Post war


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Post war

  2. 2. Statement 1Despite of its structural simplicity the tenth man is a combination of profound themes andphilosophies pertaining the choices an individual makes in life .DiscussThe Tenth Man is a fictitious story created by Graham Greene. It is a story in which Greene hasportrayed post war theme by using simple language and familiar expression. Through thisstructural simplicity author has highlighted profound themes and these themes are not superficialinstead they illustrate the reality of a common person’s life.The Tenth Man by Graham Greene is a story that opens in a prison, in Occupied France duringWorld War II. It has declared that one in every ten prisoners must execute; as a punishment andavenge of murdered German last night, lots have drawn to decide who will die. One of the menchosen is a rich lawyer named as Jean-Louis Chavel. He offers all his money to anyone who willtake his place. Janvier is the man who agrees thinking about his sister and mother. He drew up awill; leaving everything, he owned to his bereaved.The story comprises four parts. Each part is deeply linked with the next part and do not let readerto divert its attention. All the parts have been knitted closely in a circle, developing the story,taking its reader from incentive moment to dénouement.Although, Greene was a post modern writer but still he has followed the classical tradition ofwriting, in his works. As in The Tenth Man, he has followed the Aristotelian style of writing.Linear manner has employed in the Tenth man. Events have revealed in a chronological order.The life of protagonist is uncovered in a sequential manner. He has revealed his storysystematically, as in the text the protagonist’s life has exposed in a prison, then author hasrevealed the circumstances that have brought a momentous change in Chavel’s life, andanalytically author has reached to consequences of the story. In the plot of the story element of suspense is also dominant. In the text, when the guardsannounce my orders are that one man in every ten shall be shot in this camp, this situationraised curiosity in readers.One of the profound philosophies of life highlighted by writer is willingness to sacrifice your lifefor another person. It is, considered noblest attitude but if it is undertaken by the purity of heart.In The Tenth Man, we can see that Janvier presented himself as an alternative for the executionof Chavel, whatever the motive behind. This type of behavior has less likely, to see in commonday life but Greene has successfully portrayed this virtue of humanity.Similarly, it has observed through the text that it was the sense of belongingness that hasattracted Chavel to return to his home, declaring that: every step was familiar to the bearded 2
  3. 3. man.In the text Greene has inscribe the sense of identity to the home through the life of Chavel.Living of Chavel in his home is associated through the concept of Generation. In addition, whenChavel returns to his home is associated with the concept of regeneration. Chavel’s act ofleavening his home has portrayed as letting the child out of womb, in order to reestablish hispersonality. Keeping in account the simplicity of language the writer has conveyed a significant theme,which deepened its roots especially after world war is Identity. Because of the identity, man hasconsidered noblest but after war people in general lost their identity. Identity remained confinedto papers banishing individuality, this was the time, when some people highjacked the identities,of other people and successfully survived .Graham Greene displayed this theme in the figure ofChavel, who changed his name to Charlot to sneak into the lives of Janvier’s bereaved. He bringsinto play his fake identity, to win a place as a helper, to the household and was easily trustedThe novel reaches its climax when a war criminal named Carosse arrives claiming to be Chavelunearthing another example of manipulating identities.In The Tenth Man, Greene has illustrated Heidegger theory of time as another reflectivephilosophy of human life. In the first part of the story, time has given very significant place byauthor. In the prison, there are only two men, who possess watches; it signifies the sense ofauthority and of stature, as has depicted in the text whatever the cause that night, the mayorforgot to wind his watch. This act of mayor represents that if mayor is not able to inform otherpeople about time then he will lose his prestige among other people.In The Tenth Man author has highlighted the sense of competition, by depicting the importanceof time. In the prison, person who will acquaint with correct time will consider authoritative. Asstated in the text that left the alarm clock and a large old-fashioned sliver watch on a chainbelonging to the Mayor of Bourges. The alarm clock belonged to an engine driver calledPierre, and a sense of competition grew between the two men”.Psychology is all about working with people and their problems .The Tenth Man is a startlinglyhonest story adorned with psychological depth, emotional tension, and compassionatehumanism. Beginning in a prison camp, and ending up in death of protagonist not only led itsreader to suffer from psychological hiccups but we see that every character also suffers fromnumber of different psychological moments, keeping their live in momentum.Class-consciousness is a theme that has conferred by Greene in his novel, The Tenth Man. In amicrocosm of prison, there are different people who belong to different classes. Because of thisclass difference, contempt is been developed among the people of prison. Chavel and Mayorbelong to same class and this indulges them into a sense of competition. Each of them alwaysfound to prove him superior on other. As in the text a Paris lawyer called Chavel, a lonely 3
  4. 4. fellow who made awkward attempts from time to time to prove himself human enforces theawareness of class consciousness in minds of people. As Greene has argued about class distinction in his novel, in this regard another theme is beenraised by him that is, what makes some one aristocrat? Is it money or something in born? Greenein his novel supports this view that aristocracy is something that is inborn. By doing thecomparison of the character of Chavel and Therese, Chavel is an aristocrat, though he has nomoney, but still aristocracy is in his instincts. On the other hand we see that although Therese isnow rich and posses a certain status in society but still lacks the instincts of aristocrats, this hasevaluated by her behavior of spitting at face and her inner cowardice. Greene has constantlysupported the idea that nobility does not comes with money nor the money can cart off yourinner nobility, it only comes as inheritance.Greene attempts to invest his work with philosophical meaning, which is reflected through thevillage priest, who is introduced with that nice worldliness with which Greene likes to treatRoman Catholicism on those odd days when he is not obsessed with it, enters the scene. Can Ihave your blessing, father? ‘Of course He rubber-stamped the air like a notary and was gone.’However, the same priest has to be the vehicle for pop moralizing, and in due course, we havefrom him: Shrewdness often sounds like wisdom, and ignorance often sounds like shrewdness.Another profound theme that Greene has discussed in his novel is the theme of existentialism.Existentialists argued that man exist and then he made his view of world. Similar is the situationportrayed by Greene in his novel through the life of Chavel. As Chavel, has made his view aboutthe world after coming in this world. As in the story, Chavel has learned through his experiencethat to live with guilt is far more difficult than death. Hence, it has viewed that man formulateshis view about world through experience. 1Theme of existentialism is also been related to the theme of alienation or sense of lose. There areso many people living in the prison but all were living in the state of weirdness and despair. As itis, revealed through the dialogue of Chavel no city was more crowded than their cell, and weekby week, Chavel learned the lesson that one can be unbearably lonely in a city. This dialogue ofChavel illustrates the dilemma of existentialism. He rubber-stamped the air like a notary and wasgone. Greene in his novel has discussed about the generation, which has lost faith in religion.However, Greene has supported the view that we should have ritualistic religion rather than noreligion. An old maxim – the truth shall set you free identifies the Greene’s insight into the deep andprofound anxiety of the liar – that at any moment the lie will be discovered and the truth laidbare. This is another distinguishing philosophy of life portrayed by the mirror held up to life ofChavel and Carosse The truth is the only thing that Chavel is running from. It may be thoughtthat in fact it is the truth that is causing the anxiety and not the lie as such. Greene often seems1 4
  5. 5. to provide hints in this direction. Carosse, unlike Chavel, is far from anxious about his lies. Heseems to be positively reveling in it. He sees it all as theatre – amusing playacting. What’smore, Carosse often asserts that it is precisely because he is not the real Chavel that gives himthe advantage in wooing Therese even though she deeply hates him.Sentences such as If one had possessed a Gods-eye view of France, one would have detected aconstant movement of tiny grains moving like dust across a floor shaped like a map, arewonderfully descriptive and cause the reader to see the events in a global imagery. Otherexpressions like, when it happens you know what you have been all your life, are momentousand create a powerful sense of human depth that drives the book from beginning to end. Greenesprose and characterizations are intelligent, perceptive, rich, and meaningful without becomingcontrived or shallow.2However maintaining the simplicity in language Graham Greene has exposed many serious andphilosophical themes including identity, willingness to sacrifice, Heidegger theory of time, senseof competition, theme of alienation or sense of lose, existentialism, class-consciousness andmany others. With the help of third person, narrative author has described his story. As a readeryou might feel you know where the book is going, so many times it feels as if you can predict thenext plot development. But what makes it interesting going through the story is the ability ofGreene not just to surprise but deliver such believable characters that you are prepared to gothrough scenes to see the reaction.He operates with a tight cast, a shadow over hanging the whole piece as the principal characterwonders if his secret have discovered and then an ending, which you could not have predictedbut is well worth waiting for. What he really writes about so acutely are human beings and theirmotivations and emotions. He nails it in a very short space of writing and manages to drop abackdrop that sets a mood. He can do it in the jungles of Africa, a blitzed London and again herein post-war rural France.32 5