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Semantics
Semantics
Semantics
Semantics
Semantics
Semantics
Semantics
Semantics
Semantics
Semantics
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Semantics

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  • 1. Semantics is the systematic of meaning and linguistics semantics is the study of how languagesorganize and express meaning. Semantic is a scientific study to develop and establish themeaning of a word in reference to a specific context. Even every single word of language has itsown meaning. Semantics only concerned with literal meaning as opposed to non-literal,semantics is the study of meaning. There are three disciplines of semantics: psychology,philosophy and linguistics. Their interests and approaches are different. Psychologists areinterested in how humans learn, how they retain means related to memory, Philosophers talkabout facts while Linguists want to understand how language works and function. Semantics talkabout the relationship between signifier and signified and this relation is arbitrary (goes onchanging).Vocabulary and grammar are very important in order to understand the meaning of aword. Phonology is the knowledge of how speech sounds are organized in a particular language.These units are called phonemes. This sound system is very important in understanding themeaning of a word. Syntax is the knowledge of the classes of words and of how members ofthese classes go together to form phrases and sentences and morphology which is the knowledgeof word formation also come under semantics. It is impossible to explore semantics withoutdealing with syntax because two are closely interrelated. There are ten aspects of any speaker’ssemantics knowledge. (Anomaly,Paraphrasres,Synonyms,Contradiction,Antonyms,Semanticfeature, Ambiguity, Adjacency pair, Entailment and Presupposition).In semantics, our area of interest is Lexical Relations. It includes two approaches;1. Semantic field theory.2. Truth conditional semantics. Semantic field theory includes Lexical fields which has lexical sets, part whole relationship andparadigms. It further has two types 1.part whole relationships. Second-minute-hour day is a partwhole relationship that is also hierarchical and 2.sequential or cyclical.)Kinship is universal since all humans are related to other humans through bloodties(consanguineal relations)and through marriage(affinities) but kinship system differ fromsociety to society. There are four primitives features of kinship are: (1) Parent (2) Offspring (3) Sibling (4) spouse Componential analysis is determination of distinctive feature of the members of the set from one another. While truth conditional semantics includes Hyponym is a word, which can be substituted for any specific word. Its sub fields are entailment, super ordinates, co- hyponyms, tautology, contradiction and collective noun. Synonyms are the words that have same sense in a given context. Antonyms are two words that make opposite statement about the same subject. Binary and non–binary antonyms. In binary there middle ground only two possible groundsare there e.g. either on or off. Binary antonyms are also called hemispheric antonyms and somesemanticists use the term Complementary antonyms in place of binary antonyms. While non-
  • 2. binary there is a middle ground i.e they are gradable. In place of non-binary antonyms Contraryantonyms or polar antonyms are used by semanticists. Converse antonyms where there is only a subject and no other referring expression. Commonconverse pairs include kinship and social role and directional opposites. There are a few pairs ofconverse 3 argument predicate: give to/receive from; sell to /buy from; lend to/borrow from. Symmetry and Reciprocity, a special kind of converseness is the use of e single term insymmetrical relationship and next comes expressions of quantity deals with quantifiers like all,no, some, many and few.Introduction to the Text:We have selected novel Lord of the Flies written by William Golding. Published in 1954,Lord ofthe Flies was Golding’s first novel. It is about a group of British boys stuck on an uninhabitedisland who try to govern themselves, with disastrous results.Summary of the selected chapters (1and 2):Chapter 1: The Sound of the ShellA plane evacuating British boys has been shot down in the Pacific. The boys have been ejectedsafely from the plane and have landed on a remote island. With no adult supervision, theyattempt to establish order and a plan for survival. They elect a chief (Ralph) and he selects JackMerridew, a militant choir bully, to rule over the choir, who become hunters. We also meetPiggy in chapter 1. Piggy is fat, suffers from asthma, and has no social skills. He immediatelybecomes the target of the other boys who make fun of him.Piggy finds a conch shell and shows Ralph how to blow it. The sound of the shell calls the boystogether for assemblies and to discuss important matters. At each assembly, the boy holding theconch is the only one allowed to speak. At the assembly, Jack, Simon, and Ralph decide toexplore the island. They confirm their suspicions that they are on an island. Towards the end ofchapter 1, the three explorers find a trapped pig. The pig gets away.Chapter 2: Fire on the MountainThe three boys return from their exploration and call an assembly. One of the littleuns mentionsa snake thing, a beastie, which sends fear throughout the group. They debate its existence anddetermine the littluns were having nightmares. Ralph decides they need to make a fire on themountain as a rescue signal. They use Piggys glasses to light the fire. The fire rages out ofcontrol. One of the littleuns dies in the conflagration (a fancy word for large fire). Piggy and Jackargue.Application:"The words in a semantic field share a common semantic property. It is the organization of therelated words and expressions in to a system, which shows their relationship with one another.
  • 3. Most often, fields are defined by subject matter, such as body parts, landforms, diseases, colors,foods, or kinship relations etc.(a)“The boy with fair hair lowered himself down the last few feet of rock and began to pick hisway toward the lagoon. Though he had taken off his school sweater and trailed it now from onehand, his grey shirt stuck to him and his hair was plastered to his forehead. All round him thelong scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat. He was clambering heavily among thecreepers and broken trunks when a bird, a vision of red and yellow, flashed upwards with awitch-like cry; and this cry was echoed by another.”“The fair boy stopped and jerked his stockings with an automatic gesture that made the jungleseem for a moment like the Home Counties.”“He jumped down from the terrace. The sand was thick over his black shoes and the heat hit him.He became conscious of the weight of clothes, kicked his shoes off fiercely and ripped off eachstocking with its elastic garter in a single movement. Then he leapt back on the terrace, pulledoff his shirt, and stood there among the skull-like coconuts with green shadows from the palmsand the forest sliding over his skin. He undid the snake-clasp of his belt, lugged off his shorts andpants, and stood there naked, looking at the dazzling beach and the water.”Sweater, shirt and stockings, belt, shorts and pants belong to one group.As these all things have a common characteristic, that these all are part of “Dress”.(b)”The fat boy waited to be asked his name in turn but this proffer of acquaintance was notmade; the fair boy called Ralph smiled vaguely, stood up, and began to make his way once moretoward the lagoon. The fat boy hung steadily at his shoulder”.“Ralph shook his head and increased his speed. Then he tripped over a branch and came downwith a crash.The fair boy allowed his feet to come down and sat on the steamy earth”.“He wiped his glasses and adjusted them on his button nose. The frame had made a deep, pink"V" on the bridge. He looked critically at Ralphs golden body and then down at his own clothes.He laid a hand on the end of a zipper that extended down his chest”."My auntie--"Piggy clasped his hands in apprehension.Piggy took off his shoes and socks, ranged them carefully on the ledge, and tested the water withone toe.
  • 4. Ralph paddled backwards down the slope, immersed his mouth and blew a jet of water into theair. Then he lifted his chin and spoke."I could swim when I was five. Daddy taught me. Hes a commander in the Navy. When he getsleave hell come and rescue us. Whats your father?"Ralph looked through him. Here at last was the imagined but never fully realized place leapinginto real life. Ralphs lips parted in a delighted smile and Piggy, taking this smile to himself as amark of recognition, laughed with pleasure.Inside the floating cloak he was tall, thin, and bony; and his hair was red beneath the black cap.His face was crumpled and freckled, and ugly without silliness. Out of this face stared two lightblue eyes, frustrated now, and turning, or ready to turn, to anger."Isnt there a man here?"Ralph cleared his throat."Well then”.All at once he found he could talk fluently and explain what he had to say. He passed a handthrough his fair hair and spoke.Piggy had settled himself in a space between two rocks, and sat with the conch on his knees.Head, nose, chest, toe, hand, mouth, chin, lips, face, knees, hair and eyes are part of a set of“body parts”.This set presents part-whole relationship. Set is incomplete, if one part is excluded.(c)Ralph paddled backwards down the slope, immersed his mouth and blew a jet of water intothe air. Then he lifted his chin and spoke."If it really is an island--"The shore was fledged with palm trees. These stood or leaned or reclined against the light andtheir green feathers were a hundred feet up in the air. The ground beneath them was a bankcovered with coarse grass, torn everywhere by the upheavals of fallen trees, scattered withdecaying coconuts and palm saplings."I climbed a rock, " said Ralph slowly, "and I think this is an island.Ralph said nothing. Here was a coral island. Protected from the sun, ignoring Piggys ill-omenedtalk, he dreamed pleasantly.
  • 5. "This is an island. At least I think its an island. Thats a reef out in the sea. Perhaps there arentany grownups anywhere.Ralph shaded his eyes and followed the jagged outline of the crags up toward the mountain.They were in the beginnings of the thick forest, plunking with weary feet on a track, when theyheard the noises--squeaking--and the hard strike of hoofs on a path. As they pushed forward thesqueaking increased till it became a frenzy.Water, air, grass, trees, rocks, sun, island and sea belong to a set of “nature”.The boy with fair hair lowered himself down the last few feet of rock and began to pick his waytoward the lagoon. Though he had taken off his school sweater and trailed it now from one hand,his grey shirt stuck to him and his hair was plastered to his forehead. All round him the long scarsmashed into the jungle was a bath of heat. He was clambering heavily among the creepers andbroken trunks when a bird, a vision of red and yellow, flashed upwards with a witch-like cry; andthis cry was echoed by another.Ralph took the shell from Piggy and a little water ran down his arm. In color the shell was deepcream, touched here and there with fading pink. Between the point, worn away into a little hole,and the pink lips of the mouth, lay eighteen inches of shell with a slight spiral twist and coveredwith a delicate, embossed pattern. Ralph shook sand out of the deep tube.We used his specs, " said Simon, smearing a black cheek with his forearm. "He helped that way."And well be responsible for keeping a lookout too. If we see a ship out there"--they followed thedirection of his bony arm with their eyes--"well put green branches on. Then therell be moresmoke. "They gazed intently at the dense blue of the horizon, as if a little silhouette might appear there atany moment.The sun in the west was a drop of burning gold that slid nearer and nearer the sill of the world.Justification:Red, yellow,deep cream, pink, black, blue have the common semantic feature that these all are“colors”."--mooed like a cow, " he said. "He had some white stones too, an a bird cage with a greenparrot. He didnt blow the white stones, Jack broke in."All the same you need an army--for hunting. Hunting pigs--""Yes. There are pigs on the island. "of course, an he said--"
  • 6. A tree exploded in the fire like a bomb. Tall swathes of creepers rose for a moment into view,agonized, and went down again. The little boys screamed at them."Snakes! Snakes! Look at the snakes!"Cow, pig and snake are animals, so they form a set of “Animal”.A child had appeared among the palms, about a hundred yards along the beach. He was a boy ofperhaps six years, sturdy and fair, his clothes torn, his face covered with a sticky mess of fruit.His trousers had been lowered for an obvious purpose and had only been pulled back half-way.He jumped off the palm terrace into the sand and his trousers fell about his ankles; he stepped outof them and trotted to the platform. Piggy helped him up. Meanwhile Ralph continued to blowtill voices shouted in the forest. The small boy squatted in front of Ralph, looking up brightly andvertically. As he received the reassurance of something purposeful being done he began to looksatisfied, and his only clean digit, a pink thumb, slid into his mouth.He was old enough, twelve years and a few months, to have lost the prominent tummy ofchildhood and not yet old enough for adolescence to have made him akward. You could see nowthat he might make a boxer, as for as width and heaviness of shoulders went, but there was amildness about his mouth and eyes that proclaimed no devil.Age of the two boys is told here. One is six years old and other one is twelve years old.[Human] is the semantic feature shared by all the members of set.So they are [+male],[-female],[+child][-adult].Kinship:Kinship is a universal since all humans are related to other humans through blood ties andthrough marriage, but kinship differs from society to society.All kinship system can be described with four primitive features: [parent],[offspring],[sibling]and [spouse].He wiped his glasses and adjusted them on his button nose. The frame had made a deep, pink"V" on the bridge. He looked critically at Ralphs golden body and then down at his own clothes.He laid a hand on the end of a zipper that extended down his chest."My auntie--""My dads dead, " he said quickly, "and my mum--"Auntie = Parent’s F sibling; parent’s sibling’s F spouse
  • 7. Dad = M parentMum = F parentHyponyms:(a) Hyponyms, co-hyponyms, superordinate and collective noun:1.“He became conscious of the weight of his clothes, kicked his shoes off and ripped off eachstocking with its elastic garter in a single movement. Then he leapt back on the terrace, pulledoff his shirt, and stood there among the skull like coconut with green shadows from the palmsand the forest sliding over his skin. He undid the snake clasp of his belt, lugged off his shorts andpants and stood there naked”.In this example clothes is superordinate and shirt, belt, shorts and pants are hyponyms of clotheswhile shirt,belt,shorts and pants are co-hyponyms of each other. Word clothes is also a collectivenoun.2.“Their bodies ,from throat to ankle, were hidden by black cloaks which bore a long silver crosson the left breast and each neck was finished hambone frill”.In this example bodies is a superordinate of the terms throat, of with aankle, breast and neck. While neck, ankle,throat and breast are hyponyms of bodies and co-hyponyms of each other.(b) Entailment or Tautology:“Stillness descended on them. Ralph, looking with more understanding at Piggy, saw that he washurt and crushed. He hovered between the two courses of apology or further insult”.Hurt and crushed are the example of tautology.Synonyms:(a) “I was the only boy in our school what had asthma”, said the fat boy with a touch of pride.“And I have been wearing specs since I was three.”He took off his glasses and held them out to Ralph, blinking and smiling and then started to wipethem against his grubby wind breaker.In this example specs and glasses are instances of synonymy and synonymous with each other.(b) “The ground beneath them was a bank covered with coarse grass, torn everywhere by theupheavals of fallen trees, scattered with decaying coconuts and palm saplings.The fat boy lowered himself over the terrace end sat down carefully using the edge as a seat”.Bank and edge are synonyms.(c) “Piggy grinned reluctantly, pleased despite himself ate even this much recognition”.“The air was bright. Ralph, faced by the task of translating all this into an explanation, stood onhis head and fell over. When they had done laughing, Simon stroked Ralph arm shyly; and theyhad to laugh again”.
  • 8. Reluctantly and shyly are examples of synonymy and synonymous with each other.Antonyms(a)Sentences that differ in polarity, are mutually contradictory. If one is true , the other must befalse.“I don’t care what they call me,” he said confidentially, “so long as they don’t call me what theyused to call me at school.” Ralph was faintly interested.“What was that?” The fat boy glanced over his shoulder, then leaned toward Ralph.He whispered. “They used to call me Piggy.”Finding:In the above paragraph, sentences, “ they call me” , “ they don’t call me” present mutualcontradiction of a sentence. One statement is true and other is denial of it.(b)Antonyms are opposite in meaning. Two sentences that have the same subjects and havepredicates which are antonyms are also mutually contradictory. There are antonyms that may beverbs.“He became conscious of the weight of clothes, kicked his shoes off fiercely and ripped off eachstocking with its elastic garter in a single movement. Then he leapt back on the terrace, put offhis shirt, and stood there among the skull-like coconuts with green shadows from the palms andthe forest sliding over his skin (chap 1)……………… He trotted through the sand, enduring thesun’s enmity, crossed the platform and found his scattered clothes. To put on a grey shirt oncemore was strangely pleasing. Then he climbed the edge of the platform and sat in the green shadeon a convenient trunk. (chap1)In the above paragraph put off his shirt and put on his shirt are predicates , which are mutuallycontradictory verbs.Antonyms may be nouns.(c)There are antonyms pairs of adjectives .“There ain’t nothing we can do. We ought to be more careful. I’m scared–” Jack dragged hiseyes away from the fire. “You’re always scared. Yah –Fatty!” “I got the conch,” said Piggybleakly. He turned to Ralph. “I got the conch, ain’t I Ralph?” In the above paragraph fatty and thin are pairs of adjectives.(d)There are measure adjectives because they can be combine with expression of measurement.In each pair of measure adjective one is marked and other is unmarked member. The unmarkedmember is also the global member of the opposition.“He was old enough, twelve years and a few months, to have lost the prominent tummy ofchildhood and not yet old enough for adolescence to have made him awkward. You could seenow that he might make a boxer, as far as width and heaviness of shoulders went, but there was amildness about his mouth and eyes that proclaimed no devil”.Old is global unmarked adjective because it is used with units of time to express age .when wesay he was old enough , we are not saying that the boy is old.Binary and non-binary antonymsNon-binary antonyms are opposite ends of scale that include various intermediate terms .Non-binary antonyms are called polar antonyms :like the north and the south pole ,they at oppositeends with territory between them .
  • 9. (a)Adjectives that are non binary can easily be modified.“He stood now, warped out of the perpendicular by the fierce light of publicity, and he bored intothe coarse grass with one toe. He was muttering and about to cry. The other little boys,whispering but serious, pushed him toward Ralph.“All right,” said Ralph, “come on then.”The small boy looked round in panic.“Speak up!”The small boy held out his hands for the conch and the assemblyshouted with laughter; at once he snatched back his hands and started tocry.In the two opposite states between mutter and shout, other states like whisper and cry take part.(b)Non binary adjectives are also gradable adjectives .“Inside the floating cloak he was tall, thin, and bony; and his hair wasred beneath the black cap. His face was crumpled and freckled, and uglywithout silliness. Out of this face stared two light blue eyes, frustratednow, and turning, or ready to turn, to anger. (chap 1)……………..They gazed intently at thedense blue of the horizon, as if a little silhouettemight appear there at any moment.The sun in the west was a drop of burning gold that slid nearer andnearer the sill of the world. All at once they were aware of the eveningas the end of light and warmth”.(chap2).Blue color has not specific or strict shade .Dense blue and Light blue are different shades of theblue which can be gradable.Binary antonyms:(a)Binary antonyms do not accept modifiers. These are not gradable antonyms.“Life became a race with the fire and the boys scattered through theupper forest. To keep a clean flag of flame flying on the mountain wasthe immediate end and no one looked further. Even the smallest boys,unless fruit claimed them, brought little pieces of wood and threw themin. The air moved a little faster and became a light wind, so that leewardand windward side were clearly differentiated. On one side the air wasCool, but on the other the fire thrust out a savage arm of heat that crinkledHair on the instant………………… Piggy stood up and pointed to the smoke and flames. Amurmur rose among the boys and died away. Something strange was happening toPiggy, for he was gasping for breath.“That little ’un–” gasped Piggy– “him with the mark on his face, I don’t see him. Where is henow?” .The crowd was as silent as death. “Him that talked about the snakes. He was down there–”A tree exploded in the fire like a bomb. Tall swathes of creepers rosefor a moment into view, agonized, and went down again. The little boysscreamed at them.“Snakes! Snakes! Look at the snakes!”In the above paragraphs life and death are two opposite states which cannot be modified .Lifecannot be half-life or death cannot be half-death. A person can experience only states of life ordeath. Nothing is in between them.
  • 10. Converse antonyms, Symmetry and Reciprocity and Expressions of quantity which are LexicalRelations have not been found in the selected text.Conclusion:Lexical relations play a very important role in the text,it not only provide variety of lexemes incase of synonyms which make the text marvelous rather provides compare and contrast in caseof antonyms and binary and non-binary antonyms. Text has different sets in it like sets ofhumans, colors and body parts etc. Converse antonyms and symmetry was not there in the text.Over all lexical relations makes the text a great one.

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