introduction to endodontics

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introduction to endodontics

  1. 1. Endodontics
  2. 2.  The portion of the pulp cavity inside the root of the tooth; the  chamber within the root of the tooth that contains the pulp; the passage which transmits vessels and nerves through the jaw to branches that distributes them to the teeth. ROOT CANAL
  3. 3.  The tip or end of the root of the tooth Root APEX
  4. 4.  The area surrounding the end of a tooth root. Periapical area
  5. 5.  Lay terms: pus.  Definition: A material usually resulting from infection and inflammation. EXUDATE
  6. 6.  Lay terms: gum boil  Definition: A drainage spot in the gums. It is a sign that infectious pus is draining into the mouth. Very often people have fistulae with no symptoms at all; however, the cause of this drainage must be addressed. Fistula
  7. 7.  It is the treatment of disease and injuries of the pulp. Root canal treatment is carried out when the pulp (or nerve) inside the tooth is damaged or becomes infected. If infected pulp is not treated, it may become an abscess. ROOT CANAL THERAPY
  8. 8. Endodontic file An instrument used in the débridement of root canals.
  9. 9.  A surgical root canal treatment used to seal the tip of a root when conventional root canal treatment has failed or is contraindicated. It is usually a very straightforward treatment with quick recovery. Apicoectomy
  10. 10.  A surgical procedure whereby the roots of a tooth are separated and treated as individual teeth. Used when maintaining the tooth intact is impossible because of gum disease. Hemisection
  11. 11.  Describes a tooth with extreme inflammation of the nerve, and often hard to numb with the usual techniques. Hot Tooth
  12. 12. Periodontics
  13. 13.  Alternate term: Gingival pocket; gingival crevice  Definition: A shallow depression between the gingival crest and the neck of the tooth.  Usage: In a healthy state, the gingival sulcus may be up to 2 mm in depth, but this deepens in periodontal disease to form a periodontal pocket. Gingival Sulcus
  14. 14.  Alternate term: Periodontal membrane  Definition: Fibrous connective tissue that attaches the cementum of the tooth root to the alveolar bone of the jaw.  Usage: The periodontal ligament feels and sends pressure information to the brain, which is used to coordinate chewing. Periodontal Ligament
  15. 15.  A soft sticky substance that accumulates on teeth composed largely of bacteria and bacterial derivatives. PLAQUE
  16. 16.  Lay term: Tartar  Definition: Hard deposit of mineralized plaque which is attached to crowns and/or roots of teeth.  Usage: Supragingival calculus accumulates most easily on the lingual surface of the lower anterior teeth.  CALCULUS
  17. 17.  Definition: Plaque above the gum line.  Usage: In studies of supragingival plaque removal, the manual toothbrush is considered the gold standard against which new technologies are compared. Supragingival Plaque
  18. 18.  Definition: Plaque below the gum line.  Usage: Subgingival plaque removal is essential for controlling inflammatory periodontal disease. Subgingival Plaque
  19. 19.  It is the first stage of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gum tissue without any bone loss. The clinical signs are swelling and bleeding upon stimulation. Gingivitis is the result of chronic infection caused by plaque bacteria. Gingivitis is the first stage of your body's literally trying to reject your teeth, and requires immediate treatment if it is not to progress into more destructive forms of gum disease. Gingivitis
  20. 20.  Lay term: Periodontal disease.  Definition: Infection and inflammation of the gingival  tissues and/or periodontal membrane of the teeth, possibly producing periodontal pockets and loss of supporting bone. PERIODONTITIS
  21. 21.  Lay term: Receding gums  Definition: Describes the gingival margin if it migrates towards the apex of the tooth and can be measured as the distance between the cemento-enamel junction and the gingival margin.  Usage: One cause of gingival recession is brushing too hard or incorrectly over a period of time. Gingival Recession
  22. 22.  A feature of periodontal disease where the connecting tissue has lost its attachment leaving an abnormally deep “pocket” where bacteria and debris collect and threaten the whole tooth attachment (periodontium) resulting in loosening and tooth loss. Periodontal pocket
  23. 23.  Definition: The process of measuring the depth of periodontal pockets using a blunt-ended graduated probe.  Usage: Periodontal probing is an essential tool for diagnosing gingival disease. Probing
  24. 24.  Lay term: scaling, dental prophylaxis  Definition: Removal of subgingival and/or supragingival plaque and calculus from teeth with special instruments. DEBRIDEMENT
  25. 25.  A treatment of periodontal disease that involves scraping the roots of a tooth to remove bacteria and tartar and diseased cementum or dentin on the tooth surfaces and in the pocket of teeth with loss of attachment surrounding structure. ROOT PLANING
  26. 26.  The reshaping of gum contours, often for esthetic purposes. Generally very easy and non-painful, is often a good solution for a "gummy smile". Performed with a device very similar to a laser in function. Gingivoplasty
  27. 27.  The removal of excess or extra gum tissue to improve cleansibility and health. Often necessary to treat gum overgrowth caused by a variety of medications, including Dilantin. Chronic mouth breathing can also cause gum hypertrophy. Gingivectomy
  28. 28.  Surgical replacement of bone around tooth roots or in preparation for a dental implant. The predictability is generally good, but varies according to the particulars, and should be carefully discussed with your doctors. Bone Graft

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