THEMES AND STYLE IN BRAVE NEW WORLD

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THEMES AND STYLE IN BRAVE NEW WORLD

  1. 1. THEMES AND STYLE IN BRAVE NEW WORLDHuxleys Brave New World and George Orwells 1984 were two of the first modern dystopiannovels. A dystopia is a kind of science fiction, or fantasy, world that predicts the future in anegative light both told of a future society in which governments had complete dictatorial controlover people, while state control and conformity replaced the freedoms of modern life and apersons right to the pursuit of happiness. Brave New World is a benevolent dictatorship: a static,efficient, totalitarian welfare-state. There is no war, poverty or crime. Society is stratified bygenetically-predestined caste. It is a novel of ideas, and its themes are as important as its plot.Some themes come to light when one character, a Savage raised on an Indian reservation,confronts that world. These themes are not only about Huxleys Utopia, but also about Huxleysreal world and everyone.Community, Identity, and Stability: The society in Brave New World is shaped by a single all-embracing political ideology.The motto of the world state is "Community, Identity, and Stability." That motto is the Utopiasprime goals. Their motto is totally opposite of French Revolution; Fertinity, Equility and Liberty.Community is in part a result of identity and stability. And it is achieved by organizing life sothat a person is almost never alone being happy. Community offers its members distractions thatthey must enjoy in common- never alone- because solitude breeds instability. Identity is in large part the result of genetic engineering. Society is divided into fiveclasses or castes, Alphas, Beltas, Deltas, Gammas, and Epsilon, hereditary social groups. In thelower three classes, people are cloned in order to produce up to 96 identical "twins." Identity isalso achieved by teaching everyone to conform, so that someone who has or feels more than aminimum of individuality is made to feel different, odd, almost an outcast like Bernard Marx.But there is no freedom of individualism as they are identical from their birth process and almostlook alike as Fanny worked in the Bottling Room, and her surname was also Crown. Butas the two thousand million inhabitants of the plant had only ten thousand names betweenthem, the coincidence was not particularly surprising. (3.58) Stability is the third of the three goals, but it is the one the characters mention most often-the reason for designing society this way. Stability means minimizing conflict, risk, and change.The desire for stability, for instance, requires the production of large numbers of geneticallyidentical "individuals," because people who are exactly the same are less likely to come intoconflict. The director says in first chapter;"Bokanovskys Process is one of the major instrumentsof social stability!"
  2. 2. Literature is banned: In the futuristic dystopia of Brave New World, the Controllers make sure people aretaught only what they need to know to function within society and no more. Knowledge isdangerous and books are strictly forbidden as they are ‘accompanied by a campaign againstthe Past; by the closing of museums, the blowing up of historical monuments (luckily mostof them had already been destroyed during the Nine Years War); by the suppression of allbooks published before A.F. 15O’ because if they are taught they will become corrupt. Art andculture, which stimulate the intellect, emotions, and spirit, are reduced to pale imitations of thereal thing. Existing music is synthetic and characterized by absurd popular songs that celebratethe values of society. Mustafa Mond says ―history is bunk and the only kinds of serious learningare the sleep-teachings used to condition children to function as ideal members of society."Theprinciple of sleep-teaching, or hypnopædia, had been discovered."But two characters in texttry to reject this: one, John, who finds in Shakespeare the means to express his own passions, andthe other, Halmholtz, with a desire to write poetry of beauty and passion. Only the Controller hasaccess to the great literature and culture of the past in order to make the citizens of the brave newworld completely oblivious.Science as a mean of control: It is also a science-fiction novel but it does not predict much about science in general. Itstheme "is the advancement of science as it affects human individuals," Huxley did not focuson physical sciences like nuclear physics, though even he knew that the production of nuclearenergy (and weapons) was probable. He was more worried about dangers that appeared moreobvious at that time- the possible misuse of biology, physiology, and psychology to achievecommunity, identity, and stability that appear in the souls and flesh of human being. Science andtechnology provide the means for controlling the lives of the citizens in Brave New World. First,cloning is used to create many of human beings from the same fertilized egg. The geneticallysimilar eggs are placed in bottles, where the growing embryos and fetuses are exposed toexternal stimulation and chemical alteration to condition them for their lives after being―decanted‖ or ―hatched‖. Babies and children are subject to cruel conditioning by giving electricshocks to make them averse to nature and literature. Adults use ―soma,‖ a tranquilizer, to deadenfeelings of pain or passion. Huxley aims to realize contemporary citizens to the dangers ofmisuse of technology by totalitarian governments.Dissatisfaction: The dystopia portrayed in Brave New World something to be desired – namelyindividuality, passion, and love. Because individuals have been programmed to be happy, thosewho do feel this dissatisfaction are confused by it and completely unsure of how to act. Much ofthe novel deals with putting words to these emotions, finding other people who feel the sameway, and finally acting with resolve to change the status quo. In some ways, the sheer number of
  3. 3. dissatisfied individuals in Brave New World-apparently all the islands of the world are populatedwith these unique, headstrong rebels-represents the only optimistic part of the novel; despiteconditioning, drugs, and biological engineering, the human spirit will always yearn formore.Allof them are dissatisfied to the extent on their parts as these statements are referred;Helmholtz listened to his boastings in a silence so gloomily disapproving that Bernard wasoffended."Youre envious," he said. Helmholtz shook his head. "Im rather sad, thats all,"he answered. (11.20The Power of Knowledge: Huxleys civilized world is a society of ultimate knowledge. Humans have conqueredalmost all areas of scientific inquiry; they control life, death, aging, pleasure, and pain. Thismastery of knowledge has given human beings great control over their world, and this control inturn has given great power to those who first envisioned such a society, and who continues tomaintain its existence. However, such knowledge and the abuse of power that it inspires oftenlead to downfall, as symbolized by Huxleys frequent allusions to Shakespeares Macbeth. InShakespeares play, Macbeth gains small pieces of knowledge of present and future events thatleads him to seek more power and control over his kingdom. However, this knowledge leads toabuse of power and is the cause of his ultimate demise. In the same way, characters in Huxleysnovel must stay in the dark about the true workings of society because knowledge will lead totheir ultimate demise.The misuse of psychologically conditioning: Every human being in the new world is conditioned to fit societys needs and to do thework he will have to make. In this novel human embryos do not grow inside their motherswombs but in bottles. Biological or physiological conditioning consists of adding chemicals orspinning the bottles to prepare the embryos for the levels of strength, intelligence, and aptituderequired for given jobs. After they are "decanted" from the bottles, people are psychologicallyconditioned as in the text ―They’ll grow up with what the psychologists used to call aninstinctive, mainly by hypnopaedia or sleep-teaching. They are exposed to flowers,representing the beauty of nature, and given electric shocks to make them averse to nature. Sothey are conditioned to hate books and nature. They are brought to the crematorium, where theyplay and are given treats so that they will associate death with pleasantness and therefore notobject when society determines it is time for them to die. It might be said that at every stage thesociety brainwashes its citizens.Free Will versus Enslavement: Only the Controllers of society, the ten elite rulers, have freedom of choice. Everyoneelse has been conditioned from the time they were embryos to accept unquestioningly all thevalues and beliefs of the carefully ordered society. Upper-class Alphas are allowed a littlefreedom because their higher intellect makes it harder for them to completely accept the rules of
  4. 4. society. For example, they are occasionally allowed to travel to the Indian reservation to see howoutsiders live. It is hoped that exposure to an ―inferior‖ and ―primitive‖ society will finallysquelch any doubts about their own society’s superiority. Beyond this, however, no room existsin ―civilized‖ society for free will, creativity, imagination, or diversity, all of which can lead toconflict, war, and destruction. Therefore, dissidents who want these freedoms are exiled toremote corners of the earth. Anyone who feels upset for any reason quickly ingests a dose of thetranquilizer ―soma.‖ John the Savage exercises his freedom of choice by killing himself ratherthan becoming a part of such a world.Freedom: Brave New World largely defines freedom through the structures that prevent freedom.Bernard feels these constraints most acutely, as in a scene from chapter 6, when Bernard andLenina have a conversation about freedom. Lenina insists that everyone has a great deal offreedom - the freedom "to have the most wonderful time." Soma represents this kind of freedom,as it puts people in a hypnotic state in which they no longer feel as though they should askquestions or defy the structures of society. Bernard insists that this is no freedom at all. Bernardclaims that his ideal of freedom is the freedom to be an individual apart from the rest of society.Bernard strives to be free in his "own way...not in everybody elses way." Huxley argues herethat certain structures in our own modern society work in the same way that drugs like somawork in this fantastical dystopia. Huxley often argues against the use of advertising specificallyfor the way that it hypnotized people into wanting and buying the same products. Such thingskeep people within predefined structures, and it quashes free thought, which ultimately restrictsfreedom.False happiness: A society can achieve stability only when everyone is happy, and the brave new worldtries hard to ensure that every person is happy. It does its best to eliminate any painful emotion,which means every deep feeling, every passion. It uses genetic engineering and conditioning toensure that everyone is happy with his or her work. This utilitarian society aims to produce thegreatest amount of good for the greatest number of people, this particular good is happiness, andgovernment, industry, and all other social apparatuses exist in order to maximize the happinessof all members of society. John the Savage rebels against this notion of utilitarian happiness. Heargues that humanity must also know how to be unhappy in order to create and appreciatebeauty. People make use of soma in order to go on a "holiday" from any kind of unhappiness.The cheapness of sexual pleasure and human impulse:The inhabitants of Huxley’s future world have very unusual attitudes toward sex as sex is aprimary source of happiness. The brave new world makes promiscuity a virtue that one can havesex with any partner one wants, who wants one and sooner or later as "everyone belongs toeveryone else." In this novel, neurotic passions and the establishment of family life, both ofwhich would interfere with community and stability. Nobody is allowed to become pregnant
  5. 5. because nobody is born; only decanted from a bottle, if they do get pregnant accidentally, theyhurry to the abortion center, a place Linda recalls with great fondness. She regrets bitterly havinghad to give birth in what she feels was a ―dirty‖ affair. Many females are born sterile by design;those who are not are trained by "Malthusian drill" to use contraceptives properly. Even smallchildren are encouraged to engage in erotic play. . However, as Huxley shows, even with the besttechnology to prevent pregnancy, people can only maintain their loose sexual mores bysacrificing intimacy and commitment. By abolishing institutions such as marriage andencouraging behavior that society once considered immoral. However, Huxley also suggests thatthe freedom of these impulses undermines humanitys creativity. Complete freedom to havepleasure has made each person like an infant, incapable of adult thought and creativity. Forexample, Bernard longs to have more control over his impulses, but the display of such controlunnerves others who have learned to be free with their impulses.Power: As one character says about power in Brave New World "Governments an affair ofsitting, not hitting"., Those in power in this futuristic society have simply programmed thecitizens to be happy with the laws rather than use violence to enforce the law as in text "We alsopredestine and condition. We decant our babies as socialized human beings, as Alphas orEpsilons, as future sewage workers or […] future Directors of Hatcheries." (1.67) Thispower is bolstered by a free-flowing supply of drugs, the insistence on promiscuity, the denial ofhistory or future as any alternative to the present, and the use of sleep-teaching at a young age toinstill the irrationality of its choosing. This same power is limited only by those individuals whodesire, for one reason or another, to be unhappy.Use of drugs: Soma is a drug used by everyone in the brave new world. It calms people and gets themhigh at the same time, but without hangovers or nasty side effects. The rulers of the brave newworld had put 2000 pharmacologists and biochemists to work long before the action of the novelbegins; in six years they had perfected the drug. The citizens of the "World State" have beenconditioned to love the drug, and they use it to escape any momentary bouts of dissatisfaction.The problem, as one character identifies ―they used to take morphia and cocaine" (3.210-4)",is that the citizens are essentially enslaved by the drug and turned into mindless drones. This isanother way for destroying their mental capabilities. Adults use ―soma,‖ a tranquilizer, to deadenfeelings of pain or passion because they refuse to experience unhappiness; the drug keeps themfrom wonder and the appreciation of beauty, as in the scene when Lenina and Bernard fly overthe tossing English Channel. He sees a beautiful display of natures power; she sees a horriblyfrightening scene that she wants to avoid so she takes soma. Taking drugs works as a mean ofdenial reality.
  6. 6. Spirituality: In Brave New World, spirituality is a mix of Christianity. One character believes hisspiritual life is deepened through self-mutilation. But in the mind of the powerful world leaders,religion simply isnt needed in a world of science and machines. Comfort comes in a bottle,morality is taught in sleep-session brainwashing. In the world leaders minds, God is obsol-2)The destruction of family: The society in Brave New World has destroyed any remnants of human relationships andbonds. The relationships of father and mother no longer exist because all human beings are bornin a scientific lab and are no longer necessary because society shuns monogamy, and all men andwomen learn to share each other equally. The combination of genetic engineering, bottle-birth, andsexual promiscuity means there is no monogamy, marriage, or family. "Mother" and "father" are obscenewords that may be used scientifically on rare, carefully chosen occasions to label ancient sources ofpsychological problems. The cost of such actions is that human beings cannot truly experience theemotions of love. Both John and Lenina begin to feel these strong emotions over the course ofthe novel, but they cannot act on these emotions in a constructive way because neither cancomprehend how to have such a relationship in their society. If anyone has his family, it isconsidered as an act of embarrassment as director acts when he knows of his family. Thedestruction of family is one of the great themes of this novel that is totally against natural way ofliving.The denial of death: The brave new world insists that death is a natural and not unpleasant process. There isno old age or visible senility. Children are conditioned at hospitals for the dying and givensweets to eat when they hear of death occurring. This conditioning does not- as it might- preparepeople to cope with the death of a loved one or with their own mortality. It eliminates the painfulemotions of grief and loss, and the spiritual significance of death.The oppression of individual differences:Some characters in Brave New World differ from the norm. Bernard is small for an Alpha andfond of solitude; Helmholtz, though seemingly "every centimeter an Alpha-Plus," knows he istoo intelligent for the work he performs; John the Savage, genetically a member of the WorldState, has never been properly conditioned to become a citizen of it. Even the Controller,Mustapha Mond, stands apart because of his leadership abilities. Yet in each case thesedifferences are crushed: Bernard and Helmholtz are exiled; John commits suicide; and the Mondstifles his own individuality in exchange for the power he wields as Controller.
  7. 7. Society and Class: Society in the futuristic setting of Brave New World is split into five castes: Alphas,Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons, with a few minor distinctions in between. Because of thetechnology wielded by the World States leaders, caste is pre-determined and humans are grownin a manner appropriate to their status; the lower the caste, the dumber the individual is createdto be. As adults, the upper two castes interact socially with each other but never with the lessergroups. In short, class is yet another mechanism for stability and control on the part of thegovernment. Its also a big part of the reason that personal identity goes by the wayside in thisnovel – Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons are simply faceless drones in color-coded outfits that existto serve the more intelligent Alphas and Betas. The following lines shows high class contemptfor the lowers:"… all wear green," said a soft but very distinct voice, beginning in themiddle of a sentence, "and Delta Children wear khaki. Oh no, I dont want to play withDelta children. And Epsilons are still worse. Theyre too stupid to be able to read or write.Besides they wear black, which is such a beastly color. Im so glad Im a Beta."Comodification: Huxley views commoditized society as a detriment to human creativity. In the novel,society modifies human behavior so that people will seek to consume goods and services asmuch as possible. This modification in turn means that everyone who makes such goods orprovides such services will be able to stay employed. Thus, the societys economy will remainstable. However, such reliance upon commoditization also blunts any attempt at original thought.Consumption becomes so important to the society that all of a persons energy and reason is putinto activities of work and plays those consumer goods that in turn keep the economy running.This is, of course, important for maintaining the structured and controlled environment ofHuxleys dystopia, but it also produces human beings who simply do what they have been taughtand have no reason to think on their own In short, this novel has a good side: there is no war or poverty, little disease or socialunrest. But Huxley keeps asking, what does society have to pay for these benefits? The price, hemakes clear, is high. The first clue is in the epigraph, the quotation at the front of the book. It isin French, but written by a Russian, Nicolas Berdiaeff. It says, "Utopias appear to be much easierto realize than one formerly believed. We currently face a question that would otherwise fill uswith anguish: How to avoid their becoming definitively real?" It is totally opposite of naturalworld and natural system of reproduction. Humans are conditioned to behave in a specific wayby eliminating individual differences. Style in Brave New WorldAldous Huxley’s most enduring and prophetic work, Brave New World (1932), describes afuture world in the year 2495, a society combining intensified aspects of industrial communismand capitalism into a horrifying new world order. Novel’s title, taken from Shakespeare’s play
  8. 8. The Tempest, is therefore ironic: This fictional dystopia is neither brave nor new. Instead, it is socontrolled and safe that there is neither need nor opportunity for bravery. As for being ―new,‖ itsunrelenting drives toward management and development, and its obsessions with predictableorder and consumption, are as old as the Industrial Revolution. Coupling horror with irony,Brave New World, a masterpiece of modern fiction, is a stinging critique of twentieth-centuryindustrial societyPoint of View:Huxley tells the story of Brave New World in a third-person, omniscient (all-knowing) voice. Thenarrative is chronological for the most part, jumping backward in time only to reveal some history, aswhen the Director explains to Bernard Marx what happened when he visited the Indian reservation, orwhen John and Linda recall their lives on the reservation before meeting Bernard and Lenina. The first sixchapters have very little action and are instead devoted to explaining how this society functions. This isaccomplished by having the reader overhear the tour that the Director, and later the Controller, ledthrough the ―hatchery,‖ or human birth factory, lecturing to some students.Once familiarized with this future world, the reader learns more about the characters through theirdialogue and interaction. For example, Bernard and Lenina’s conversation on their date shows howdeeply conditioned Lenina is to her way of life and how difficult it is for Bernard to meet society’sexpectations of how he should feel and behave. Throughout the rest of the book, Huxley continues toreveal the way the society functions, but instead of having the reader overhear lectures, he portraysseemingly ordinary events, showing how they unfold in this very different society. When Huxley finallypresents the arguments for and against the compromises the society makes in order to achieve harmony,he does this in the form of a dialogue between Mustapha Mond and John the Savage. The book ends witha sober and powerful description of John’s vain struggle to carve out a life for himself as a hermit. This iscontrasted with the humorous, satirical tone of much of the book, making it especially moving.Setting:Brave New World set in London, England, six hundred years in Huxley’s future, Brave New Worldportrays a totalitarian society where freedom, diversity, and conflict have been replaced by efficiency,progress, and harmony. The contrast between our world and that of the inhabitants of Huxley’s futuristicsociety is made especially clear when Huxley introduces us to the Indian reservation in New Mexicowhere the ―primitive‖ culture of the natives has been maintained. Huxley chose London as his mainsetting because it was his home, but he implies, by mentioning the ten world controllers, that the entireworld operates the same way that the society in London does.Irony and Satire:Brave New World is also considered a novel of ideas, otherwise known as an apologue: because the ideasin the book are what are most important, the characterization and plot are secondary to the conceptsHuxley presents. In order to portray the absurdity of the future society’s values as well as ourcontemporary society’s values, he uses satire (holding up human folly to ridicule), parody (a humoroustwist on a recognizable style of an author or work), and irony (words meaning something very different
  9. 9. from what they literally mean, or what the characters think they mean). Ordinary scenes the reader canrecognize, such as church services and dates, incorporate behavior, internal thoughts, and dialogue thatreveal the twisted and absurd values of the citizens of the future. Because the roots of many of thepractices seen in this futuristic society can be found in contemporary ideas, the reader is led to questionthe values of contemporary society. For example, people today are taught to value progress andefficiency. However, when taken to the absurd extreme of babies being hatched in bottles for maximumefficiency, the reader realizes that not all progress and efficiency is good. Huxley even satirizessentimentality by having the citizens of the future sing sentimental songs about ―dear old mom,‖ onlythey sing a version in which they fondly recall their ―dear old bottle,‖ the one in which they grew asfetuses. Being sentimental about one’s origin in a test tube will strike many readers as funny, as well asironic.Allusion:Throughout the book, evidence of Huxley’s vast knowledge of science, technology, literature, and musiccan be found. He makes frequent allusions to Shakespeare, mostly through the character of John, whoquotes the bard whenever he needs to express a strong human emotion. Indeed, the title itself is fromShakespeare’s The Tempest, in which the sheltered Miranda first encounters some men and declares,―How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world that has such people isn’t!‖ Huxley also makes manyallusions to powerful, influential people of his day, naming characters, buildings, and religions after them.For example, Henry Ford (1863–1947) is as a god; his name is used in interjections (Oh my Ford!), incalculating the year (A.F., or After Ford, instead of A.D., which stands for ―anno domini‖—in the year ofour Lord). Even the Christian cross has been altered to resemble the T from the old Model T car built byFord.The character of the Savage is reminiscent of the Noble Savage—the concept that primitive people aremore innocent and pure of heart than civilized people. However, Huxley is careful not to portray him asheroic or his primitive culture as ideal. The reader sympathizes with him because he is the person whomost represents current values.One of the more subtle influences on the story, however, is Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), the founder ofmodern psychoanalysis. The Savage is a prime example of someone who suffers from what Freud termedthe Oedipus complex, a powerful desire to connect with one’s mother. At one point, when he sees hismother with her lover, he identifies with Hamlet, who also had an Oedipal complex, an over attachment tohis mother that prevented him from accepting her as sexually independent of him. Freud believed thatchildhood experiences shape adult perceptions, feelings, and behaviors, and the characters in the novel areall clearly compelled to feel and act according to the lessons they learned as children, even when facedwith evidence that their behavior results in personal suffering.Symbolism & Imagery:Soma:The drug soma is a symbol of the use of instant gratification to control the World States populace. It isalso a symbol of the powerful influence of science and technology on society. As a kind of ―sacrament,‖ it
  10. 10. also represents the use of religion to control society. Soma is what the society uses to keep their selvesbalance. They have a service where they overdose on soma and go into what is called a "some Holiday".Zippers:In Brave New World all the clothing in the World State has zippers on it. This symbol is assimple as it sounds, the meaning of zipper is easy access in this world of instant gratification, andbuttons in clothes would cause the loss of precious time of nakedness. That shows how thetechnology helps the perversion of sex, with the repetitive, rhythmic, almost musical sound ofthe zippers.Music: Plays an important role in order to control them with rhythm. The whole sexual fiasco starts with a ritualsinging of "Orgy-porgy". The orgy actually happens during the singing.Title:The title Brave New Word is full of ironies and references to Shakespeare and his work,concretely to The Tempest, in which Miranda says: "O wonder! How many goodly creatures are there here! How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world! That has such people in it!" (Act V, Scene I) This line is word by word repeated by John the savage in Huxleys novel. But now we are going to explain the context in which Miranda says this. Miranda is a young woman who lives on an island with only her father and two spirits. She never met a man for romance. In this way we realize that this phrase, used at the end of the play, contains a lot of sexuality. By contrast, the words that John the Savage repeats, contrary to sex without feelings, demonstrate the ironic aspect of the title. We can think that John the Savage, fallen in love with Lenina, uses these words without the sexual connotation, but probably not consciously. At the end of the work, we realize that the John the Savages opinion of the World States society has changed and not in a good way.Animal imagery:Animal imagery is rampant in Brave New World. Just look at the first chapter. Theres therepetition of "straight from the horses mouth," Fosters implicit claim that "any cow" couldmerely hatch out embryos, the platitude that "Rams wrapped in there mogene beget no lambs."Later, when John goes to the hospital, he sees the Delta children staring at Linda with "the stupidcuriosity of animals." The hordes of identical bokanovskified twins seem to him "maggots." Itlooks like Huxleys message is clear: the new world has so dehumanized its citizens that theynow resemble little more than animals. The irony is that "civilization" should seek to elevateman, to make him less primitive, to put some distance between him and the other creatures of theworld.
  11. 11. Ford:The choice of Henry Ford as the deity-like figure in Huxleys dystopia reveals the new worldsvalue system. Henry Ford was famous for the perfection of mass production and the assemblyline. In Huxleys world, even humans are mass-produced and grown with the help of, yes, thatsright, an assembly line. Efficiency, production, and consumerism are the most important valueshere; not morality, compassion, or piety.Bottles:Bottles are introduced in Chapter One as the new way in which humans are created and grown.Right off the bat, this just seems very wrong. But far more disturbing than the notion of littlezygotes inside bottles is the notion of full-grown humans being similarly trapped. Now were inthe realm of the metaphor. Of course, Huxley being Huxley, were told directly that this is whathes going for in Brave New World. Look at Mustaphas words in Chapter Sixteen:"Even after decanting, (man is) still inside a bottle – an invisible bottle of infantile andembryonic fixations. Each one of us, of course……………………… goes through life inside abottle."Brave New World; Allusions and Unique Terms: In his fictional novel Brave New World, Huxley makes many allusions, or references to real-lifepeople, places or concepts. But he also invents his own terminology, and there are many newterms and concepts with which we should become familiar before reading and for reference aswe read the novel.Character/Concept Allusion toBernard Marx Karl Marx, founder of Marxism, SocialismLenina Crowne Russian revolutionary and founder of the communist party Vladimir LeninBenito Hoover Combination of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and Herbert Hoover-31st American President during the Depression; known for ―Hoovervilles‖ or shanty towns where homeless and unemployed people lived.Malthusian belt, Malthusian Political economist Thomas Malthus, an early proponent of birthDrill control for population regulationconditioning and Neo-Pavlovian Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov and his conditioning experiments (Pavlov’s dogs)Ford Henry Ford, creator of Model T Ford and modern assembly-line work
  12. 12. George Bernard Shaw Irish writer and socialist George Bernard ShawFreud Austrian psychiatrist and founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund FreudHelmholtz Watson John B. Watson, American psychologist, founder of behaviorism, together with Rosalie Rayner conducted controversial ―Little Albert‖ experimentMustapha Mond Founder of modern Turkey, Mustapha Kemal AtatürkMond monde—―world‖ or ―people‖ in FrenchBrave New World From Shakespeare’s The Tempest, Miranda says: ―O, wonder! How many goodly creatures are there here! How beauteous mankind is! O brave new world, That has such people isn’t!‖The Caste System:Alphas Top of the caste system; top intellects; tall; wear grey (very few Alphas; all are men)Betas Managers; above average intelligence; wear blues, reds and mulberryGammas Workers; low intelligence; wear greenDeltas Low workers; very low intelligence; wear khakiEpsilon Near brainless workers; short; wear blackTerms:A.F. Annum Ford, After FordBokanovsky Group identical twins which have been created by a single egg divided numerous times through Bokanvosky’s ProcessBottling process by which embryos are grownCentrifugal Bumble-Puppy a game in which children throw a ball onto a rotating disk that throws the ball back in a random direction, and is meant to be caughtD.H.C. The Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning
  13. 13. decanting room a room where the babies are removed from the bottlesEctogenesis a process by which embryos are grown outside of a womb, in this case, they are grown in bottlesfeelies similar to modern movie-theaters; viewers are able to feel the emotion and smell the smells of the movie in front of themhypnopaedia one step of the conditioning process by which while sleeping, babies and children listen to repeated messages about morals and their place in society, and are completely conditioned to live and breathe these messagesMalthusian belt a belt that dispenses contraceptivesNeo-Pavlovian Conditioning loud noises, flashing lights and electric shock used on babies to condition their likes and dislikesNine Years’ War the war that enabled the Ten World Controllers to take over powerorgy-porgy a chant and dance of a Solidarity Service; sexual in naturephosphorus recovery the process in which phosphorus is recovered from cremated bodies to be used in fertilizerpneumatic ―air filled‖ or well-endowedPodsnap’s technique a process of ripening thousands of eggs at the same time so that they can be born when neededpregnancy substitute an injection that tricks the body into thinking it is pregnant, controlling hormonesSavage Reservation a dumping ground for savages, or people who were naturally bornSolidarity Service a religious service with a strong sexual contentSoma a legal drug without side- or after-effects; makes people ―happy‖ when neededsoma holiday to be drugged up with soma for a long period of timeviviparous bearing live young rather than eggs

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