International Islamic UniversityIslamabadProject work of Translation StudiesSubmitted to: Dr. Nighat shakoorSubmitted by: Ayesha SulaimanAfsheen AkramMufeeza RaufMehreen ShahzadiClass: M.A (section A)Dated: 28th, May 2013
Translation Studies:Translation studies is an interdisciplinary subject; containing elements of social science and thehumanities, dealing with the systematic study of the theory, the description and the application oftranslation, interpreting, or both.Translation typically has been used to transfer written or spoken SL texts to equivalent written orspoken TL texts. In general, the purpose of translation is to reproduce various kinds of texts—including religious, scientific, philosophical, and in this study, literary texts—in anotherlanguage and thus making them available to wider readers.If language were just a classification for a set of general or universal concepts, it would be easyto translate from an SL to a TL; furthermore, under the circumstances the process of learning anL2 would be much easier than it actually is. In this regard, Culler (1976) believes that languagesare not nomenclatures and the concepts of one language may differ radically from those ofanother, since each language articulates or organizes the world differently, and languages do notsimply name categories; they articulate their own. The conclusion likely to be drawn from whatCuller (1976) writes is that one of the troublesome problems of translation is the disparity amonglanguages. The bigger the gap between the SL and the TL, the more difficult the transfer ofmessage from the former to the latter will be.This study is going to concentrate mainly on the problematic factors involved in translationexisting in the Urdu translations of The old man and the sea and to correlate these factors withthe translation procedures proposed by Roman Jacobson and Vinay and Darbelnet.Historically, translation studies has long been normative (telling translators how to translate), tothe point that discussions of translation that were not normative were generally not considered tobe about translation at all. When historians of translation studies have traced early thinking abouttranslation, for example, they have most often set the beginning with Ciceros remarks on how heused translation from Greek to Latin to improve his oratorical abilities as an early description ofwhat Jerome ended up calling sense-for-sense translation. The descriptive history of interpretersin Egypt provided by Herodotus several centuries earlier is typically not thought of as"translation studies" presumably because it doesnt tell translators how to translate.
As an interdisciplinary, translation studies borrows much from the different fields of study thatsupport translation. These include comparative literature, computerscience, history, linguistics,philology, philosophy, semiotics, terminology, and so forth.Occasionally in English, writers will use the term translatology to refer to translation studies.However, the term translation studies have become implanted in English, whereas in French, itis la traductologie that is used.StatementTo identify whether the translator (Ibn e Saleem) has followed the theories of translationproposed by Vinay and Darbelnet and Roman Jakobson in his work while translating The OldMan And the Sea .Text selected:Source Text: (Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway)Target Text: (Old Man and the Sea Translated By Ibn e Saleem)Target text is the text of the translated document and the target language is the languageinto which the source text is to be translated.Source text is the text that is to be translated and the source language is the languagefrom which the source text is to be translatedSUMMARY OF THE TEXT:The Old Man and the Sea is the story of an epic struggle between an old, seasoned fisherman andthe greatest catch of his life. For eighty-four days, Santiago, an aged Cuban fisherman, has setout to sea and returned empty-handed. So conspicuously unlucky is he that the parents of hisyoung, devoted apprentice and friend, Manolin, have forced the boy to leave the old man in orderto fish in a more prosperous boat. Nevertheless, the boy continues to care for the old man uponhis return each night. He helps the old man tote his gear to his ramshackle hut, secures food forhim, and discusses the latest developments in American baseball, especially the trials of the oldman‘s hero, Joe DiMaggio. Santiago is confident that his unproductive streak will soon come toan end, and he resolves to sail out farther than usual the following day.
On the eighty-fifth day of his unlucky streak, Santiago does as promised, sailing his skiff farbeyond the island‘s shallow coastal waters and venturing into the Gulf Stream. He prepares hislines and drops them. At noon, a big fish, which he knows is a marlin, takes the bait thatSantiago has placed one hundred fathoms deep in the waters. The old man expertly hooks thefish, but he cannot pull it in. Instead, the fish begins to pull the boat.Unable to tie the line fast to the boat for fear the fish would snap a taut line, the old man bearsthe strain of the line with his shoulders, back, and hands, ready to give slack should the marlinmake a run. The fish pulls the boat all through the day, through the night, through another day,and through another night. It swims steadily northwest until at last it tires and swims east withthe current. The entire time, Santiago endures constant pain from the fishing line. Whenever thefish lunges, leaps, or makes a dash for freedom, the cord cuts Santiago badly. Although woundedand weary, the old man feels a deep empathy and admiration for the marlin, his brother insuffering, strength, and resolve.On the third day the fish tires, and Santiago, sleep-deprived, aching, and nearly delirious,manages to pull the marlin in close enough to kill it with a harpoon thrust. Dead beside the skiff,the marlin is the largest Santiago has ever seen. He lashes it to his boat, raises the small mast,and sets sail for home. While Santiago is excited by the price that the marlin will bring at market,he is more concerned that the people who will eat the fish are unworthy of its greatness.As Santiago sails on with the fish, the marlin‘s blood leaves a trail in the water and attractssharks. The first to attack is a great mako shark, which Santiago manages to slay with theharpoon. In the struggle, the old man loses the harpoon and lengths of valuable rope, whichleaves him vulnerable to other shark attacks. The old man fights off the successive viciouspredators as best he can, stabbing at them with a crude spear he makes by lashing a knife to anoar, and even clubbing them with the boat‘s tiller. Although he kills several sharks, more andmore appear, and by the time night falls, Santiago‘s continued fight against the scavengers isuseless. They devour the marlin‘s precious meat, leaving only skeleton, head, and tail. Santiagochastises himself for going ―out too far,‖ and for sacrificing his great and worthy opponent. Hearrives home before daybreak, stumbles back to his shack, and sleeps very deeply.The next morning, a crowd of amazed fishermen gathers around the skeletal carcass of the fish,which is still lashed to the boat. Knowing nothing of the old man‘s struggle, tourists at a nearby
café observe the remains of the giant marlin and mistake it for a shark. Manolin, who has beenworried sick over the old man‘s absence, is moved to tears when he finds Santiago safe in hisbed. The boy fetches the old man some coffee and the daily papers with the baseball scores, andwatches him sleep. When the old man wakes, the two agree to fish as partners once more. Theold man returns to sleep and dreams his usual dream of lions at play on the beaches of Africa.About the Target Text:The Old Man and the Sea is translated by Ibn e Saleem with the book name Borha AurSamandar. This book was published in 2012 by Fiction House Publisher in Lahore.Role of Translator:The need for professional translators is growing rapidly. Every multinational company andorganization uses translation services, and many companies now have translators on staff. Therole of Translator is always a subject of contradiction and complication. A translator has toperform a herculean task; he has to be competent in two languages. A translator occupies centralposition between source text and target text, this role makes him a mediator; he is not onlymediating between two languages but also mediating between two cultures. Mediation is asensitive activity and a complex issue, which translator performs. He tries to overcome thecompatibilities and disparities between the two cultures. When he tries to alter the original text toconvey meaning, he acts as a reconcilator. Translator‘s role as a reconcilator is to bridge thereligious gaps as well. Every translator has to perform three important tasks:SemioticPragmaticsCommunicative competenceAnother important role performed by the translator is the creativity of the translator which islinked to the translation of literary texts. Less amount of creativity is found in a translator‘s workwhen he is translating a non literary text i.e. scientific text; because in scientific texts atranslator‘s personal interpretation is not involved.Three key roles of professional Translators:
In Communication: It is a basic instinct of man to communicate. And to communicate onlymeans that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the targetaudience. The main role of translators is to send the message across without any form ofdistortion or emphasis. That‘s why it is an imperative that only professional translators handlethe sending process.Also, maintaining and building good relationships is an essential to an individual‘s healthyliving. Communication is vital to maintaining and creating those relationships. But how can onebuild or sustain a sound relationship across the world if there‘s lack of understanding to oneanother. With professional translators it is possible.The main job of translators is simple – provide an effective means of communication. Efficientcommunication is not only to translate an original text by word-per-word basis. It‘s deliveringthe genuine context of the message to the language that the target person understands.This task of professional translators is not a piece of cake as it demands nothing less thanaccuracy. A single mistake in context translation can result to offensive message that caneventually lead to misunderstandings between people.With full content management, skilled translators take care of every single detail of thetranslation process, no matter how big or small. Professional language translation services makethe client feel confident that every word reads and sounds locally correct. Accurate content andcontext are keys to quality communication.In Growth and Development: Growth and development can be achieved through fair trading orexchange of knowledge and resources. In business, not only that it is essential to understand theculture of the target clients but to communicate efficiently using their local language. This isanother key role of professional translators.Universal growth of any business requires employing not less than professional translationservices to convert a single message to almost all languages in the world. The more languages asingle message can be translated, the higher the possibility to reach diverse people. It is onlywhen there‘s freedom in exchanging goods and skills that global progress can be attained. Andnothing can aid in this better than professional translators.Culture Sharing: In able to appreciate, promote or share culture across continents, it isimportant that to have an in-depth understanding of it. Again, with the help of skilled translators,it is feasible. The best manifestation of this role of translators is seen on beauty pageants.
Candidates can freely promote their culture to the international scene but the job of professionaltranslators can‘t be taken for granted. Without them, culture promotion will remain unshared anduncultivated. Events that encourage culture sharing are quite impossible, if not chaotic.Translating is a complex task that demands expertise. It offers three indispensable functions thatman constantly needs. With such great and crucial responsibility only professional translatorshave the ability to carry out the tasks.Translation Theories:Vinay and Darbelnet’s Translation Model:Vinay and Darbelnet carried out a comparative stylistic analysis of French and English. They looked atthe text in both languages, noticing differences between the languages and identifying different translationstrategies and ‗procedures‘.The two general translation strategies identified by Vinay and Darbelnette are Direct (literal)Translation, and Oblique Translation. The two strategies comprise seven Procedures, of whichdirect translation covers these three:1) Literal translation: It is also called word-for-word translation. Literal translation is theAuthor‘s prescription for a good translation ‗literalness should only be sacriced becauseof structural and metalinguistic requirements and only after checking that the meaning isfully preserve‘. But Vinay and Darbelnet say, the translator may judge literal translationto be unexceptable because itGives a different meaningHas no meaningIs impossible for structural reasonsDoes not have a corresponding expression within the metalinguistic experience of the TL.Correspond to something at a different level of language.2) Calque, where the SL expression is literally transferred to the TL. It‘s a special kind ofborrowing. Vinay and Darbelnet note that both borrowing and calque often become fullyintegrated in to the TL. Although, sometimes with some semantic change, which can turn themin to false friends.
3) Borrowing: The SL word is transferred directly into the TL.Oblique (free) translation covers four strategies:4) Transposition: Interchange of parts of speech that don‘t affect the meaning, a noun phrase fora verb phrase.5) Modulation: This changes the semantics and also reverses the point of view of the SL.6) Equivalence: Same meaning conveyed by a different expression, which is most useful forproverbs and idioms.7) Adaptation: Cultural references may need to be altered to become relevantRoman Jacobson’s Translation Theory:Robinson writes that for some translators ―the entire purpose of translation is achievingequivalence. The target text must match the source text as fully as possible‖. Linguistic meaningand equivalence are the key issues for the Russian structuralist Roman Jakobson who, in his1959 work On Linguistic Works of Translation, states that there are 3 types of translation:1) Intralingual: rewording or paraphrasing, summarizing, expanding or commenting within alanguage2) Interlingual: the traditional concept of translation from ST to TT or the ―shifting of meaningfrom one language to another‖.3) Intersemiotic: the changing of a written text in to different forms.For Jakobson, meaning and equivalence are linked to the interlingual form of translation, which―involves two equivalent messages in two different codes‖He considers Saussure‘s ideas of the arbitrariness of the signifier (name) for the signified (objector concept) and how this equivalence can be transferred between different languages. Heexpands on Saussure‘s work in that he considers that concepts may be transferred by rewording,without, however, attaining full equivalence. His theory is linked to grammatical and lexicaldifferences between languages, as well as to the field of semantics.
For Jacobson cross linguistic differences occur at three levels:Level of genderLevel of aspectLevel of semantic fieldIt can be concluded that Jacobson‘s theory is essentially based on his semiotic approach totranslation according to which the translator has to recode the ST message first and then he hasto transmit it into an equivalent message for the TT.Application of translation theories on the TT:Application of Vinay and Darbelnet’s ModelThe two general translation strategies identified by Vinay and Darbelnet are Direct Translation,and Oblique Translation. The two strategies comprise seven Procedures, of which directtranslation covers these three:1. Borrowing2. Calque3. Literal TranslationFindings:1. Borrowing:Source Text Target textHe was an old man who fished alone in a skiff, in theGulf stream and he had gone eighty four daysnow without taking a fish. P.3
Go and play baseball. P.5The old man leaned the mast with its wrapped sailThey sat on the terrace and many of the fishermenmade fun of the old man and he was not angry. P.4They waited for the ice truck to carry them to themarket in Havana. P.4It made the boy sad… and he always went down tohelp him carry either the coiled lines or the gaff andharpoon and the sail that was furled around themast. P.3One sheet. That’s two dollars and a half. P.9Those who had caught sharks had taken them to theshark Factory on the other side of the cove wherethey were hoisted on a block and tackle, their liversremoved, their fins cut off and their hides skinnedout and their flesh cut in to strips for salting. P.4
against the wall and the boy put the box and theother gear beside it. P.7“Eighty-five is a lucky number”, the old man said. P.8The shack was made of the tough budsheilds of theroyal palm which are called guano and in it there wasa bed, a table, one chair, and a place on the dirt floorto cook with charcoal. P.7What about the eighty-seven of your great record?P.9In the above examples the word gulf stream( ), truck( ), terrace( ),harpoon( ), sheet( ), shark factory( ),baseball( ), box(), number( ), table( ) and record( ) are borrowed as it is in Urdu.2. Calque:Those who had sharks had taken them to theshark factory on the other side of the cove wherethey were hoisted on a block…for salting. P.4― keep warm old man,‖the boy said. ―Rememberwe are in September‖. P.9
But this is in bottles, Hatuey beer, and I takeback the bottles. P.11In the above examples, the words sharks( ), September( )andbottles( ) are calque which means that it is also a kind of borrowing but with a littlechange in its form.3. Literal Translation:He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff, inthe Gulf stream and he had gone eighty fourdays now without taking a fish. P .9Everything about him was old except his eyesand they were the same color as the sea andwere cheerful and undefeated. P.3The old man looked at him with his sun-burned, confidant, loving eyes. P.5In the above example, we have found word for word translation at word level, e.g old man
( ), cheerful( ), undefeated ( )and sun-burned( ).In those cases where Literal translation is not possible, Vinay and Darbelnet say that the strategyof Oblique translation must be used. This cover further four procedures:4. Transposition5. Modulation6. Equivalence7. Adaptation4. Transposition:In the first example in ST ―passed is verb while in TT ( ) is used as verb. In the secondexample in ST ― anchored‖ is used as a verb while in TT ( ) is a verb.5. Modulation:Then he passed the line a little lower on hisshoulders and braced his left hand on it. P. 49He rested his chin on the wood of the bowswhere the ship lay anchored with the eveningoff-shore breeze and he waited to see if therewould be more lions and he was happy. P. 49
In the above example the word never is used in negative connotation while in the word( ) is used .In the second example, for needless temptation the sentence( ) is used which is positive in meaning.6. Adaptation:―It was papa made me leave. I am a boy and Imust obey him‖. P.4On the brown walls of the flattened,overlapping leaves of the sturdy fiberedguvano there was a picture in color of theHe was sorry for the birds, especially thesmall delicate dark terns that were alwaysflying and looking and almost neverfinding, and he thought, the birds have aharder life then we do except for the robberbirds and the heavy strong ones. P.17No one would steal from the old man but itwas better to take the sail and the heavylines home as the dew was bad for themand, though he was quite sure no localpeople would steal from him, the old manthought that a gaff and a harpoon wereneedless temptations to leave in a boat. P .7
Sacred Heart of Jesus and another of the Virginof Cobra. P.7―Wake up old man‖, the boy said and put hishand on one of the old man‘s knees. P.10―I have not wished to open the container untilyou were ready.‖ P.11―Black beans and rice, fried bananas and somestew.‖ P.10―He will take it‖, the old man said aloud.―God help him to take it‖. P.25―Que‘va,‖ The boy said. P.13He lived along that coast now every night andin his dreams he heard the surf roars and sawthe native boats come riding through it. P.14The boy was asleep on a cot in the first roomand the old man could see him clearly with the
In the above examples, the words papa, Jesus, old man, container, stew, God,que‘va, native, and cot have been translated according to our cultural context intorespectively.Application of Roman Jacobson’s Model:For Jacobson, cross linguistic differences centre around obligatory, Grammatical and lexicalforms: ‗Languages differ essentially in what they must convey and not in what they mayconvey‘. Examples of differences are easy to find. They occur at:1. The level of Gender2. The level of aspect3. The level of semantic fieldsFindings:1. Level Of Gender:light that came in from the dying moon. P.15He always thought of the sea as la marwhich is what people call her inSpanish when they love her. P.17The moon affects her as it does awoman, he thought. P.17
In these examples we have found that there is gender difference that exists in both languages i.eEnglish and Urdu. In the first example, sea is feminine in English and use the objective pronoun―her‖ for it while in Urdu, it is masculine. In the second example moon in English is neutral anduse the word ― it‖ for moon while in Urdu moon is masculine. Same is the case with sun; inEnglish it is neutral while in Urdu it is treated as masculine. In the next example, fish (dolphin)Then the sun was brighter and the glarecame on the water and then, as it roseclear, the flat sea sent it back as hiseyes so that it hurt sharply and he rodewithout looking in to it. P.18“Because I don‘t know what the fish isgoing to do‖. But he seems calm, hethought and following his plan. Butwhat is his plan, he thought. And whatis mine? …If he will jump I can killhim but he stays down forever. Then Iwill stay down with him forever. P.36The line went out and out and out but itwas slowing now and he was makingthe fish earn each inch of it. P.50The sky was clouding over to the eastand one after another the stars he knewwere gone. It looked now as though hewere moving great cannon of cloudsand the wind had dropped. P.48
in English is masculine and use the word ―he‖ for it. While in Urdu, fish either it is dolphin orany other is feminine. In the fifth example, line is neutral in English and use the word ―it‖ for it,while in Urdu it is feminine. Same is the case with sky in English it is neutral and use the word―it‖ for it while in Urdu it is masculine.3.Level of Semantic Field:I like the beer in cans best. P.11He saw the phosphorescence of the gulf weedin the water as he rowed over the part of theocean that the fishermen called the great wellbecause there was a sudden deep of sevenhundred fathom…fed on them. P .17The shack was made of the tough budshields ofroyal palm which are called guano and in itthere was a bed, a table, one chair, and a placeon the dirt floor to cook with charcoal. P. 7
In the first example in ST , the writer has used the word ― cans‖ while the translator of TT hasused a minor detail about it like ( ). Similarly in the second example in ST the writerhas the word ―phosphorescence‖, but the translator has used the word( ) for it but with a little detail. In the third example the writer of ST hasemployed a single word ― charcoal‖ but the translator of TT has used the word () with minor detail for the translation of same single word.FINDINGS:In this Project we have applied two theories, Vinay and Darbelnet‘s model and Roman Jakobson:The Nature of Linguistic Meaning and Equivalence, to see either the translator of TT hasfollowed these theories or not. We found all the features of these two theories like, directtranslation (borrowing, calque, literal translation), and oblique translation ( transposition,modulation, and adaptation) and level of gender and level of semantic fields. Two features likeequivalence and the level of aspect are not found in it at all. So we can say that the translator hasfollowed these two theories to some extent.Conclusion:Generally speaking, there should not be a relationship between the performances of thetranslators and the chronological order of their translations. Each translation should be judged onits own merits at its own time because each period of time possesses its own translatingconventions and in order for a translation to become a smash hit it should conform to theseconventions; and since the conventions change over time, judging two or more translations ontheir chronological orders seems not to be reasonable.From the comparison of these two texts, we come to know that the translator (Ibn e Saleem) hasignored one of the features of Vinay and Darbelnet‘s model (Equivalence ) and also ignored afeature of Roman Jacobson‘s model (Level of Aspect). His translation is more communicative, atthe same time more faithful and beautiful than Ernest‘s Hemmingway. Both texts have made useof the features of the selected translation models nearly to the same degree. The translator wasnot consistent in applying Jacobson‘s and Vinay and Darbelnet‘s translation features fully.