STH 3023 CONSERVATION
PLAN FOR MALAYAN SUN
BEAR (Helarctos malayanus)
NURUL ISLAM ROSMERA (35174)
INTAN NADZIRAH KHAIRUL (39774)
FATIN HASANAH MUHD FIRDAUS INDRAN (30186)
WAN MOHD AMIR WAN M. ZAHARUDDIN (28601)
MUHAMMAD AZRI BAHARUDDIN (31364)
ILAVANAN A/L SUBRAMNIAM (30417)
sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is
the smallest bear species in the world and
one of the least studied.
inhibit the tropical forest of South East
Asia, ranging from the eastern tip of India,
through Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia,
Vietnam, Malaysia and the islands of Sumatra
of information on
Malayan Sun Bear
especially in Malaysia.
awareness of the
Malayan Sun Bear.
habitat for the
Malayan Sun Bear
critical habitat for Malayan Sun
Ensure and improve understanding of
nature, distribution and the disturbance
from human activities.
Develop effective conservation and
Raise awareness of Malayan Sun Bear and
their conservation needs from the publics.
IUCN Red List Category & Criteria :Vulnerable
Distribution : Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Peninsula
Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo in Asia, Indonesia, Eastern India, South China,
Tropical and lowland Forest, Bangladesh, Brunei, Myanmar, Singapore
Sun bear distribution map for Malaysia and Indonesia
Habitat : Dense tropical, subtropical forest,
Diet : Omnivorous – small vertebrates,
insects, saps, honey, fruits, grubs,
shoots and others.
Physical characteristics :
The smallest of the world’s eight
The shortest and sleekest coat
Color-black to grey
Length : ~4 and half feet ( 1.2 m)
Weight : < 100 pounds ( 30-60kg)
A very long, slender tongue (8-10 inches)
Has large paws with naked soles and sickle-shape
The short-haired, deep black or brown-black fur on
the chest by a pale orange-yellow horseshoeshaped marking. (rising sun)
- does not hibernate
- an adept climber
- resting or sunbathing during the
and growth :
-gestation is usually 96 days.
- can reproduce year-round
- gestation period of 96 days
- sexual maturity after 3-4 years
- can produce 1-2 cubs per year
- may live up to 30 years in
Predators: the humans are the
Population Trend (IUCN) Redlist
- reliable estimates are
- only 600-1000 left in Burma,
Thailand, Sumatra and Malaysia
vegetation and tropical forests,
including tropical evergreen rainforest,
montane forest and swamp habitat.
Two major threats such as habitat loss, and commercial
Mainly threatened by the loss of forest habitat and forest
habitat and forest degradation arising from: clear-cutting
for plantation development, unsustainable logging
practices (Augeri 2005, Meijaard et al. 2005, Tumbelaka &
Fredriksson 2006, Wong 2006), illegal logging both within
and outside protected areas (Fuller et al. 2004), and
forest fires (Fredriksson et al. 2006b).
Commercial poaching of bears for the wildlife trade is a
considerable threat in most countries (Meijaard, 1999),
and is the main threat where deforestation is currently
negligible ( for example in Thailand where nearly all
remaining forest is within protected areas; Vinitporsawan
et al. 2006).
In Myanmar, Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam,
sun bears are commonly poached for their gall bladder
and bear paws; the former is used as a traditional
The island of Borneo, the location of the reported threats to sun bear survival and sun
bear distribution (Meijaard in Press) 1994-97. the cross hatched areas indicate officially
protected areas of Borneo (from world conservation monitoring Centre and author’s data)
no data on sun bear presence are available for Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei
bears is illegal in all range countries because
to preventing damage to crops (Fredriksson 2005),
subsistence use, fear of bears near villages and
capture of cubs for pets (the mother being killed in
An oasis amidst a concrete jungle which animal enclosures are
Opened to public in 1963
400 species of Malaysian and exotic mammals, reptiles and
Malaysia most endangered species have found a home in Zoo
Tiger (Panthera tigris)
The Sumatran Rhino
Storm Stork (Ciconia stormi)
Gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii)
Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus)
8 sun bears are available
on East Coast of
Orangutan Reintroduction Program that
established 6 Orangutan Islands covering
The Sun Bear Sanctuary covers a total area
of 58 ha
Is home to 52 sun bears - confiscated from
the illegal pet trade or rescued from
deforested areas from all over Indonesia
For the conservation plan whether the in-situ or ex-situ
Management of a protected area should be in accordance
with the objectives set for it.
Target viable population should be identified.
Diversity of the target species and the status of the species
should also be identified.
The target species should be determined and also the
naturalness of the target species.
The area of the human interference, their habitat and the
threat of the human interference of the target species.
Killing of sun bears – strictly
prohibited under national wildlife
protection laws throughout their
Protection of remaining forest
from conversion to other land-uses
Eliminating unsustainable logging
Establishment of new and
effectively management of captive
and rehabilitation programmes
Captive breeding management
The Perth zoo is making homes at
the zoo for them.
The Aza has a species survival
plan for sun bears.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE
CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Conduct a distribution mapping and status survey: a
nationwide distribution survey on the presence absence of
sun bear in remaining forest patches. The survey should
also identify :
a) important habitat blocks for the long term survival of sun
bear and their identification as Sun Bear Conservation Units
b) conservation status in each SBCU;
c) population and density estimates in each SBCU; and
d) conservation activities in each SBCU.
Conduct a survey on trade of bear parts and captive sun
collaborate with NGOs (e.g., TRAFFIC-Southeast Asia) to
conduct a nationwide survey on trade of sun bears and its
body parts, consumption, and identify the status of captive
sun bears in the country.
conduct ecological research in various habitats types
(including logged forest) on life history, reproductive biology,
population genetics, and the identification of resources
critical to the sun bear’s survival.
Improve logging practices and safeguard remaining
promote environmentally friendly logging practices such as
reduced impact logging (RIL),
protect keystone resources in sun bear habitat (e.g., mature
fig trees, oak tree patches, and trees with cavities) from
logging. The most ideal situation would be to halt logging
activities and conversion of the tropical into plantation.
promote sun bear conservation awareness to the general
public and student,
and promote the legal status of the sun bear to local people
who utilize bears, through the development of presentation,
posters, brochures and websites.
Strengthen law enforcement:
increase penalties for offenders and poachers who commit
Increase the frequency of patrolling by qualified and wellarmed law enforcement personnel in protected areas and
popular hunting grounds.
According to this survey we were identified 4 factors
affecting the survival of sun bear such as : hunting,
trade in bears and bear parts, habitat destruction,
establishment of plantations (land conversion).
Due to neglect and ignorance, the sun bear is facing a
threat of extinction.
However, the international agencies, governments and
conservationists are trying their best to protect the sun
bear. As a result, one may hope that the population of
this rare species would increase significantly in future.