      Moving from tissue to organs and               organ systems       •    An organ is 2 or more tissu...
4.8 Organ systems       What are the organ systems of the                 human body?                                     ...
4.8 Organ systems      What are the organ systems of the                human body?           Copyright © The McGraw-Hill ...
4.8 Organ systems           What are the body cavities?                         Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc...
4.8 Organ systems        What about the body membranes             that line the cavities?    •       Mucous membranes – l...
Please note that due to differingoperating systems, some animationswill not appear until the presentation isviewed in Pres...
4.9 Homeostasis                  What is homeostasis?    •    The ability to maintain a relatively         constant intern...
4.9 Homeostasis              All systems are important in               maintaining homeostasis              Copyright © T...
4.9 Homeostasis          What are the mechanisms for           maintaining homeostasis?     •    Negative feedback     •  ...
4.9 Homeostasis                    Negative feedback                               Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, ...
Please note that due to differingoperating systems, some animationswill not appear until the presentation isviewed in Pres...
Please note that due to differingoperating systems, some animationswill not appear until the presentation isviewed in Pres...
4.9 Homeostasis       An example of negative feedback:              body temperature                  Copyright © The McGr...
4.9 Homeostasis                  Positive feedback     •    A mechanism for increasing the change of the          internal...
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04 lecture animation_ppt

  1. 1. Chapter 4Organization andRegulation of BodySystems
  2. 2. Points to Ponder• What is a tissue? Organ? Organ system?• What are the 4 main types of tissue?• What do these tissues look like, how do they function and where are they found?• What is the integumentary system?• How can you prevent skin cancer?• What is homeostasis and how is it maintained?
  3. 3. 4.1 Types of tissues What is a tissue? • A collection of cells of the same type that perform a common function • There are 4 major tissue types in the body: 1. Connective 2. Muscular 3. Nervous 4. Epithelial
  4. 4. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports 1. Connective tissue • Binds and supports parts of the body • All have specialized cells, ground substance and protein fibers • Ground substance is noncellular and ranges from solid to fluid • The ground substance and proteins fibers together make up the matrix of the tissue • There are three main types of connective tissue: A. fibrous , B. supportive and C. fluid
  5. 5. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports 3 main types of connective tissue A. Fibrous B. Supportive C. Fluid Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Types of Connective Tissue Fibrous connective tissue Supportive connective tissue Fluid connective tissue Loose Dense Cartilage Bone Blood Lymph Fibers create Fibers are Solid yet flexible Solid and rigid Contained in Contained in loose, open densely packed matrix matrix blood vessels lymphatic vessels framework
  6. 6. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports A. Fibrous connective tissue • There are two types: dense or loose, but both contain fibroblast cells with a matrix of collagen and elastic fibers • Loose fibrous tissue is found supporting epithelium and many internal organs • Adipose tissue is a special loose fibrous tissue where fat is stored
  7. 7. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports What does loose fibrous connective tissue look like? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. elastic fiber collagen fiber fibroblast Loose fibrous tissue Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.adipose cell reticular fiberstores fat branched, thin, forms networkmast cell white blood cellreleases chemicals after produces antibodiesan injury or infectionground substance elastic fiberfills spaces between cells branched and stretchableand fibers © Ed Reschkestem cell white blood celldivides to produce other engulfs pathogenstypes of cellsfibroblast collagen fiberproduces fibers and unbranched, strong but flexibleground substance
  8. 8. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports B. Supportive connective tissue: Cartilage • Cells are in chambers called lacunae • Matrix is solid but flexible • 3 types are distinguished by types of fibers 1. Hyaline cartilage – fine collagen fibers Location: Nose, ends of long bones and fetal skeleton 2. Elastic cartilage – more elastic fibers than cartilage fibers Location: Outer ear 3. Fibrocartilage – strong collagen fibers Location: Disks between vertebrae
  9. 9. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports B. Supportive connective tissue: Bone • Cells are in chambers called lacunae • Matrix is solid and rigid that is made of collagen and calcium salts • 2 types are distinguished by types of fibers 1. Compact – made of repeating circular units called osteons which contain the hard matrix and living cells and blood vessels Location: Shafts of long bone 2. Spongy – an open, latticework with irregular spaces Location: Ends of long bones
  10. 10. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports What do bone and cartilage look like? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Ed Reschke matrix cell within a lacuna Hyaline cartilage © Ed Reschke
  11. 11. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports C. Fluid connective tissue: Blood• Made of a fluid matrix Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. called plasma and cellular components white blood cells that are called formed elements• 3 formed elements: platelets 1. Red blood cells – cells red bloodcell that carry oxygen 2. White blood cells – cells that fight infection plasma 3. Platelets – pieces of cells that clot blood
  12. 12. 4.2 Connective tissue connects and supports C. Fluid connective tissue: Lymph • Matrix is a fluid called lymph • White blood cells congregate in this tissue
  13. 13. 4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body 2. Muscle tissue • Allows for movement in the body • Made of muscle fibers/cells and protein fibers called actin and myosin • There are 3 types of muscle tissue in humans: A. Skeletal B. Smooth C. Cardiac
  14. 14. 4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body A. Muscle tissue - Skeletal Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Skeletal muscle • Appearance: long, • has striated cells with multiple nuclei. cylindrical cells, multiple • occurs in muscles attached to skeleton. • functions in voluntary movement of body. nuclei, striated fibers • Location: attached to bone for movement muscle fiber • Nature: voluntary striation nucleus 250× movement a. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer
  15. 15. 4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body B. Muscle tissue - Smooth Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Smooth muscle • has spindle-shaped cells, each with a single nucleus. • Appearance: spindle- • cells have no striations. shaped cell with one • functions in movement of substances in lumens of body. nucleus, lack striations • is involuntary. • is found in blood vessel walls and walls of the digestive tract. • Location: walls of hollow organs and vessels • Nature: involuntary movement 400× smooth muscle cell nucleus b. © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Dennis Strete, photographer
  16. 16. 4.3 Muscle tissue moves the body C. Muscle tissue – Cardiac Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cardiac muscle • Appearance: branched • has branching, striated cells, each with a single nucleus. cells with a single • occurs in the wall of the heart. nucleus, striations with • functions in the pumping of blood. • is involuntary. darker striations called intercalated disks between cells Place “New” Figure 4.5c here • Location: heart The inset was removed. • Nature: involuntary 250× intercalated disk nucleus movement c. © Ed Reschke
  17. 17. 4.4 Nervous tissue communicates 3. Nervous tissue • Allows for communication between cells through sensory input, integration of data and motor output • Made of 2 major cell types: A. Neurons B. Neuroglia
  18. 18. 4.4 Nervous tissue communicates A. Nervous tissue - neurons Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. dendrite • Made of dendrites, a cell body and an axon Neuron nucleus cell body Microglia • Dendrites carry Astrocyte information toward the Oligodendrocyte cell body myelin sheath axon • Axons carry information Capillary towards a cell body dendrite nucleus cell body Micrograph of neuron © Ed Reschke
  19. 19. 4.4 Nervous tissue communicates A. Nervous tissue - neuroglia Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display dendrite • A collection of cells that support and nourish Neuron nucleus neurons cell body Microglia Astrocyte • Outnumber neurons 9:1 Oligodendrocyte • Examples are myelin sheath axon oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and Capillary microglia dendrite nucleus cell body Micrograph of neuron © Ed Reschke
  20. 20. 4.5 Epithelial tissue protects 4. Epithelial tissue • A groups of cells that form a tight, continuous network • Lines body cavities, covers body surfaces and found in glands • Cells are anchored by a basement membrane on one side and free on the other side • Named after the appearance of cell layers and the shape of the cells • There is transitional epithelium that changes in appearance in response to tension
  21. 21. 4.5 Epithelial tissue protects How do we name epithelial tissue? • Number of cell layers: • Simple: one layer of cells • Stratified: more than one layer of cells • Pseudostratified: appears to have layers but only has one layer • Shape of cell: • Cuboidal: cube-shaped • Columnar: column-shaped • Squamous: flattened
  22. 22. 4.5 Epithelial tissue protects What does epithelial tissue look like? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Simple Simple cuboidal squamous • lining of kidney • protects tubules, various glands • lining of lungs, blood vessels • absorbs molecules basement membrane basement membrane Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Ed Reschke Pseudostratified, Stratified squamous Simple columnar ciliated columnar • lining of small • lining of nose, • lining of trachea intestine, oviducts mouth, esophagus, • sweeps impurities anal canal,vagina • absorbs nutrients toward throat • protects cilia goblet cell goblet cell secretes secretes mucus mucus basement basement membrane membrane basement membrane
  23. 23. 4.6 Cell junction types How are cells connected within a tissue? • Tight junctions – proteins join and form an impermeable barrier between plasma membranes in a zipper-like fashion • Adhesion junctions – cytoskeletal fibers join between cells and have flexibility • Gap junctions – a fusion of adjacent plasma membranes with small channels between them that allow small molecules to diffuse
  24. 24. 4.6 Cell junction types Cell junctions Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. microvilli plasma membrane membranes channels tight junction plasma proteins membranesa. Tight junction c. Gap junction basement membrane plasma membranes cytoplasmic plaque intercellular filaments cytoskeletal fibersb. Adhesion junction
  25. 25. Please note that due to differingoperating systems, some animationswill not appear until the presentation isviewed in Presentation Mode (SlideShow view). You may see blank slidesin the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views.All animations will appear after viewingin Presentation Mode and playing eachanimation. Most animations will requirethe latest version of the Flash Player,which is available athttp://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  26. 26. 4.7 Integumentary system The integumentary system: • Includes the skin and accessory organs such as hair, nails and glands • The skin has two main regions called the epidermis and the dermis • Under the skin there is a subcutaneous layer between the dermis and internal structures where fat is stored • Is important for maintaining homeostasis
  27. 27. 4.7 Integumentary system What are the functions of the integumentary system 1. Protects the body from physical trauma, invasion by pathogens and water loss 2. Helps regulate body temperature 3. Allows us to be aware of our surroundings through sensory receptors 4. Synthesizes chemicals such as melanin and vitamin D
  28. 28. 4.7 Integumentary system There are two regions of the skin • Epidermis • Dermis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. hair shaft sweat pore Epidermis stem cells sensory receptor capillaries oil gland Dermis arrector pili muscle free nerve endings hair follicle hair root sweat gland artery Subcutaneous layer vein nerve adipose tissue
  29. 29. 4.7 Integumentary system The epidermis: • The thin, outermost layer of the skin • Made of epithelial tissue • Cells in the uppermost cells are dead and become filled with keratin thus acting as a waterproof barrier • Langerhans cells are a type of white blood cell that help fight pathogens • Melanocytes produce melanin that lend to skin color and protection for UV light • Some cells convert cholesterol to vitamin D
  30. 30. 4.7 Integumentary system What you need to know about skin cancer? • 2 of the 3 types that arise in the epidermis: • Basal cell carcinoma is the most common yet least deadly form of skin cancer • Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer but is the least common • What can you do to help prevent this? • Stay out of the sun between 10am-3pm • Wear protective clothing (tight weave, treated sunglasses, wide-brimmed hat) • Use sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15 and protects from UV-A and UV-B rays • Don’t use tanning beds
  31. 31. 4.7 Integumentary system What might skin cancer look like? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. flattened and dead cells Epidermis cells undergoing b. Basal cell keratinization carcinoma stem cells and melanoytes Dermis dermal projection a. Light micrograph of skin c. Melanoma a: © John D. Cunningham/Visuals Unlimited; b: © Ken Greer/Visuals Unlimited; c: © James Stevenson/SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  32. 32. 4.7 Integumentary system The dermis: • The thick, inner layer of the skin • Made of dense fibrous connective tissue • Contains elastic and collagen fibers • Contains blood vessels, many sensory receptors and glands
  33. 33. 4.7 Integumentary system What are the accessory organs of the skin and why are they important? • Includes nails, hair and glands • Nails are derived from the epidermis that offer a protective covering • Hair follicles are derived from the dermis but hair grows from epidermal cells • Oil glands are associated with hair and produce sebum that lubricates hair and skin as well as retards bacterial growth • Sweat glands are derived from the dermis and helps to regulate body temperature
  34. 34. 4.8 Organ systems Moving from tissue to organs and organ systems • An organ is 2 or more tissue types working towards a particular function • An organ system is a combination of organs that work together to carry out a particular function
  35. 35. 4.8 Organ systems What are the organ systems of the human body? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Integumentary Cardiovascular Lymphatic and Digestive system Respiratory system Urinary system system system immune systems • ingests food. • maintains breathing. • excretes metabolic • protects body. • transports blood, • helps control fluid • digests food. • exchanges gases at wastes. • receives sensory nutrients, gases, balance. • absorbs nutrients. lungs and tissues. • helps control fluid input. and wastes. • absorbs fats. • eliminates waste. • helps control pH balance. • helps control • defends against • defends against balance. • helps control pH temperature. disease. infectious disease. balance. • synthesizes vitamin D. • helps control temperature, fluid, and pH balance.
  36. 36. 4.8 Organ systems What are the organ systems of the human body? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Skeletal system Muscular system Nervous system Endocrine system Reproductive system • supports the body. • maintains posture. • receives sensory input. • produces hormones. • produces gametes. • protects body parts. • moves body and • integrates and stores • helps coordinate organ • transports gametes. • helps move the body. internal organs. input. systems. • produces sex hormones. • stores minerals. • produces heat. • initiates motor output. • responds to stress. • nurtures and gives birth • produces blood • helps coordinate • helps regulate fluid and to offspring in females. cells. organ systems. pH balance. • helps regulate metabolism.
  37. 37. 4.8 Organ systems What are the body cavities? Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cranial cavity: contains brain Dorsal cavity Vertebral cavity: contains Thoracic spinal cord cavity: contains heart, lungs, and esophagus diaphragm Abdominal cavity: Ventral contains stomach, cavity liver, spleen, pancreas, gallbladder, and intestines Pelvic cavity: contains reproductive and other organs a. plurae Thoracic cavity: contains esophagus, pericardium heart, and lungs Abdominal cavity: peritoneum contains digestive and other organs Pelvic cavity: contains reproductive and other organs b.
  38. 38. 4.8 Organ systems What about the body membranes that line the cavities? • Mucous membranes – lining of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems • Serous membranes – line lungs, heart, abdominal cavity and covers the internal organs; named after their location • Pleura: lungs • Peritoneum: abdominal cavity and organs • Pericardium: heart • Synovial membranes – lines the cavities of freely movable joints • Meninges – cover the brain and spinal cord
  39. 39. Please note that due to differingoperating systems, some animationswill not appear until the presentation isviewed in Presentation Mode (SlideShow view). You may see blank slidesin the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views.All animations will appear after viewingin Presentation Mode and playing eachanimation. Most animations will requirethe latest version of the Flash Player,which is available athttp://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  40. 40. 4.9 Homeostasis What is homeostasis? • The ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment in the body • The nervous and endocrine systems are key in maintaining homeostasis • Changes from the normal tolerance limits results in illness or even death
  41. 41. 4.9 Homeostasis All systems are important in maintaining homeostasis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Endocrine System All systems of the body contribute to Endocrine glands secrete hormones, which maintain homeostasis. These systems also regulate and coordinate the activities of in particular are especially noteworthy. other systems. Works more slowly than the nervous system. Nervous System Regulates and coordinates the activities of all Respiratory System the other systems. It responds quickly to internal and external stimuli. Supplies blood with oxygen for tissue cells and rids blood of carbon dioxide. Helps regulate the acid-base balance of the blood. Cardiovascular System Urinary System Transports oxygen and nutrients to tissue Excretes nitrogenous and other wastes. cells and transports wastes away from cells. Regulates water-salt balance of the blood. Also transports hormones secreted by the Helps regulate the acid-base balance of the endocrine glands. blood. Digestive System Lymphatic System Supplies blood with nutrients and water for Helps maintain blood volume by collecting tissue cells. Rids the body of nondigestible excess tissue fluid and returning it via remains. lymphatic vessels to the cardiovascular veins. Defends against disease. Muscular System Integumentary System Produces heat that maintains body Helps maintain body temperature and protects temperature. Protects and supports internal internal organs. organs.
  42. 42. 4.9 Homeostasis What are the mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis? • Negative feedback • Positive feedback
  43. 43. 4.9 Homeostasis Negative feedback Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.• The primary mechanism Control center for maintaining homeostasis sends data to control center directs response to stimulus Sensor Effect• Has two components: • sensor • control center negative feedback and return to normal stimulus• The output of the system too m dampens the original uch Homeostasis too li ttle stimulus
  44. 44. Please note that due to differingoperating systems, some animationswill not appear until the presentation isviewed in Presentation Mode (SlideShow view). You may see blank slidesin the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views.All animations will appear after viewingin Presentation Mode and playing eachanimation. Most animations will requirethe latest version of the Flash Player,which is available athttp://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  45. 45. Please note that due to differingoperating systems, some animationswill not appear until the presentation isviewed in Presentation Mode (SlideShow view). You may see blank slidesin the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views.All animations will appear after viewingin Presentation Mode and playing eachanimation. Most animations will requirethe latest version of the Flash Player,which is available athttp://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
  46. 46. 4.9 Homeostasis An example of negative feedback: body temperature Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Control center sends data to directs response 98.6°F set point control center to stimulus Sensor Effect Blood vessels dilate; sweat glands secrete. negative feedback stimulus and return to normal temperature abov e norm al Normal body temperature below no rmal negative feedback stimulus and return to normal Effect Sensor Blood vessels constrict; sweat glands are inactive; shivering may occur. Control center directs response to stimulus sends data to control center 98.6°F set point
  47. 47. 4.9 Homeostasis Positive feedback • A mechanism for increasing the change of the internal environment in one direction • An example is the secretion of oxytocin during birth to continually increase uterine contractions • Can be harmful such as when a fever is too high and continues to rise
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