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  • 1. 1CONTENTSChapter 1: Introduction…………………………………………………………...2Chapter 2: Literature review………………………………………………………32.1 Translation Shift Approach…………………………………………....32.1.1 Vinay and Darbelnet’s Model……………………………………….42.1.2 Catford and Translation Shifts……………………………………….52.2 Roman Jacobson Equivalence Model……………………………….....6Research Hypothesis………………………………………………………..7Chapter 33.1 Introduction to Source Text…………………………………………………..83.2 Introduction to Target Text………………………………………………….10Chapter 4: Application of Theories and Translation Analysis4.1 With respect to Vinay/Darbelnet Model…………………………………….114.2 With respect to Catford’s Shift Model………………………………………154.3 With respect to Roman Jacobson Model ……………………………………20Chapter 55.1 Findings …………………………………………………………………..…225.2 Role of Translator…………………………………………………………...23Conclusion………………………………………………………………………24
  • 2. 2Chapter No 1INTRODUCTIONTranslation Studies is a new discipline which deals with the theory and phenomena oftranslation. The nature of translation studies is interdisciplinary or multilingual. It encompasseslanguages, linguistics, communication studies, philosophy and cultural studies. The diversity oftranslation studies makes it interesting, to readers of different culture to take part in it and helpthe people to understand the wide range of books and journals in different languages. Throughages translation has been done. In the beginning, bible was translated but later on, literatures,philosophies, and many other materials of the renowned scholars have been translated.Translation gives an access to the substance, to the reader of a particular culture instead oflearning a foreign language and then having an access to that substance. The ease of translationis directly related to the translator.In everyday language, translation is thought of as a text which is “representation” or“reproduction” of an original one produced in another language. (see House 2001:247)If we look for a definition of translation in a general dictionary, we can find it describedas,“the process of translating words or text from one language to another.”“the written or spoken rendering of the meaning of the word, speech, book, or other text, inanother language.” (The New Oxford Dictionary of Translation 1998)The present project is about translation analysis of Gone with the Wind (English text)translated as Baad e Havaadis (Urdu text) by Gohar Sultana. Although the manner and the styleof English language differs to some extent as compared Urdu language, even if the translatortries his best to retain authenticity. In our present project, we are going to analyze that how themanner and the style are different in the two languages.
  • 3. 3Chapter No 2LITERATURE REVIEWThe linguistic approach to translation theory focusing on the key issues of meaning,equivalence and shift began to emerge around 50 years ago. This branch of linguistics, known asstructural linguistics, features the work of Roman Jakobson, Eugene Nida, Newmark, Vinay,Darbelnet, and Catford. It wasn’t long however, before some theorists began to realize thatlanguage wasn’t just about structure – it was also about the way language is used in a givensocial context. This side of the linguistic approach is termed functional linguistics with the workof Katharina Reiss, Holz-Mänttäri, Vermeer, Halliday, Julianne House, and Mona Baker figuringprominently.Of course other theorists have contributed to the development of a linguistic approach totranslation, but the above mentioned have been singled out for discussion primarily because oftheir influence, and also because they are perhaps the most representative of the trends of thetime.In the 90’s, three theorists gave their theory based on “equivalence and equivalenteffect”. Roman Jakobson dealt with the nature of linguistic meaning and equivalence. Nida dealtwith the nature of meaning and advances in semantics and pragmatics. And new mark dealt withsemantic and communicative translation.2.1 The Translation Shift ApproachVinay and Darbelnet view equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure whichreplicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording(ibid.:342). They also suggest that, if this procedure is applied during the translation process, itcan maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text. According to them, equivalence istherefore the ideal method when the translator has to deal with proverbs, idioms, clichés,nominal or adjectival phrases and the onomatopoeia of animal sounds.Similarly translation shift approach has also been viewed. Translation shift approach models byVinay and Darbelnet’s model, and Catford’s translation ‘shifts’ were viewed.
  • 4. 42.1.1 Vinay and Darbelnet’s ModelVinay and Darbelnet’s comparative stylistic analysis was based on French and Englishlanguage text, they compared the differences between English and French. They noted differentstrategies, procedures and difference between the languages. There were two different translationstrategies found by them i.e. the direct translation and the oblique translation or ‘literal vs. free’.These categories are noted during the analysis of ST and TT. Direct (literal) translation discusses three possible strategies: Literal translation or ‘word-for-word’ translationThe direct translation covers borrowing claque and literal translation aspects. Borrowing – the SL word is transferred directly to the TL, such as the Russian rouble Calque, where the SL expression is literally transferred to the TL, such as the Englishcharacter ‘Snow White’ in French becomes ‘Blanche Neige’, because the normal wordconfiguration in English of ‘white snow’ would be transferred as ‘neige blanche’ Oblique (free) translation covers four strategies: transposition, modulation,equivalence and adaptation. Transposition – interchange of parts of speech that don’t affect the meaning, a nounphrase (après son départ) for a verb phrase (after he left) Modulation – reversal of point of view (it isn’t expensive / it’s cheap) Equivalence – same meaning conveyed by a different expression, which is particularlyuseful for proverbs and idioms (‘vous avez une araignée au plafond’ is recognizable inEnglish as ‘you have bats in the belfry’) Adaptation – cultural references may need to be altered to become relevant (‘ce n’est pasjuste’ for ‘it’s not cricket’)
  • 5. 52.1.2 Catford and Translation ShiftsIn 1965, the term “shift” was first applied to the theory of translation by Catford in hiswork A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Catford followed the Firthian and Hallidayan linguisticmodel, according to which language has communication function which operates on differentranks, levels and in context. The function of language at formal correspondent and textualequivalent produced translation shifts. Here he discusses two types of shift: These translationshifts were of two types i.e. a level shift and shift of category. These two types were furtherhaving sub-types A Level shift, where a grammatical concept may be conveyed by a lexeme (theFrench future tense endings are represented in English by the auxiliary verb ‘will’). Category shifts, of which there are four types – structural shifts (in French thedefinite article is almost always used in conjunction with the noun); class shifts (ashift from one part of speech to another); unit or rank (longer sentences are brokeninto smaller sentences for ease of translation); selection of non-corresponding terms(such as count nouns). Structural shift Class shift – a shift from one part of speech to other. Unit or rank – longer sentences are broken into smaller sentences for ease of translations. Intra – systems shift - such as count nows.His systematic linguistic approach to translation considers the relationship between textualequivalence and formal correspondence. Textual equivalence is where the TT is equivalent to theST, while formal correspondence is where the TT is as close as possible to the ST. Catford alsoconsiders the law of probability in translation, a feature that may be linked to the scientificinterest in machine translation at the time.
  • 6. 62.2 Roman Jacobson: The Nature of Linguistic Meaning and Equivalence:Roman Jakobsons study of equivalence gave new impetus to the theoretical analysis oftranslation since he introduced the notion of equivalence in difference. On the basis of hissemiotic approach to language and his aphorism there is no signatum without signum(1959:232), he suggests three kinds of translation: Intralingual (within one language, i.e. rewording or paraphrase) Interlingual (between two languages) Intersemiotic (between sign systems)Jakobson claims that, in the case of interlingual translation, the translator makes use of synonymsin order to get the ST message across. This means that in interlingual translations there is no fullequivalence between code units. According to his theory, translation involves two equivalentmessages in two different codes (ibid.:233). Jakobson goes on to say that from a grammaticalpoint of view languages may differ from one another to a greater or lesser degree, but this doesnot mean that a translation cannot be possible, in other words, that the translator may face theproblem of not finding a translation equivalent. He acknowledges that whenever there isdeficiency, terminology may be qualified and amplified by loanwords or loan-translations,neologisms or semantic shifts, and finally, by circumlocutions (ibid.:234). Jakobson provides anumber of examples by comparing English and Russian language structures and explains that insuch cases where there is no a literal equivalent for a particular ST word or sentence, then it is upto the translator to choose the most suitable way to render it in the TT.There seems to be some similarity between Vinay and Darbelnets theory of translationprocedures and Jakobsons theory of translation. Both theories stress the fact that, whenever alinguistic approach is no longer suitable to carry out a translation, the translator can rely on otherprocedures such as loan-translations, neologisms and the like. Both theories recognize thelimitations of a linguistic theory and argue that a translation can never be impossible since there
  • 7. 7are several methods that the translator can choose. The role of the translator as the person whodecides how to carry out the translation is emphasized in both theories. Both Vinay andDarbelnet as well as Jakobson conceive the translation task as something which can always becarried out from one language to another, regardless of the cultural or grammatical differencesbetween ST and TT.It can be concluded that Jakobsons theory is essentially based on his semiotic approach totranslation according to which the translator has to recode the ST message first and then s/he hasto transmit it into an equivalent message for the TC.Research Hypothesis:The translation shift theories of Catford and Vinay and Darbelnet as well as theEquivalence theory of Roman Jacobson are applicable on the target text.In this research, it will be analyzed whether this hypothesis is true or not. Since the Urdutranslators do not follow any particular theory/model of translation, it is usually evident that nosingle model is applied completely. The same notion would be proved here.
  • 8. 8Chapter No 33.1 INTRODUCTION TO SOURCE TEXT:Atlanta native Margaret Mitchell’s 1936 novel, Gone with the Wind, occupies an important placein American literature. After breaking publishing records with one million copies sold within sixmonths, the novel was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, has been translated into over forty languages,and remains one of the best-selling novels of all time.Even before the book’s publication, producer David O. Selznick had secured the film rights atMitchells asking price of $50,000, which was more than any studio had paid for the rights to anauthor’s first novel. The film debuted in Atlanta at Loew’s Grand Theatre in December 1939,breaking all box office records in the course of its first run. It featured such popular actors asClark Gable (Rhett Butler), Olivia de Havilland (Melanie Wilkes), and Leslie Howard (AshleyWilkes), and made a star of Vivien Leigh (Scarlett OHara).Gone With the Wind remains one of Hollywood’s most popular and commercially successfulfilms, and set new standards through its use of color, set design, and cinematography. The filmwas nominated for thirteen Oscars and was awarded ten, including Best Picture, Best Screenplay,Best Actress, and Best Supporting Actress, which went to Hattie McDaniel (Mammy), the firstAfrican American to win an Academy Award.With its detailed atmosphere of a vanished age, its compelling characters, its forceful narrative,its description of human survival, and its portrayal of the persistence of romantic dreams, GoneWith the Wind continues to entertain and sometimes exasperate readers. As well as being a novelof epic proportions, it is valuable as an historical document, though one that should be carefullyread. A depiction of life and conflict in the nineteenth-century South, the novel also documentstwentieth-century emotions about the region’s past and memories of a way of life that manyconsidered gone with the wind.
  • 9. 9The story describes the collapse of the Old South in theCivil War and its rebuilding during the Reconstruction era.It centers on beautiful, willful Scarlett O’Hara of TaraPlantation in Georgia. When she discovers that her love,Ashley Wilkes, is to marry Melanie Hamilton, sheimpetuously marries Charles Hamilton, who dies in the wartwo weeks later. She spends most of the war years in Atlantabut flees back to Tara before Sherman’s anny. She bravelyfaces danger and makes the vow that controls the rest of herlife, “as God is my witness, I’m never going to be hungryagain.” She remarries for money and scandalizes Atlantasociety by becoming a rutbless businesswoman.After the death of her second husband, Scarlett marries thedashing, cynical Rhett Butler. However, her continued devotion to Ashley Wilkes destroys Rhettand Scarlett’s chance for happiness. When she realizes Ashley’s inadequacies, it is too late. Heravowal of love for Rhett is met by the response that the film version made famous, “My dear, Idon’t give a damn.”Though the major characters are drawn superficially, they are memorable, and each in same wayrepresents an aspect of the South-notably, Scarlett, its materialistic will; Melanie, its spiritualstrength. The true Southerner is depicted as noble and indomitable; the Yankee, vicious andcorrupt. Slavery is seen as a beneficent institution, and the Negro characters are either intenselyloyal to their white masters or savage and bestial creatures. The book is a hymn to the Old South,which is seen as a culture of great beauty, order, and grace, tragically doomed by history.
  • 10. 103.2 INTRODUCTION TO TARGET TEXTBaad e Havaadis is the translation of Margaret Mitchell’s classical novel Gone with theWind. It is translated by Gohar Sultana Shabnam. Shabnam did her masters in Islamiyat from theUniversity of Punjab. After her husband’s death, she entered the practical life as she kept herselfin one project or another. She was a good administrator and ran the electoral campaign of heruncles too. She was a talented and principled lady. She never compromised for wrong reasons.Like she went through the ups and downs of her life and faced the most difficult times withstrength, she resembled ‘Scarlett’, the central character in Gone with the Wind.Shabnam had a taste for poetry and essay writing since her earlier age. Before theformation of Pakistan, her essays were published in the local feminine magazines, regularly. Afew years back, she summed up and translated Marie Corelli’s novel Thelma which waspublished under classical stories by Syed Qasim Mehmood.She abridged and translated Gone with the Wind a few years back in a fluent and easylanguage. Translation is an art and a good translation calls for the fact that the translator is acreator too. Gohar Sultana Shabnam is a story writer as well a translator. She has a commandover language and expression.
  • 11. 11Chapter No 4APPLICATION OF THEORIES AND TRANSLATIONANALYSIS4.1 Analysis With Reference To Vinay And Darbelnet’s ModelSome aspects of Vinay and Darbelnet’s model were found in the TT, such as:Borrowing:The SL word is transferred directly to the TL. There are number of words seen in the translationof which are borrowed directly from ST.Examples:1. She twisted from side by side, pointed, bounced about and so jounced the baby that hewailed miserably.‫سکارلٹ‬‫نے‬‫سنی‬‫ان‬‫سنی‬‫کر‬‫دی‬‫کیونکه‬‫بےبی‬‫اس‬‫ک‬‫پاس‬‫بهت‬‫روتا‬‫تها‬2. The raised platform of musicians was especially artistic.(ST-)(TT-)‫تها‬ ‫چبوترہ‬ ‫لیے‬ ‫کے‬ ‫میوزیشنز‬ ‫ہی‬ ‫ساته‬ ‫کے‬ ‫اس‬It is seen that the words are borrowed as it is from the ST to the TT.Calque:This is a special kind of borrowing where the source language expression or structure istransferred in a literal translation. This technique is observed in the TT:Examples:1. There were parties and balls. (ST-146)(T.T 54) ‫اسکا‬‫بهت‬‫دل‬‫چاهتا‬‫تها‬‫که‬‫تارا‬‫کی‬‫طرح‬‫پارٹیاں‬‫هوں‬2. She joined their knitting and sewing circles and their hospital committees. (ST-148)(TT-54). ‫مگر‬‫هسپتال‬‫کمیٹیاں‬‫اور‬‫دوسرے‬‫سنٹر‬‫اسے‬‫اس‬‫قدر‬‫مصروف‬‫رکهتے‬‫کے‬‫وہ‬‫اور‬‫کچه‬‫نه‬‫سوچتی‬In these examples expression of the source language is transferred literally into TL whereas thestructure is also kept similar to the SL.
  • 12. 12Literal Translation:This is ‘word for word’ translation which is referred as being most common between thelanguages of same family and culture. Most part of the novel is translated literally:Examples:1. Her eyes were her own. (ST-5)(TT-9).‫تهیں‬ ‫اپنی‬ ‫کی‬ ‫اس‬ ‫آنکهیں‬2. ‘You a wallflower?’ they laughed uproariously (ST-11)(TT-11)‫هنسے۔‬ ‫سے‬ ‫زور‬ ‫دونوں‬ "!‫پهول‬ ‫کا‬ ‫دیوار‬ ‫اور‬ ‫"تم‬3. Scarlett’s face did not change but her face went white. (ST-11)(TT-11).‫گئے‬ ‫هو‬ ‫سفید‬ ‫یکدم‬ ‫هونٹ‬ ‫کے‬ ‫اس‬ ‫مگر‬ ‫بدال‬ ‫نه‬ ‫تو‬ ‫چہرا‬ ‫کا‬ ‫سکارلٹ‬In all of the above examples ‘word for word’ translation is adopted however the meaning is fullypreserved.Transposition:This is a change of one part of speech for another without changing the sense.Examples:1. Her manners had been imposed upon her by her mother’s gentle admonitions and thesterner discipline of her mammy.(ST-5)‫حبشن‬ ‫گیر‬ ‫سخت‬ ‫اور‬ ‫والدہ‬ ‫مهربان‬ ‫کی‬ ‫اس‬ ‫اطوار‬ ‫و‬ ‫عادات‬ ‫کے‬ ‫اس‬(TT-9).‫تهے‬ ‫نگر‬ ‫دست‬ ‫کے‬ ‫میمی‬ ‫انا‬2. The twins looked at each other.(ST-14)
  • 13. 13(TT-13) .‫دیکها‬ ‫کو‬ ‫دوسرے‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫نے‬ ‫دونوں‬In the first example, the phrase is a verb while in TT, it is a state. In the second example, theproper noun has shifted to pronoun.Modulation:It changes the semantic and point of view of the source language.1. A lack of niceties of classical education carried no shame. (ST-6)(TT- 9) .‫تهی‬ ‫نه‬ ‫چیز‬ ‫فخر‬ ‫قابل‬ ‫پڑهائ‬ ‫زیادہ‬2. They looked across the endless acres of Gerald O’Hara’s newly ploughed cotton fieldtowards the horizon. (ST-9)‫کپاس‬ ‫عریض‬ ‫و‬ ‫وسیع‬ ‫کے‬ ‫اوہارا‬ ‫جیرلڈ‬ ‫نے‬ ‫انهوں‬(TT-10).‫تها‬ ‫هوا‬ ‫پهرا‬ ‫ہل‬ ‫تازہ‬ ‫میں‬ ‫کهیتوں‬ .‫دیکها‬ ‫کو‬ ‫شفق‬ ‫سے‬ ‫میں‬ ‫کهیتوں‬ ‫کے‬3. “You sure let him buzz round you plenty.” (ST-11)(TT-11) .‫رها‬ ‫منڈالتا‬ ‫گرد‬ ‫هی‬ ‫تمهارے‬ ‫وہ‬4. “Let’s cut across to country to Able’s “ suggested Brent. (ST-22)(TT-13) .‫کیا‬ ‫فیصله‬ ‫کا‬ ‫جانے‬ ‫گهر‬ ‫کے‬ ‫ایبل‬ ‫دوست‬ ‫اپنے‬ ‫نے‬ ‫لڑکوں‬In the first sentence the semantic view has changed from something ‘carrying no shame’to ‘not being a thing to be proud of’. In the next examples, the point of view has changed fromactive to passive.Equivalence:It refers to where language describes the same situation by different stylistic of structure means.It is particularly useful in translating idioms and proverbs.Examples:
  • 14. 141. She made a pretty picture. (ST-5)(TT – 9).‫تهی‬ ‫رهی‬ ‫لگ‬ ‫تخوبصور‬ ‫بہت‬ ‫سکارلٹ‬2. Look at that sunset. I never saw one redder.”(ST-9)(TT-10) . ‫هے‬ ‫حسین‬ ‫قدر‬ ‫کس‬ ‫دیکهو‬ ‫تو‬ ‫شفق‬ ‫کی‬ ‫آفتاب‬ ‫غروب‬ ‫زرا‬3. “What?” cried Scarlett, alert as a child at the word. (ST-11)(TT-11) .‫لگیں‬ ‫چمکنے‬ ‫آنکهیں‬ ‫کی‬ ‫اس‬ ‫سے‬ ‫اشتیاق‬ ‫و‬ ‫تجسس‬ "‫؟راز‬ ‫کیسا‬ !‫"راز‬4. They went down the avenue of cedars at a gallop. (ST-13)(TT-12) .‫گئے‬ ‫هو‬ ‫ہوا‬ ‫کے‬ ‫بهگا‬ ‫گهوڑے‬ ‫سے‬ ‫نیچے‬ ‫کے‬ ‫درختوں‬ ‫کے‬ ‫صنوبر‬5. She don’t hold herself in. (ST-13)(TT-12).‫هے‬ ‫جاتی‬ ‫هو‬ ‫باهر‬ ‫سے‬ ‫آپے‬ ‫میں‬ ‫غصے‬ ‫وہ‬6. Jeems gave up futher pretence of not over-hearing the conversation. (ST-14)(TT-12).‫دیا‬ ‫نه‬ ‫دکهائ‬ ‫بنتا‬ ‫بہانه‬ ‫کو‬ ‫جیمز‬In these examples the words describe same meaning by different stylistic structure and idiomaticexpressions.Adaptation:This involves changing the cultural reference, when a situation in source culture does not exist intarget culture.Examples:1. And raising good cotton, riding well, shooting straight, dancing lightly, squiring theladies with elegance and carrying one’s own liquor like a gentleman, were the things thatmattered. (ST-6)‫لیڈیز‬ ‫اور‬ ،‫ناچ‬ ،‫شکار‬ ،‫شہسواری‬ ‫کرنا‬ ‫پیدا‬ ‫روئ‬ ‫اچهی‬ ‫زندگی‬ ‫معیار‬ ‫میں‬ ‫جارجیا‬(TT-9).‫تها‬ ‫کچہ‬ ‫سب‬ ‫هی‬ ‫برتاو‬ ‫اچها‬ ‫ساتہ‬ ‫کے‬2. ‘Will your mother ride the new horse to Wilkes barbecue tomorrow?’(ST-9)
  • 15. 15(TT-10)"‫گی؟‬ ‫کریں‬ ‫شرکت‬ ‫میں‬ ‫بہار‬ ‫جشن‬ ‫کے‬ ‫ولکس‬ ‫پر‬ ‫گهوڑے‬ ‫نئے‬ ‫اپنے‬ ‫امی‬ ‫کی‬ ‫آپ‬ ‫"کیا‬3. ‘May be Boyd would have smoothed her by now.’(ST-15)(TT-13).‫چهوڑے‬ ‫کر‬ ‫هموار‬ ‫لیے‬ ‫همارے‬ ‫کو‬ ‫امی‬ ‫بائڈ‬ ‫بهائ‬ ‫کہ‬ ‫کرے‬ ‫خدا‬In these examples, ‘liquor’ has been omitted, the notion of barbeque changed in the target textand ‘khuda k lye’ shows the author’s attempt to bring source culture equivalent to the target one.4.2 Catford and Translation ‘Shifts’Formal Correspondent:All the elements of ST are translated in TT in a same manner and they occupy the sameplace in TT. One of the problems with formal correspondence is that, despite being a useful toolto employ in comparative linguistics, it seems that it is not really relevant in terms of assessingtranslation equivalence between ST and TT. For this reason we now turn to Catfords otherdimension of correspondence, namely textual equivalence.Textual Equivalence:Occurs when any TL text or portion of text is observed on a particular occasion ... to bethe equivalent of a given SL text or portion of text (ibid.:27)Examples:1. Spring had come early that year, with warm quick rains and sudden frothing of pinkpeach blossoms and dogwood dappling with white stars the dark river swamp and far-offhills(TT-10).‫تهی‬ ‫آئ‬ ‫هی‬ ‫پہلے‬ ‫سے‬ ‫وقت‬ ‫بہار‬ ‫دفعہ‬ ‫اس‬2. The whitewashed brick plantation house seemed an island set in a wild red sea, a sea ofspiraling, curving, crescent billows petrified suddenly at the moment when the pink-tipped waves were breaking into surf.(TT-10).‫تها‬ ‫رہا‬ ‫دے‬ ‫دکهائ‬ ‫جزیرہ‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫میں‬ ‫سمندر‬ ‫سرخ‬ ‫گهر‬ ‫سفید‬3. "Just because weve been away and didnt know about the barbecue and the ball, thats noreason why we shouldnt get plenty of dances tomorrow night. You havent promisedthem all, have you?"
  • 16. 16(TT-11)" ‫؟‬ ‫رکها‬ ‫کر‬ ‫نہیں‬ ‫تو‬ ‫سے‬ ‫اور‬ ‫کسی‬ ‫وعدہ‬ ‫کا‬ ‫ڈانس‬ ‫نے‬ ‫"تم‬In all of these examples, the translator has omitted certain phrases in the above examples,while translating some parts word for word.Level shifts:A level shift would be something which is expressed by grammar in one language andlexis in another.Examples:1. But for all the modesty of her spreading skirts, the demureness of hair netted smoothlyinto a chignon and the quietness of small white hands folded in her lap.(TT-9).‫تهی‬ ‫بیٹهی‬ ‫کر‬ ‫رکه‬ ‫میں‬ ‫جهولی‬ ‫ہاتہ‬ ‫سفید‬ ‫چهوٹے‬ ‫چهوٹے‬ ‫حسینه‬ ‫ساله‬ ‫سولہ‬2. ‘You haven’t promised them all, have you?’ (ST-10)(TT-11) ‫تم‬‫نے‬‫ڈانس‬‫کا‬‫وعدہ‬‫کسی‬‫اور‬‫سے‬‫تو‬‫نهیں‬‫کر‬‫رکها؟‬ In ST writer has used grammar in making in sentences whereas in TT translator has madeuse of lexis.Structural Shifts:Defined by a grammatical change between the structure of the ST and that of the TT;Examples:These are shifts in grammatical structure:1. But she smiled when she spoke, consciously deepening her dimple and fluttering herbristly black lashes as swiftly as butterflies wings.(TT-10) .‫گئے‬ ‫گہرے‬ ‫ڈمپل‬ ‫کے‬ ‫گالوں‬2. “You can always tell weather by sunsets."(TT-10) .‫هے‬ ‫سکتا‬ ‫جا‬ ‫لگایا‬ ‫ہمیشہ‬ ‫اندازہ‬ ‫کا‬ ‫موسم‬ ‫سے‬ ‫آفتاب‬ ‫غروب‬
  • 17. 173. There was the click of china and the rattle of silver as Pork, the valet-butler of Tara, laidthe table for supper.(TT- 11) .‫دی‬ ‫سنائ‬ ‫جهنکار‬ ‫برتنوں‬ ‫اور‬ ‫تها‬ ‫رها‬ ‫لگا‬ ‫میز‬ ‫پورک‬ ‫بیرہ‬ ‫کا‬ ‫تارا‬4. “Look ter me lak she sho glad ter see you an sho had missed you, an she cheep alonghappy as a bird..”(TT-11) .‫رهیں‬ ‫چہکتی‬ ‫طرح‬ ‫کی‬ ‫پرندہ‬ ‫سکارلٹ‬ ‫مس‬In these examples, ST sentence structure order is SVO whereas in TT it is SOV.Class Shifts:These comprise shifts from one part of speech to another.Examples:1. …her thick black brows slanted upward, cutting a startling oblique line in her magnolia-white skin--that skin so prized by Southern women and so carefully guarded withbonnets, veils and mittens against hot Georgia suns.(TT-9) .‫تهی‬ ‫ناز‬ ‫و‬ ‫فخر‬ ‫سرم‬‫ایہ‬ ‫کا‬ ‫عورتوں‬ ‫کی‬ ‫جارجیا‬ ‫رنگت‬ ‫سیمیں‬ ‫سفید‬Here the verb ‘prized’ of ST is translated into noun ‘‫سرمایہ‬ ‘ of TT2. So still was her face as she stared at Stuart that he, never analytic, took it for granted thatshe was merely surprised and very interested.(TT-12) .‫رهی‬ ‫خاموش‬ ‫بالکل‬ ‫میں‬ ‫اثناء‬ ‫اس‬ ‫سکارلٹ‬Similarly, adjective ‘still’ has been translated into ‘‫,’خاموش‬ a noun.3. “What do you make of it?"(TT-12) “‫هو؟‬ ‫لگاتے‬ ‫اندازه‬ ‫کیا‬ ‫سے‬ ‫اس‬ ‫"تم‬
  • 18. 18The verbal phrase ‘make of it’ has been translated into a noun ‘‫’اندازه‬4. Brent turned in the saddle and called to the negro groom."Jeems!"(TT-12) .‫پکارا‬ ‫کو‬ ‫جیمز‬ ‫نے‬ ‫اس‬ ‫پهر‬Here instead of adjectival phrase ‘negro groom’ the TT uses the proper noun ‫.جیمز‬5. "Of course I will," Scarlett said automatically.(TT-11) .‫کہا‬ ‫س‬ ‫ے‬ ‫بےاختیاری‬ ‫نے‬ ‫سکارلٹ‬ "..‫ضرور‬ ..‫"ضرور‬The adverb ‘automatically’ has been translated through a noun ‫بےاختیاری‬ in TT. Same is thecase in the following example, where adverb ‘jubilantly’ is translated into ‘‫حیرانگی‬ ‫اور‬‫’فتحمندی‬ which are nouns:6. The twins looked at each other jubilantly but with some surprise. Although theyconsidered themselves Scarletts favored suitors, they had never before gained tokens ofthis favor so easily.‫یکهاد‬ ‫کو‬ ‫دوسرے‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫سے‬ ‫حیرانگی‬ ‫اور‬ ‫فتحمندی‬ ‫نے‬ ‫لڑکوں‬ ‫پهر‬(TT-11) .‫تهی‬ ‫ہوئ‬ ‫نه‬ ‫حاصل‬ ‫فتح‬ ‫انهیں‬ ‫سے‬ ‫آسانی‬ ‫اس‬ ‫کبهی‬ ‫پہلے‬ ‫کیونکہ‬7. This was worth getting expelled from the university.‫سکتا‬ ‫هو‬ ‫افسوس‬ ‫کیا‬ ‫کا‬ ‫آنے‬ ‫سے‬ ‫یونیورسٹی‬ ‫سامنے‬ ‫کے‬ ‫خوشی‬ ‫و‬ ‫فتح‬ ‫اس‬(TT-11)‫هے‬Rank shifts:These are shifts where the translation equivalent in the TT at a different rank to the SL.Examples:1. Scarlett OHara was not beautiful, but men seldom realized it when caught by her charmas the Tarleton twins were.‫سحرانگیز‬ ‫کی‬ ‫اس‬ ‫طرح‬ ‫اس‬ ‫کچہ‬ ‫مرد‬ ‫مگر‬ ‫تهی‬ ‫نه‬ ‫حسین‬ ‫گو‬ ‫سکارلٹ‬ ‫اوہارا‬. ‫آتی‬ ‫نه‬ ‫هی‬ ‫سمجہ‬ ‫کی‬ ‫بات‬ ‫اس‬ ‫انهیں‬ ‫کہ‬ ‫جاتے‬ ‫ہو‬ ‫گرفتار‬ ‫میں‬ ‫دام‬ ‫کے‬ ‫شخصیت‬
  • 19. 19.‫تهی‬ ‫کی‬ ‫بهائیوں‬ ‫جڑواں‬ ‫ٹارلٹن‬ ‫حالت‬ ‫یہی‬(TT-9)Here the idea has been expressed in one sentence in ST, whereas in TT, translator has employedtwo long ones to convey the meaning. Similarly, the following sentence from ST has beenbroken down into two coherent sentences in TL:2. Outside, the late afternoon sun slanted down in the yard, throwing into gleamingbrightness the dogwood trees that were solid masses of white blossoms against thebackground of new green.‫درخت‬ .‫تهیں‬ ‫رہی‬ ‫پڑ‬ ‫ترچهی‬ ‫شعائیں‬ ‫کی‬ ‫سورج‬ ‫میں‬ ‫باغ‬ ‫باہر‬.‫تهے‬ ‫رهے‬ ‫دے‬ ‫دکهائ‬ ‫بهلے‬ ‫میں‬ ‫منظر‬ ‫پس‬ ‫سبز‬ ‫ہوئے‬ ‫لدے‬ ‫سے‬ ‫شگوفہ‬ ‫سفید‬(TT-9)Intra system shifts:These are shifts that take place when the SL and TL possess approximatelycorresponding systems but where ‘the translation involves selection of non-corresponding termin the TL system’.Examples:1. There was the click of china and the rattle of silver as Pork, the valet-butler of Tara, laidthe table for supper.(ST-10)(TT- 11) .‫تهی‬ ‫رهی‬ ‫دے‬ ‫سنائ‬ ‫جهنکار‬ ‫کی‬ ‫برتنوں‬In ST writer has used word ‘china’ or ‘silver’ which is a singular collective noun but in TTtranslator has used word ‫برتنوں‬ which is plural.2. Brent drew his horse to a stop under a clump of dogwood. Stuart halted, too.(ST-13)(TT-12) .‫لیں‬ ‫کر‬ ‫دهیلی‬ ‫باگیں‬ ‫نے‬ ‫دونوں‬ ‫نیچے‬ ‫کے‬ ‫جهنڈ‬ ‫ایک‬ ‫کے‬ ‫درختوں‬Brent and Stuart stopped their horses under the tree, individually. Whereas ‫دونوں‬ in TT representsboth of them stopping simultaneously.
  • 20. 204.3 Application of Roman Jacobson ModelAccording to Roman Jacobson, the differences in inter-lingual translation (English-Urdu, viceversa) occur at:1. The Level of Gender:There are certain nouns which are feminine in English language but are masculine orneutral in Urdu. Likewise, sometimes it’s the other way around. Some neutral genders inthe ST are also allocated some gender in the target text. For example, A little aloof, as became an aristocrat, lay a black-spotted carriagedog, muzzle on paws, patiently waiting for the boys to go home tosupper. (ST-6)(TT-9) .‫تها‬ ‫رها‬ ‫کر‬ ‫انتظار‬ ‫کا‬ ‫جانے‬ ‫کے‬ ‫مالکوں‬ ‫اپنے‬ ‫بیٹها‬ ‫سے‬ ‫آرام‬ ‫کتا‬ ‫کا‬ ‫گاڑی‬ From within the house floated the soft voice of Scarletts mother,Ellen OHara.(ST-10)(TT-11) .‫آئ‬ ‫آواز‬ ‫کی‬ ‫ایلن‬ ‫ماں‬ ‫کی‬ ‫سکارلٹ‬ ‫پهر‬Here, both neutral genders have been given a masculine and a feminine gender in the TT.2. The Level of Aspect:The level of aspect involves the change of verb form. It was a savagely red land, blood-colored after rains, brick dust indroughts, the best cotton land in the world.(ST-10)(TT-10).‫هے‬ ‫بہترین‬ ‫لیے‬ ‫کے‬ ‫کپاس‬ ‫میں‬ ‫بهر‬ ‫دنیا‬ ‫زمین‬ ‫سرخ‬ ‫یه‬ It was a pleasant land of white houses, peaceful plowed fields andsluggish yellow rivers, but a land of contrasts, of brightest sunglare and densest shade.(ST-10)‫کے‬ ‫دریاوں‬ ‫سست‬ ‫اور‬ ‫کهیتوں‬ ،‫سرخ‬ ‫گهروں‬ ‫سفید‬ ‫زمین‬ ‫سر‬ ‫خشگوار‬ ‫یه‬(TT-10).‫هے‬ ‫بهی‬ ‫تضاد‬ ‫کا‬ ‫اندهیرے‬ ‫گہرے‬ ‫اور‬ ‫روشنی‬ ‫کی‬ ‫سورج‬ ‫پر‬ ‫یہاں‬ ‫.لیکن‬ ‫ہے‬ ‫مشهور‬ ‫لیے‬
  • 21. 21 The high-pitched, childish voice answered "Yasm," and there weresounds of footsteps going out the back way toward the smokehouse where Ellenwould ration out the food to the home-coming hands.(ST-10)(TT-11).‫گئ‬ ‫چلی‬ ‫کرنے‬ ‫تقسیم‬ ‫کهانا‬ ‫کو‬ ‫نیگروز‬ ‫اوہارا‬ ‫ایلن‬In the first two example, the tense changed from past to present, while in the last example fromfuture indefinite tense to past tense. This is change of aspect.3. The Level of Semantic Fields:The main focus of the level of semantic fields is equivalence in meaning between the twolanguages. ‘I’ll tell my children and my grandchildren how beautiful this spring was’.(ST-84)(TT-26)‫تھا۔‬ ‫خوبصورت‬ ‫قدر‬ ‫کس‬ ‫بہار‬ ‫موسم‬ ‫یہ‬ ‫کہ‬ ‫گی‬ ‫کروں‬ ‫بتایا‬ ‫کو‬ ‫نواسوں‬ ،‫پوتوں‬ ،‫بچوں‬ ‫اپنے‬ ‫میں‬ There was a click of china and the rattle of silver. (ST-10)(TT- 11) .‫تهی‬ ‫رهی‬ ‫دے‬ ‫سنائ‬ ‫جهنکار‬ ‫کی‬ ‫برتنوں‬ ‘May be Boyd would have smoothed her by now.’(ST-15)(TT-13).‫چهوڑے‬ ‫کر‬ ‫هموار‬ ‫لیے‬ ‫همارے‬ ‫کو‬ ‫امی‬ ‫بائڈ‬ ‫بهائ‬ ‫کہ‬ ‫کرے‬ ‫خدا‬ For the first time in her life, Scarlett thanked God for the existence of her sister-in-law. (ST-178)(TT-59). ‫سکارلٹ‬‫نے‬‫پهلی‬‫دفعہ‬‫زندگی‬‫میں‬‫اپنی‬‫نند‬‫کے‬‫وجود‬‫کا‬‫شکر‬‫ادا‬‫کیا‬The kinship terms are more elaborate in the TT for grandchildren and brother. Similarly ‘china’‘silver’ are hyponyms of the subordinate ‘crockery’ which are simply defined by the subordinatein the TT.
  • 22. 22Chapter No 55.1 FINDINGS The translator has successfully created equivalent effect in the translation. The translationfulfills all the requirements of a good translation given by Roman Jacobson. Thetranslator has adopted a natural and easy form of expression which is useful for thereaders with insufficient background of Urdu language. The translator has tried enough to avoid deviation from the ST structure. In TT, ‘word for word’ translation was present at many places but mostly she has done‘sense for sense’ translation. TT does seem to be literally translated but actually it attainsthe nearest possible translation, so that students could be familiar with the messageconveyed in the ST. At some places an awkward effect is produced in TT because of the semantic translation.The translator has tried to keep the TT readers close to the source text culture. Moreover,the meaning has been kept as close as possible to the semantic and syntactic structures ofthe original. The translation conforms to Vinay and Darbelnet’s model of translation shift approach. Intranslational shift approach, all aspects of Vinay and Darbelnet’s model were applicableon the TT. (Borrowing, Calque, Literal translation, Transposition, Modulation,Equivalence and Adaptation) All the shifts (level shifts, structural shifts, class shifts, unit and rank shifts, and intra-system shifts) are also present in TT proposed by Catford. The translator fulfilled the role as an agent of reconciliation, and a mediator. She tried tobridge up the gaps present in the ST, recreate the text and maintain the structure to helpthe reader to understand. She also tried to maintain the meaning and maintains the act ofcommunication. A translator stands between the S.T and TT. She is the mediator betweentwo languages and two cultures. Translator has omitted so many lines and words whiletranslating to resolve the conflict and convey the message. During the application it became clear that no model was perfect or universal. Fromevery model some aspects were applicable and some not.
  • 23. 235.2 ROLE OF TRANSLATOR:Role of translator is very important as he has to do a very important job-translation oftext. He has to keep in mind his role while translating the text.The role of translator, from the time of Cicero was ambiguous. According Cicero a translatormust be either an interpreter or a rhetorician but according to Savory and Reiss, there are twotypes of translator; Technical translator: who is concerned with content. Literary translator: who is concerned with form.Other writers have stated that technical translation is literal and literary translation is free andvice versa. But all the discussions, sum ups the main points of role of translator as an agent ofreconciliation, and a mediator. A translator tries to bridge up the gaps present in the original source text. He tries to recreate the text and maintain the structure to help the reader to understand. He tries to maintain the meaning and maintains the act of communication. A translator stands between the S.T and TT. He is the mediator between two languagesand two cultures. He reconciles the signs, which stands as symbols in one culture and is devoid in anotherculture. He tries to resolve the conflict and conveys the message. He (translator) is likeambassador between two cultures. He first decodes the S.T and then encodes it in TT.
  • 24. 24CONCLUSIONIn a nutshell, we can say that translator has tried her best to convey the sense of a ST. Thetranslated version Baad e Havaadis is a successful effort on the part of Gohar Sultana Tabassum,as it conveys the same theme of the TT by Margaret Mitchell. As every theory has its ownprinciple, in the same way on any text any specific theory cannot be applied. To some extent it isimpossible to fulfill every principle of any model during its application on TT. So, ourapplication of Roman Jacobson, Catford’s Translation Shift, Vinay and Darbelent models on ourTT proves partially successful. Further the translator has played his role as an agent ofcommunication and he is successful in fulfilling the gap between two cultures.