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Assigment pdp Assigment pdp Document Transcript

  • INTRODUCTION Physiotherapy is a healthcare profession that works with people to identify and maximise their ability to move and function. Functional movement is a key part of what it means to be healthy. This means that physiotherapy plays a key role in enabling people to improve their health, wellbeing and quality of life. Physiotherapists use their professional knowledge and practical skills, together with thinking skills and skills for interaction in their day-to-day practice. This combination of knowledge and skills means that practitioners can work in partnership with the individual and other people involved with that person. Physiotherapists recognise that physical, psychological, social and environmental factors can limit movement and function. They use their knowledge and skills to identify what is limiting an individual's movement and performance, and to help individuals decide how to address their needs. Physiotherapy's values means that practice is person-centred, ethical and effective. The evidence-base underpinning physiotherapy is constantly evolving as practitioners develop new knowledge and understanding through critical reflection, evaluation and research. This evolving evidence base supports the use and development of physiotherapy's scope of practice. The royal charter gives physiotherapy a broad scope of practice that includes manual therapy, exercise and movement, electrotherapy and other physical approaches. Physiotherapy is an autonomous profession. This means that physiotherapists can accept referrals for assessment from a range of sources: from an individual themselves or from other people involved with that individual. Physiotherapy can offer a range of interventions, services and advice to improve individuals' health and wellbeing. Physiotherapy works to maximise an individual's movement capability at three different levels. It can help maintain and improve the body's movement and function by offering treatment when someone is acutely ill in hospital. It can also improve someone's function and independence (at home, at work) by offering rehabilitation and advice. It can also enhance their performance and participation by offering advice and by challenging the environmental or social barriers that limit participation. ICAN COLLEGE Page 2 of 10
  • Physiotherapy's strong clinical leadership and adaptable workforce means that it can deliver high quality innovative services that are accessible, effective and efficient. Physiotherapy maintains strong links between clinical and academic settings. This means that the profession responds to developments in practice, education or research, and actively ensures its workforce continues to be fit for purpose. Physiotherapy plays an important role to rehabilitation the lost function of patient and optimises patient function and well-being, to help integrate that patient back into their chosen lifestyle activities whether at home, work or leisure. Rehabilitation should focus on changes to functional disability and lifestyle restrictions based on the patient’s own goals for functional improvement. Rehabilitation can be used for recovery from injury or disease and also for the management of long-term conditions. Rehabilitation should start as soon as possible to speed recovery. The programs that combine many different components are likely to be most effective.19 minutes of additional exercise a day in an acute or rehabilitation setting is all that is required to achieve to improved mobility and activity levels, shorter length of stay in hospital and significantly improved quality of life back to normal. Physiotherapy assessment, it is important to carry out a proper and thorough examination. A correct diagnosis depends upon knowledge of functional anatomy, an accurate patient history, diligent observation and a thorough examination. The purpose of the assessment is to fully and clearly understand the patient's problems and the physical basis for the symptoms that cause the patient to complain. Initially, the physiotherapist will conduct a subjective examination where by information regarding the mechanism of injury is obtained. Any history of previous injuries or conditions, the patient's occupation or hobbies that may aggravate or be affected by the condition is also obtained. Questions will be asked to determine the type and character of pain, and an effort will be made to quantify this pain. You will be asked to rate this pain on a scale from 0 to 10, 0 being no pain, and 10 being so severe that you would seek out an emergency room. This is a validated scale that provides outcome data unique to your condition and can be used as a measure to determine quantitatively if your pain is getting better or worse. The subjective examination is guided by the presenting system and complaint. ICAN COLLEGE Page 3 of 10
  • The objective assessment is guided by the history and the findings of the subjective exam. In an orthopaedic assessment the physiotherapist will observe posture, patterns of movement, any swelling, deformity, or asymmetry. Highly developed skills of palpation will identify creditors, areas of heat, tenderness, or palpable deformity. The objective examination will use quantifiable measures to establish base line measurements to monitor progress establish a diagnosis and guide treatment intervention. Tests will be used to determine the type of tissues involved, hypothesize a pathologic process, and guide the selection of exercise. Therapists will use their clinical judgment with consideration of severity, irritability, acuity, and patient's medical history when selecting tests. Often the outcome of one test will be a crucial factor in the selection of additional assessment tools. Through the use of all the assessment tools at our disposal, our physiotherapists can paint an accurate picture of the patient's status and monitor progress and treatment planning. ICAN COLLEGE Page 4 of 10
  • Role of a Physical Therapist Physical therapists (pts) are health care professionals who diagnose and treat individuals of all ages, from newborns to the very oldest, which have medical problems or other healthrelated conditions that limit their abilities to move and perform functional activities in their daily lives. Pts examine each individual and develop a plan using treatment techniques to promote the ability to move, reduce pain, restore function, and prevent disability. In addition, pts work with individuals to prevent the loss of mobility before it occurs by developing fitness- and wellness-oriented programs for healthier and more active lifestyles. Physical therapists provide care for people in a variety of settings, including hospitals, private practices, outpatient clinics, home health agencies, schools, sports and fitness facilities, work settings, and nursing homes. State licensure is required in each state in which a physical therapist practices. The Physical Therapy Profession Physical therapy is a dynamic profession with an established theoretical and scientific base and widespread clinical applications in the restoration, maintenance, and promotion of optimal physical function. For more than 750,000 people every day in the United States, physical therapists: Diagnose and manage movement dysfunction and enhance physical and functional abilities. Restore, maintain, and promote not only optimal physical function but optimal wellness and fitness and optimal quality of life as it relates to movement and health. Prevent the onset, symptoms, and progression of impairments, functional limitations, and disabilities that may result from diseases, disorders, conditions, or injuries. The terms "physical therapy" and "physiotherapy," and the terms "physical therapist" and "physiotherapist," are synonymous. As essential participants in the health care delivery system, physical therapists assume leadership roles in rehabilitation; in prevention, health maintenance, and programs that promote health, wellness, and fitness; and in professional and community organizations. Physical therapists also play important roles both in developing standards for physical therapist practice and in developing health care policy to ensure availability, accessibility, and optimal delivery of health care services. Physical therapy is covered by federal, state, and private insurance plans. Physical therapists' services have a positive impact on health-related quality of life. As clinicians, physical therapists engage in an examination process that includes: Taking the patient/client history, Conducting a systems review, and Performing tests and measures to identify potential and existing problems. ICAN COLLEGE Page 5 of 10
  • To establish diagnoses, prognoses, and plans of care, physical therapists perform evaluations, synthesizing the examination data and determining whether the problems to be addressed are within the scope of physical therapist practice. Based on their judgments about diagnoses and prognoses and based on patient/client goals, physical therapists: Provide interventions (the interactions and procedures used in managing and instructing patients/clients), Conduct re-examinations, Modify interventions as necessary to achieve anticipated goals and expected outcomes, and Develop and implement discharge plans. Physical therapy can be provided only by qualified physical therapists (pts) or by physical therapist assistants (pts) working under the supervision of a physical therapist. Physiotherapy is practised by professionals that are concerned with improving a person’s mobility and subsequently their quality of life. These professionals are tertiary-qualified and highly trained. Physiotherapy is widely accessible with physiotherapists available in private practices, sports facilities, hospitals, schools, workplaces, aged care facilities and more. Techniques Employed Physiotherapy is a drug-free therapy and some techniques that are employed include: Joint mobilisation and manipulation Exercise and stretches Soft tissue massage The use of electro physical agents such as ice, heat packs and ultrasound Breathing exercises and techniques Conditions Treated by a Physiotherapist Physiotherapy is available to people of all ages – from infants to the elderly – and is an important tool in the management of some conditions. Conditions that can be treated include: Back and neck pain Muscular pain and sports injuries Neurological disorders such as stroke or Parkinson’s Disease Rehabilitation after major accidents or injuries occur Headaches Incontinence Recovery after surgery or childbirth The management and prevention of chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ICAN COLLEGE Page 6 of 10
  • The Benefits of Structural Therapies All structural therapies aim to improve the way that the body moves, so that movement becomes easier, posture is improved, and pain is minimised or eradicated all together. The actual structure or framework of the body is being worked upon. As well as working on the body, structural therapies also work on the mind, as they understand that the body and the mind work together. Undergoing treatment with a structural therapy is beneficial as movement, balance and coordination are all improved. In fact, the key benefit of a structural therapy is the regaining of the freedom of movement. Movement may have been previously restricted due to stress, tension in the body, injuries, illnesses, or incorrect body posture or movement. Structural therapies aim to track down the source of restriction or pain and eliminate it. Level of health care Primary health care  District hospitals, Health Clinics  Health Centers, Private Clinics  Rehab. Centre, Day Care Centre  Residential Home, Home Visit  School Visit  Health clinic Secondary health care  E.g. Hospitals Tertiary health care  E.g. Referral hospitals such as HUKM, Selayang Hospital ICAN COLLEGE Page 7 of 10
  • Settings in which physiotherapists work Secondary & tertiary health care - State & referral hospitals Primary health care - District hospitals - Private practices - Health clinics & centre’s - Education & research centre’s - Hopices - Community settings – home, school - Nursing / residential homes - - Sport institutions - Rehab.centres - Day care centre Industries International classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps (ICIDH) Impairment – Loss / abnormality of psychological, physiological or Anatomical function (decrease range of motion of knee) Disability - Restriction or lack ( resulting from impairment )of ability to Perform an activity in the manner or within the range Considered normal for a human being ( unable to squat ) Handicap - Disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from Impairment / disability that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal for that individual (knee Stiffness contracture) ICAN COLLEGE Page 8 of 10
  • Therapy and rehabilitation services 1. Cognitive-Perceptual Training Cognitive assessment activities to improve memory, attention span and perceptual problems. 2. Home Visits Evaluation and Modification Visitation to the home to ensure safety and comfort. Offer advice on modification when indicated. Work place visit to ensure accessibility and safety. 3. School Visit Discussion with school authority for any modification necessary. Reintegration to community by visit to public places 4. Self Care Training and Retraining Activities to improve grooming, hygiene, bathing, dressing and eating skills. Activities to improve on work and home skills for example cooking, gardening and others. 5. Joint Protection Technique and Energy Conservation Education Program Discuss and teach technique/principles to help persons with Arthritis to cope with the demands of daily activities. 6. Hands/Upper Limbs Retraining Program Active or assisted therapeutic activities to improve hand and upper limbs task performance ICAN COLLEGE Page 9 of 10
  • Definition of team work  Team:  A group of people (health care team) who perform a particular job (rehabilitation) together.  Team mate:  The other members of your health care team(i.e. other rehab. team members)  Team spirit:  Attitude / feeling of liveliness, energy, determination, pride and loyalty that exists among the rehab. Team members and make them want their team to do well or to be the best.  Team work:  Ability of rehab team to work well together. Definition of networking  Defined as:  Opportunity to form possibly advantageous associations with other people  Importance of networking:  Usually people meet through industry events & practice  Being a Malaysian Physiotherapy Association (MPA) member have one shared interest ‘physiotherapy‘  Easier to talk with an industry contact when we have the same start point and are talking about common interests  Fundamentally most people are happy to help out others ICAN COLLEGE Page 10 of 10